Schizophrenia is a disease that severely affects the way a person thinks, understands, reacts, and sees the world. Man forgets to distinguish between real and unreal life, and his emotions become disorganized, making it difficult for him to lead a normal life. About one percent of the world's population is affected at some point. The rate of this disease is equal for men and women. People living in cities are more likely to get this disease than people living in villages. The disease is rare before the age of fifteen but can start anytime after that. The onset of the disease is most likely between the ages of fifteen and thirty-five.
What is the cause of this disease?
There is no single cause of this disease. However, there are many factors that contribute to this disease
Cause to start
These are genetic, drug and drug abuse, family problems, stress, childhood deprivation, and more.
There are positive and negative symptoms of this disease
These symptoms are called positive symptoms because they were not in good health and appear to be in a state of illness. These include the following symptoms.
If you see an object or person in the absence of it, or when you hear sounds in solitude when no one is around, then the process is called hallucination. The experience is to hear voices alone. These sounds are as real to the patient as they are to us. They feel that these sounds are coming from outside and are being heard in the ears, even if no one else is hearing them. Maybe these voices are talking to you or talking to each other.
Some patients also have hallucinations of seeing things, smelling or feeling as if someone is touching them, but these are relatively rare.
Delusions are thoughts that the patient fully believes in but has no reality. Sometimes these thoughts are caused by misunderstandings. The patient is 100% sure of his idea, but everyone thinks his idea is wrong or weird.
There are many types of delusions. Sometimes people feel that other people have become their enemies, wanting to harm them. Some patients feel that special messages are being broadcast to them on TV or radio. Some patients feel that someone is taking ideas out of their mind, or that the thoughts they have in their mind are not their own but have been put in their mind by someone else. Some people think that someone else is human. Or the unseen forces are controlling them, making them act against their will.
3. The incoherence of ideas
It becomes difficult for patients to focus on tasks or things. Patients do not pay full attention to reading newspapers or watching TV, continue their studies, or do their work with full attention. Patients feel that their thoughts keep getting lost and there is no coherence between their thoughts. After a minute or two, they don't even remember what they were thinking a few moments ago. Some patients feel like they have fog on their brains.
Negative symptoms are things that used to be in a state of health but are no longer in a state of illness. Although the negative symptoms are not as noticeable as the positive symptoms, they do have a profound effect on the patient's life. Patients feel that;
Interest, energy, feelings are all gone in his life. Patients are neither very happy nor motivated to do anything.
It is very difficult for them to pay attention to something or work. They also lose the desire to get out of bed or go out of the house.
It becomes very difficult for patients to take a bath, keep clean or change clothes.
Patients are reluctant to meet people, it is difficult for them to talk to anyone.
Do all schizophrenia patients have all these symptoms?
Not all schizophrenia patients have all the symptoms. Some people only hear sounds but do not have negative symptoms. Some patients have only delusions but their thoughts are not incoherent and confused. If a patient has only negative symptoms and incoherent thoughts, sometimes the people around him do not realize for years that he has schizophrenia.
Can this disease ever be cured?
Many schizophrenia patients never need to be hospitalized, can work, and lead a good home life.
• Approximately 1 in 5 (20%) patients recover within five years of the first seizure.
* About 3 out of 5 (sixty percent) people get better but they still have some symptoms. At some point, these symptoms get worse.
٠ Approximately 1 in 5 (20%) patients have severe symptoms.
These drugs were discovered in the fifth decade of the twentieth century and have been used ever since. This group includes haloperidol, tryflora paracetamol, and flupentixol. These side effects can include side effects such as Parkinson's disease such as stiffness in the limbs or tremors. There may be anxiety. There may be a sexual weakness. Permanent movement of the lips, mouth or tongue, called tardive dyskinesia, can occur.
Many new drugs for schizophrenia have been discovered in the last ten years. They are called topical antipsychotics. These include risperidone, olanzapine, and erythroprazole. These drugs are less likely to cause side effects such as Parkinson's disease. They can also alleviate negative symptoms that are usually not better than topical medications. Many people who use new medications are of the opinion that they have fewer side effects than older medications. Side effects of antipsychotic medications include drowsiness and lethargy, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, and increased risk of diabetes. Even higher doses can have side effects, such as Parkinson's disease.
