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Aronia - highest-antioxidant berry juice

Aronia berry (chokeberry)

Aronia berry (chokeberry)

Aronia berry juice - notice the dark purple color

Aronia berry juice - notice the dark purple color


Aronia - highest-antioxidant berry

Aronia is the name for a very dark berry, native to the Americas, but far more popular in Eastern Europe, where its juice is known to help people with heart conditions. When I lived in Poland, it was a fairly popular juice drink, and people commonly told me it was good for the health. I also heard it was far more popular in Russia.

I tried it for the first time in Poland, and the taste is extremely tart. The natural juice is best sweetened, because the juice itself, like cranberry juice, is just too strong-tasting. Sweetened, it tastes a bit like a cross between blackberry and blueberry, although probably not as fragrant as the latter. The juice has a very dark purple color.

Aronia health benefits

Aronia berries have the highest levels of natural antioxidants of any fruit.

More than even blueberries and the vaunted pomegranate, aronia berries are the richest fruit source of anthocyanins and other antioxidants. Several studies have shown aronia to help with:

Antioxidant rich

Aronia has an ORAC (oxygen radical absorptive capacity - a measure of an antioxidant's power to neutralize free radicals) value higher than any other food. This is due to the high concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, both of which contribute to aronia's dark, almost black, color.

Available at Trader Joe's

I recently saw a 1-quart bottle of organic aronia juice (surprisingly unsweetened, so don't feel bashful about chilling it and sweetening it if it's a bit too tart for your liking), for $3.99 at our local Trader Joe's.

Aronia berry "cocktail" (since it was sweetened and diluted) used to be available at CostCo under the brand name Wildland, but they discontinued their product after 2 years due to heavy price competition from Ocean Spray.

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Natali on May 18, 2013:

I found aronia juice 100 % pure, not from concentrate, in Toronto area. They have site I think you can order online if you are in USA.

Luba on March 19, 2013:

I also used to live in Poalnd and aronia berries were available at most street farmer's markets, I loved their unusual taste and loved the juice. Loved black currant juice too...

Anna Calder on May 01, 2012:

I have heard of chokeberry capsules but I cannot find anywhere in England who sells this product. can any kind person help me


Thank you

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Tony on January 16, 2012:

My aronia berry inventory is dwindling! from all research i have seen..points out that the best way to consume this power charged super anti-oxidant is in the berry form. when the berry is juiced you lose a percentage of the benefits, around 15% less as compared to the whole berry..and as much as 25% if it is pasteurized, and in powdered form or freeze dried berries..i have seen reports that reflect as much as a 50% loss of the anti oxidants as compared to eating the whole fresh berry. When I see these kind of numbers, I think i will stay on just eating the fresh or frozen berries! The berries do taste much better after they have been frozen for awhile...and are great in smoothies!!

1ldailey on December 27, 2011:


Having drunk many bottles of OKI I found aronia to be the king of beverages! However, you will have to pay a hefty penny for Oki and once the economy grabbed our pocketbook, we switched to buying aronia powder online for much cheaper. It goes in juices, smoothies, wine, anything we wish to try it in. And wow it it energizing in a very mellow way! Definitely worth surfing the web for! Enjoy

TONY on October 17, 2011:

Hi to all you healthy aronia berry lovers! isn't it the most awesome health food!!! Finished harvesting my berries about 4 weeks ago..big and juicy! been putting them in apple crisp, apple sauce and it seems to make the apple flavor pop right out in the dessert! Awesome! Starting a CSA and will be including apples and aronia berries in our food program! We have over 5,000 bushes now with more on the way! combine that with 2,200 apple what a combo!!!

Mary Compan on October 16, 2011:

I purchased Pomegranate Juice at Aldi Supermarket. It is a combination of pomegranate, apple, grape and aronia juices.

It's absolutely delicious and very reasonably priced... under $2.00, as I recall.

Melissa Ehrman Johnson on October 10, 2011:

I grow aronia berries in SW Iowa, and consume the berries all the time. I make aronia muffins, salsa, aronia-lemonade, even made aronia-pear leather (fruit roll-up) 2 weeks ago. My children eat them right out of the freezer AND right off the bush during harvest time. So, sooo berry good for you! I am a board member for the Midwest Aronia Association, and we are working hard to develop demand and supply here in the US for domestically and organically grown aronia. Loved reading through the previous comments, as I have met some of the posters at aronia functions!

