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How Exercise affects breathing rate, pulse rate, heart rate and blood pressure rate

The effects of exercise on the body's vital signs

This experiment was geared towards determining the pulse rate, heart rate, blood pressure level and the breathing rate of a student, during and after strenuous exercise activities. During exercise, the heart must beat faster to eliminate excess carbon dioxide and increase the supply of oxygen in the body. The heart contracts and relaxes based on signals coming from the sino - atrial node. The signalling process stimulates the heart to beat faster during exercise, with inputs coming from many parts of the body. Likewise, during exercise there is a high demand for energy (facilitated by increasing the glucose level) inside the muscles.

Although some energy can be obtained without oxygen from anaerobic metabolism, most of the energy, especially during strenuous exercise, comes from aerobic metabolism, which requires oxygen. Since oxygen is transported through the bloodstream, the heart has to pump more blood to maintain the supply of oxygen to the muscles. To accomplish this, the heart beats more forcefully and quickly. The heart rate, or pulse, is the number of times the heart beats in a minute. As the heart pumps blood through the body, a pulsing rate can be felt in some of the blood vessels close to the surface, such as in the wrist, neck or upper arm. The breathing rate is measured in a similar manner. Both the pulse and breathing rate increase with exercise, maintaining a ratio of approximately one breath for every four heartbeats.

The author of this article went through strenuous academic research in order to compile this information .This information was reviewed by her professor to re-enforce credibility.

Further information was accumulated from the following link

Before conducting this exercise experiment it is important to warm up


The effect of exercise on the body's breathing rate

During exercise it was observed that the breathing rate of the student had increased. As a result, the demand for oxygen and energy had increased. The most efficient way to meet these needs involved the use of oxygen to break down glucose. This occurred when one glucose molecule and six oxygen molecules combined to produce ATP, a usable source of energy. This process also produced carbon dioxide molecules. Also, it was observed that the participants breathing rate increased, in order to facilitate the removal of carbon dioxide and increase the oxygen level inside the lungs to be transported by the haemoglobin molecules to actively working muscle cells. Based on the results show in the table, when the intensity of the exercise activity had decreased and the student was allowed to rest, the breathing rate had slowed down .This occurred because the body was no longer subjected to strenuous exercise activities , which demanded high intake of oxygen. As a result, oxygen intake occurred at a normal breathing rate.

How energy is produced to facilitate excercising

The effect of exercise on the body's heart rate

Heart rate can be defined as the average number of heart beats per minute and can be monitored using a stethoscope. A heart beat occurs when the heart contracts to pump blood through the body. There is a relationship between breathing rate and the heart rate . During exercise the muscles, body cells and enzymes (which are denaturing due to higher body temperatures - in simple terms your metabolic rate is vastly decreasing) required more energy because the body was working harder , and so during RESPIRATION there was a demand for more oxygen and frequent removal of Carbon dioxide.

The heart had to pump harder to get more oxygen to these cells, and to remove the carbon dioxide inside the blood which goes up to the lungs to get oxygenated and then returns to "offload" deoxygenated blood. Hence, breathing rate increased in order to get the blood oxygenated and get rid of this carbon dioxide. Thus, the heart pumped at a quicker rate to get this oxygen into its cells. After, an exercise, the heart rate gradually decrease and oxygen intake occurred at a normal level.

Equipments required for this experiment


Summary of each vital signals

  • Breathing rate and heart rate are dependent on each other
  • The heart will pump faster to increase oxygen circulation in the body and reduce carbon-dioxide level.
  • A sphygmomanometer is usually used to measure a blood pressure.As during the experiment it was used to measure the participants blood pressure before and after an exercise.
  • Once the heart increase so will the cardiac output The term cardiac out put can be defined as the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min).
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The effect of exercise on the body's heart beat

When the heart beats, the blood sent out through the arteries exerts pressure against the inner walls of the arteries, this is known as blood pressure. A sphygmomanometer was used to measure the participant's blood pressure after and before strenuous exercise. During the experiment two blood pressure readings were utilized: systolic and diastolic. For example, a typical reading might be 120/80.When the cuff was placed around the students arm and air was introduced inside the cuff. This caused the blood flow to cut off by the pressure exerted by the cuff.

When the pressure in the cuff was slowly released ,blood started flowing again and the experimenter heard the flow in the stethoscope. The number at which blood starts flowing (120) is the measure of the maximum output pressure of the heart (systolic reading). The experimenter continued to release the pressure on the cuff, until no sound was heard. That number (80) indicates the pressure in the system when the heart was relaxed ( diastolic).During exercise as the heart rate increased, so did the cardiac output. The term cardiac out put can be defined as the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min). Under conditions of rest, the heart does not fill to its maximum capacity.As a result, the cardiac output was less

Expermental Data

ActivitiesBreathing rate/beats per minuteHeart rate/beats per minutePulse rate/beats per-minuteBlood Pressure rate/mmHg

Initial readings





Vigorous Exercise





At rest







The heart rate,pulse rate,breathing rate and blood pressure rate will increase during vigorous exercise and decrease when the body is placed at rest.

Please feel free to leave suggestions or questions.I will try to respond to your question as soon as possible

loyalty on April 25, 2018:

this was very useful for my bio sba... thanks load n fk the haters who didnt see the maximum use of this data

N on January 25, 2016:

May I ask what type of exercise the student was doing?

S.Tony on November 28, 2015:

i like the site

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