Be sure to tell your doctor if you are experiencing side effects from the medicine. Often the side effects of antipsychotic medications are reduced or eliminated by reducing the dose of the drug, changing the medication, or taking a drug that breaks the side effects.
It is a topical antipsychotic drug and the only antipsychotic that can be used to treat schizophrenia patients who do not benefit from any other medication. This drug also reduces the risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia.
* The side effects of clozapine are similar to those of a typical antipsychotic drug, but it causes more saliva in the mouth.
* The biggest danger from clozapine is that it has a bad effect on the bone marrow, where blood cells are made. It reduces the number of white blood cells in the blood, which increases the risk of infection. That's why patients who are taking clozapine have to have a blood test every week for the first 18 weeks and every four weeks thereafter as long as they are taking clozapine.
How long do you need to take antipsychotic medicine?
About 80% of patients who take these drugs benefit from them
Taking them cures the disease but does not eradicate it. Sometimes the symptoms return after the medication has worked. If the patient continues to take the medication despite the improvement, the risk is greatly reduced.
If the patient wants to stop taking his medicine, he must consult a doctor and reduce the medicine gradually with the advice of a doctor so that if a few symptoms start to recur, it will be known immediately before he recovers completely. Get worse
• If you stop your medication immediately after your condition improves, it is very likely that the symptoms of schizophrenia will return immediately, but not in the next six months or so.
Is it necessary to take medicine?
* Hallucinations and delusions gradually decrease. This usually takes several weeks.
* Improves thinking ability.
* Aspiration and interest in life increases and the ability to take care of yourself improve.
How is the medicine taken?
The medicine is usually taken in the form of tablets, syrups, or capsules.
* For people who find it difficult to take the medicine daily, they can also take the medicine in the form of an injection that needs to be taken only once in two to four weeks. This is called depot injection.
Some important instructions
Try to find out what symptoms you have at the beginning of the illness, such as loss of sleep or appetite, nervousness, stop bathing or changing clothes, a little doubt or fear, and sometimes alone. I start to hear sounds. If these symptoms are recognized at the beginning and treatment is started, then the condition usually improves quickly and the dose of medicine has to be reduced.
Avoid reasons for fear of ill health, such as stressful situations such as excessive contact with people, drug or alcohol use, quarreling with family, friends or neighbors.
Try to find out in what ways your voices are reduced, such as meeting people, being busy, reminding yourself that these voices can do you no harm and that you can do something against your will. Can't force to work.
* Keep in mind a confident person who can tell you when your illness starts that your condition is getting worse.
* Take care of your physical health. Eat a good diet that includes fruits and vegetables. Don't smoke, it damages your lungs, your heart, your circulatory system, and your stomach.
* Do some exercise every day, even if it's just walking for 20 minutes a day. Exercising regularly also improves one's mood.
If a person develops schizophrenia at home, it is difficult for the rest of the family to understand what is happening to their children, their spouses, or their siblings. They may start to say things that the rest of the family may find strange or incomprehensible. Maybe their behavior is weird and they stop talking to everyone. The family may start blaming themselves for these symptoms or the disease and may think it's my fault. You may be worried that someone else in the family may have the disease or you may not understand how to treat the patient.
Do not quarrel with the patient and do not get involved in an argument with him, it will worsen his illness. stay calm. If you want to know more about schizophrenia, be sure to see your patient's psychiatrist.
What happens if left untreated?
Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to commit suicide than the general population. Patients with severe symptoms of schizophrenia, who are depressed, or who have given up treatment have an even higher risk of suicide.
Research shows that the longer the delay in treatment after the onset of schizophrenia, the greater the impact on life.
If the diagnosis is made early and treatment is started as soon as the disease starts:
The need for hospitalization is less
Needs intensive care at home
If hospitalization is required, fewer days are required
Increases the likelihood that the patient will be able to work and live an independent life.
Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on January 04, 2021:
Quite interesting. I have lost a couple of good friends due to it and it is just heartbreaking.
Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on January 04, 2021:
This is a well-written article that gives us a wealyh of information about this disease. Thank you for sharing it.