Darren on October 03, 2011:

Personally I take a good quality Chaga extract when I want to do an anti-oxidant cure. Found a particular brand (Oriveda) that showed an ORACvalue of 146,700 units/100 grams, way way way higher than any berry out there. The guys even showed their ORACanalysis by Brunswick as proof, so its legit stuff. As said, I tried it and it made me feel better than in years, no flu, no hay fever as well. remarkeable!!

Steve on August 12, 2011:

Can it colour the stools with pink mottling?

Janet on July 09, 2011:

Bought a bottle of Pomegranate flavored juice at Rite-Aid. It has Aronia berry juice as one of the four juice ingredients. It is delicious and tart, but the first glassful gave me diarrhea. Maybe that is what I needed.

lardz on May 19, 2011:

just bought 15 bushes for planting on hobby farm in SD and at home in MN. I tasted an aronia berry pie last summer and haven't gotten it off my mind since. Can't wait for the bushes to start producing!

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on March 09, 2011:

Andrew - thank you so much for such an informative comment!

Andrew on March 09, 2011:

I am a researcher with the University of Maryland. I have been researching Aronia production for over 5 years. The fruit is easily grown anywhere in the US, so long as you have a cold season. The varieties "Viking" or "Nero" are popular and can be easily purchased from nurseries around the US. The plants will yield in two years or less after planting. The berries should be frozen after harvest. To get the best juice (without the astringent flavor) press after not put is a juicer, the pulp is what's bitter. 16 lb of berries yields one gallon of juice. One plant can yield that quantity 5 years after planting.

PiratePaul on February 19, 2011:

Does anyone have a chokeberry juice recipe or know where I can find some? Thank you :)

anonymous on August 18, 2010:

my uncle grows a aronia bush that produces LOTS of berries.I'm not sure how he does it but everything in his garden produces lots lol. The berries are deliciously tart and turn my tongue VERY dark purple...almost BLACK.

Charles Savoie on May 26, 2010:

I saw aronia powder on EBAY I already bought capsules from Swanson.

patrick on May 12, 2010:

I am wanting to get into raising the berry bushes on my prop.

I have 50 acres in Ne. that is currently in hilly brome.

Anyone having experience with farming and dristribution ?

gregg classen on May 09, 2010:

We currently have 1,300 lbs. of arinia berries in cold storage and for sale. asking $4.00 / lb plus shipping. Bulk orders of 50 lbs. or more receive a 20% price discount. email at: gclassen77@gmailcom for more details

tony-eden valley on March 16, 2010:

I have an apple orchard/vineyard in eastern south dakota and last year began planting aronia bushes for health reasons and because of the value for winemakers. Aronia berries are loaded w/antioxidants and have been somewhat hard to find for those health minded people. My farm will have nearly 2,000 more bushes added to production this year, the new planting will take 5-7 years to reach maturity. Although the berry /juice is very astringent, we find that if you blend it w/pure apple juice, it will actually enhance the flavor of the juice while getting the health benefits of both the apple and the aronia. An average bush should yield approx. 40 to 60 lbs. per year. In our zone harvest is in late august into september, depending on weather and sugar content of the berries, but don't get over anxious to pick your bushes. the berries hold on tight and will continue to grow if weather permits. after pressing the berries for the juice we take the pumace that is left and dehydrate and then powder it(coffee grinder works great for small amounts) and then use it applesauce and apple pies, again it adds flavor and Color!_

eleanor berg on March 13, 2010:

I purchased 2 aronia bushes from Raintree probably 7 or 8 years ago. The shrubs are hardy and survived the soutrhern MN winters without a problem. I have always left the berries for the birds but won't do that any more. The taste straight from the bush was not so good but now I shall be harvesting all the berries and combining with apple or pear juice. They are just what I need right now for health. Thank you everyone.

Iris on March 10, 2010:

Deborah-Lynn, marketing scam..keep it off for awhile and than bring it back in fancy packaging and mega promotion of all the benefits and kaching..they make loads of money.

Deborah-Lynn on March 01, 2010:

Livelonger, wow, I am a hubber but this article came to me when I googled Aronia berries, I used to buy aronia juice by two gallon packs at Cosco, now they never carry it anymore, whats' up with that, it has been over a year since I could find it....

jeanie on February 28, 2010:

(puget sound wa. state) I ordered Aronia bushes from Raintree Catalog a few years ago and now have 7 producing bushes. Raintree noted in the catalog that it is "the most productive fruiting plant in captivity" and I must say they're right. I don't have trouble with plant diseases or fungus or anything and the birds don't like them so you don't have to protect the fruit. I've been making my own aronia juice for 3 years. i add a very small amount of sweetening. It's wonderful stuff. I suppose it's the placebo effect but I feel it has a mild, refreshing mood altering effect, like a very small amount of alcohol or being up in the mountains breathing alpine scented air.

My Facebook from London, United Kingdom on November 27, 2009:

Very interesting. I great read and the health benefits are worth drinking it for. I think I will have to find Ariona somewhere here in UK.

springwood on August 05, 2009:

If you want to find Aronia easily go to any Polish deli or if you are in the hinterlands and that's downright ridiculous, try a large chain supermarket and go into it's Eastern European section (like Wegman's). You will find it easily and it's equal, Black Currant juice, which will make you sing with joy. They are both superfoods, and really need to be included in the American, all-too-unhealthy diet! Sing their praises!!

Alice on August 05, 2009:

Trade Joe's used to carry it, but has discontinuted it since early 2008. I have written them couples times for re-carrying it, but no good news yet. my mom and I tried it and for a year. it is very good benefit in terms of blood sugar stabilize for my mom.

Cecilia Stolarz on May 19, 2009:

My husband and I own a winery, Lake Effect Winery in Muskegon, MI. We have heard of the health benefits of the aronia melanocarpa, or chokeberry. We produce fruit and berry wine and have produced aronia-blueberry wine. We also do not add any sulfites to the wine and have decided to make it a semi-dry wine. We have been pleasantly surprised with the finished product. This wine, we have been told by other wine drinkers, reminds them of a cabernet.

My husband loves this wine and drinks a glass every day. He has lowered his cholesterol and triglycerides a tremendous amount. They are all now in the normal range. His doctor wanted him to go on a cholesterol lowering drug, but decided to wait and try this first. Well, last physical, his doctor was astonished by the amount his cholesterol and triglycerides were lowered. As any glass of red wine is good for you, as has been proven, why not drink a red wine made with fruit richer in anti-oxidants.

We have now opened up a tasting room in Grand Haven, MI where we hope to sell a lot of our fruit and berry wines. We have been selling wholesale only to retailers up until now. If you are in the area, please do come in for a free tasting. You may be pleasantly surprised.

bob hicks on May 18, 2009:

Just drink Monavie and you get the aronia and the acai, I love it and it is a good product that is keeping me and my friends healthy

David on May 15, 2009:

I am a dissabled trucker with land in Fort Gibson, Ok. and have been planting many fruit trees and blueberry bushes along with thornless and thorned blackberries and rasberries, and I would like to plant some Aronia Bushes but I have about deleted my funds to do this planting. I would like to see if anyone can tell me of a place where I could buy some realitively cheap plants. I am not sure but I am told I can get started with seeds but I don't know where to get the seeds either. Any help in this matter would be greatly appreciated.

Von on April 10, 2009:

I make homemade wine out of it. It's great!

elsale on April 06, 2009:

hello. i`m from Croatia and have planted Aronia farm. soon my web site will be working and this year we`ll have first harvest of Aronia. We produce 100% eco fruit.

soon we will also have jams in our offer.

so check our website now and then to get fresh news and more information.

sanita on April 01, 2009:

had I aronia berry in Latvia could eat after first I live in uk when my aroni berry can be ready .try last year october phee wasn't ready at all? any answers?

Adriane on March 21, 2009:

I recently purchased a bottle of 100% aronia juice< and I drink a glass every day. I already noticed a difference in my body and I feel much healthier.

CONNIEV on March 17, 2009:

My husband an I purchased 3 small Aronia berry bushes from Raintree Nursery in Morton, Washington about 4 years ago. They are now 5 feet tall and produce an abundant supply of dark purple berries. It's great because they all ripen at the same time. We harvest them all by hand, which is quite time consuming. I wash the berries and put them in a steamer on the stove top. Last year I canned 24 quarts of pure juice from our harvest. When I serve it as a breakfast juce, I put equal amounts of aronia and apple juice in our glass. Serving it that way adds a little needed sugar and makes it more drinkable. Aronia juice by itself has a rather dry, bitter taste, but the health benefits are enormous.

KAY on February 26, 2009:


Don in MN on February 17, 2009:

If you have some room in the garden I highly recommend planting some Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). They come in a compact form (3ft) to standard (5 to 6ft).


Melinda on February 15, 2009:

Came across this site after researching the ingredients list in a store-brand 100% juice I bought. Cranberry-Pomegranite-Blueberry, so I was curious. Think I have some growing in my back yard.

alsoin iowa on January 11, 2009:

to the central iowa grower, how do i contact you if i want to purchase some of y our 09 harvest? i do live in central iowa

weesirgibbie on January 08, 2009:

It's January, 2009. Last night I found Pomegranate juice at Food Lion in Maryland. It was 100% juice, but a blend of Pomegranate, apple, and aronia juices. Very tasty. I just came to this site to find out what aronia juice was. My dictionaries didn't have the word in them. Is this some type of hybrid plant or is would I find it under chokeberry in the dictionary? It only cost 2.99 for 2 quarts of this juice.

eureka on January 04, 2009:

Doesn't specify, but lists aronia concentrate before blueberry concentrate in ingredients.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on January 03, 2009:

eureka: Is the aronia a significant portion of the juice content? I've seen quite a few drinks that add a little aronia for color, since it has an intensely purple color, but probably too little to lend color or healthful benefits.

eureka on January 02, 2009:

Ruby Kist brand has Pomegranate Blueberry 100% Juice Blend which includes Aronia. Great, healthful combination!

Emma on January 01, 2009:

I'd like to add that ForestFarm has shockingly cheap Aronia plants available for sale here: was VERY disheartened when Trader Joe's stopped carrying Aronia juice. Whole Foods DOES NOT carry it and in the midwest, CANNOT order it. I worked at a Whole Foods store and know this from personal experience. If anyone has found the juice anywhere, I'd love to hear about it. I personally can't order a bush, I've got no space for it. I'd love to find some actual juice at a reasonable price.

aroniaberry organic farm on November 24, 2008:

We are an organic family owned aronia berry farm located in Central Iowa. We are growing these berries commerically to provide true American grown organic Aronia Berry products to consumers. (No more dried from Germany or Poland)There are many ways to drink Aronia Berry juice without adding sugar. We recommend 8oz a day. Berries can be grown at home and harversted in Late Aug and September, frozen year round at home and made into a juice as needed. Each family member should have their own berry producing plant. This will create approx. 10-20 lbs per bush. Put berries in cookies, pancakes, scones, jelly, juice, wine etc..

I am a clinical RN studing the benefits of these Berries and the results are mind staggering and outstanding. The data is clear...these berries are the best antioxident fruit on the planet with no side effects.

We will have a harvest in September 09 so be watching the internet for our new website and information. We also will be selling fresh squeezed juice at our location on a daily basis starting in last Aug 09. So please come to Iowa! Thanks!

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on September 17, 2008:

Avoid the similarly-named choke cherry:

Gordon on September 03, 2008:

We have two aronia berry plants in our front yard, by the sidewalk, no one takes any either because they don't know what they are or because the berries taste kinda' yuk. This year we have started making juice with them. How does one know when they are ripe? I live in Washington state near Seattle and the bushes take no care and produce large quantities of berries.

Singh on August 30, 2008:

I wrote trader Joe's.They discontinued Aronia juice.In Feb 2008 they told me at the Palmdale store in Ca.So I bought 8 bottles they have in the store.I try every where & so far no luck.I urge others who wants Aronia 100% juice at good price please contact Trader Joe's by e mail,phone or in person.I also want you know this juice is number one cure for varicose veins.

Emily on August 25, 2008:

Chokecherry and chokeberry are not the same things. Aronia/Chokeberry are not really enjoyable edible right off the shrub. TOO BAD, because they're so healthy for you and it's a very easy shrub to grow in my Idaho, zone 5 garden.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on August 19, 2008:

Kathy - Interesting question. I would imagine with plenty of sugar, or sugary fruits like apples, might make for a very delicious pie or jam. I would imagine they'd pair up similarly as blueberries, although they are far tarter.

Kathy on August 18, 2008:

Thank's for all the above comments - they were helpful. But, I have a bush growing in my yard as an experiment and this is the first year it has produced berries and lots of them, but I only have one bush. Yes, they are tart, pungent but how does one know when they are really ready for use ?- sometimes I rely on the birds to tell me but I have a feeling they may not like them. Anyone have any experience with paring them up with other fruits like apples for use in pies or jams? Thanks

MerryJoy on August 07, 2008:

I have some Aronia Berry bushes planted in my garden from the previous land-owner. They seem to thrive here in the Pacific Northwest. Thanks for the clear photo of the berries in this article.

mark z on June 21, 2008:

Great article. Should drink some. I didn't like the taste the first time. But if it's that healthy I should try again.

Kitty Antonik Wakfer on March 28, 2008:

I sent the following update message to Trader Joe's via their website (only contact available) today:

This is a follow-up to previous complaint about Trader Joe's no longer carrying aronia juice. I received response from an Amy who wrote, "We have discontinued our Aronia Juice due to slow sales and we have sold through all existing inventory....However, we have forwarded your comments and a request to the Category Leader for reconsideration." There is much discussion on the Internet about aronia (by those who know or have recently become informed) and where it can or cannot (now) be obtained - Trader Joe's was once hailed as a good source. My post 5 weeks ago informed this site that it was no longer - A woman in So. Calif is sponsoring aronia berry plant giveaways just so those who want aronia juice and are willing to make their own can do so. This link goes to post she made a few days ago at the newsgroup, also carried through Google Groups: Her website directly: I do hope that Trader Joe's management will review their previous marketing practices for their 100% aronia juice (no sugar added) during their process of considering whether to return it as a stock item. Please note that the Tempe store manage told me and my husband that stock of aronia juice in that store always sold very well and that he was surprised to learn that it was being discontinued.


If numerous other people will do likewise, it's possible that the Trader Joe's management can be persuaded to once again carry this extremely nutritious juice.

Also be aware that an aronia juice sold by Sophia Foods in Brooklyn contains added sugar which is not something one can currently tell by their website. We bought a case - only received 8 bottles out of 12 paid for due to poor packaging of shipment - and then found each 240 ml serving to contain 32 g of sugar vs 12 g for Trader Joe's. Citric acid is also added to this Sophia Foods aronia from Poland - it's really an aronia "drink", not a juice because of the added sugar.

Those able to obtain the aronia plants offered above may find the cultivation and juice production an enjoyable way to obtain the value of aronia.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on February 22, 2008:

"Stuck" eating peanut butter? To me, it's like a drug. The Europeans (except the Dutch, who eat it too) don't know what they're missing. :) Don't remember Irish chocolate but I'd imagine it's great; the Brits make terrific (milk) chocolate too.

Iðunn on February 21, 2008:

I wish you hadn't said that. :(


I think if I drive to the "big city" an hour away, I might could find one or the other of your juices. I shall make a point of looking being as I have to do some grocery shopping anyway soon. Or be stuck eating... ahem... peanut butter. :(

I wish to add, Irish chocolate is the bomb. I had a friend visit from Dublin a few years ago and he brought me some and you are right, american chocolate does not compare.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on February 21, 2008:

Agreed - don't know about Canada, but the Europeans definitely have better chocolate (but that's slowly changing), beer (also slowly changing) and all those hazelnut things. But we have peanut butter. :)

Iðunn on February 21, 2008:

europe gets all the good stuff :( also... canada. :hmm:

I used to have a favorite cheese you could buy at Hickory Farms (back in the day) called Mont Saint-Benoît that came from Canada. It got banned in the U.S. though and I couldn't get it anymore.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on February 21, 2008:

Definitely has a unique flavor - a bit pungent. Another alternative that is nice but very, very richly flavored is blackcurrant juice (cassis in French); probably a bit easier to find. It apparently was banned in the US until very recently so we Yanks never really developed a taste for it like Europeans have.

Iðunn on February 21, 2008:

never heard of it, but it sounds fantastic. I like blackberries and blueberries fresh, so it couldn't be bad on a bet. Doubt I can find locally though. :( I shall look, however.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on February 21, 2008:

I'm glad you can get it! We don't have SuperFreshes or Giants here, and it appears TJ's doesn't carry it anymore.

Roberta Kyle from Central New Jersey on February 21, 2008:

I read this hub awhile ago and when I saw aronia juice the other day in my local supermarket, picked some up--very tasty--a bit pricy but really good--thanks for the tip LL :-) BTW I bought it either at Super-Fresh or Giant--can't remember which.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on February 21, 2008:

Thank you, Kitty - I had noticed that I stopped seeing aronia juice on the shelves for a while. I thought they had just run out. I'll contact TJ's and beg them to reconsider.

Kitty Antonik Wakfer on February 21, 2008:

Trader Joe's has discontinued carrying aronia juice - this was confirmed in an email reply to me on 2/21/08. But the writer did say, "However, we have forwarded your comments and a request to the Category Leader for reconsideration."

So I urge others who want it available and at a very good price - contact Trader Joe's by email, phone or in person.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on January 09, 2008:

Larry - good luck! That sounds exciting.

blubyrd - It looks like they're unrelated:

blubyrd on January 09, 2008:

Is chokeberry and chokecherry the same thing? Southern Idaho mountains have a lot of what I have known as chokecherry. I even got some chokecherry plants from the Home Economist office under the University of Idaho. The "cherries" make wonderful jelly and syrup and even wine.

Larry R Miller on December 16, 2007:

As a subscriber, I read your hub when you first posted it and was pretty sure I had seen the berries growing where I've fished in Oregon. I contacted a friend and he confirmed my belief. I was pretty sure I was right, since I'd tried some once and they live up to their name. My friend has the property and we are contemplating a joint venture. We've worked together before. We never know where life will take us, most of the knowledge and adventure comes with hanging on and enjoying the ride. Thanks for the article.

Rudra on December 12, 2007:

These are definitely interesting facts. I will be consuming berries in significant quantities from now on.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on December 10, 2007:

Kay - if you're not near a Trader Joe's, then I'd try Whole Foods, Wild Oats, or your neighborhood health food store. They should at least be able to order it for you.

kay on December 10, 2007:

Where can I find aronia juice in Florida

Ashok Rajagopalan from Chennai on November 05, 2007:

Thanks, livelonger, and now I'll have to find out whether it's blueberry or Aronia that I had a plateful of.

I usually take my fruits raw, and love having a blue tongue! Atleast, as kids we all did.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on November 05, 2007:

Thanks, everyone. William, yes you can buy it at Trader Joe's if you have one in your area. ( Kenny, it will turn your tongue purple, but not as badly as blueberries. (Although it might be worse if you eat the raw berry, which I've never tried). And yes gamergirl, fresh fruit is usually best but in the case of anthocyanin-rich foods (blue & purple fruits, like dark berries), there doesn't seem to be much of a difference ( That's not the case when it comes to vitamin C, for example.

Lorna Lorraine from Croydon on November 05, 2007:

very good information...Thanks for sharing!

William F Torpey from South Valley Stream, N.Y. on November 05, 2007:

Sounds good. Is it available commercially in the U.S.?

Kiz Robinson from New Orleans, Louisiana on November 05, 2007:

I've actually heard tonight on the John Tesh radio show that eating/drinking 100% natural (not from concentrate) fruits which are richer in color provides more nutrients than other fruit consumption.

Ashok Rajagopalan from Chennai on November 05, 2007:

Wonder if its available in India. Is it the one that turns our tongues blue? I ate a plateful of that after reading an article about taking in all colours of food.

Jason Menayan (author) from San Francisco on November 04, 2007:

Thanks, wajay! I do know that some avocational horticulturalists like to grow aronia, known in gardens by its English name, chokeberry.

wajay_47 on November 04, 2007:

Very Informative hub, Livelonger. I wonder if the plants are easy to raise, since I don't have a green thumb. Nice hub, as usual.

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