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Water-soluble vitamins, as the name suggests, are those vitamins that get dissolved in water. These are the micro-nutrients required in small amounts for sustaining life, perform various functions in the body of living organisms, especially human beings. Hence, they are vital, and being water-soluble gets easily excreted. So their frequent intake is needed. Now, before discussing further details, it is important to know more about vitamins. Let's go through it!
Many of us have heard or read about the term vitamins, often through news media such as television, newspaper; doctors, health-experts, or a fitness instructor. It just becomes a subject of discussion or a matter of boasting knowledge, but we don't take it seriously or even realize how vital these vitamins are and what role they play in an individual's life.
Vitamins are the essential micro-nutrients required in very small amounts for the proper growth and development of the body, if not taken properly, the consequences can be either serious health problems or deficiency diseases. The human body either cannot produce enough vitamins or produce no vitamins at all. So, they need to be included in an individual's daily diet to meet their bodily needs. They are available in natural food resources and supplements.
Now the main emphasis, in this article, will be on water-soluble vitamins covering different aspects: types, functions and role, sources, daily intake, and more.
Vitamins are a group of organic substances containing carbon, classified into two categories: water-soluble—vitamins B and C; and fat-soluble—vitamins A, D, E, and K. Besides vitamins B and C, vitamin A is also water-soluble but in its beta-carotene form.
Unlike fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins are easily absorbed by the tissues of the body as they circulate freely in water-filled parts of the body. They can't be stored in the body for a longer period. The human body absorbs the required amount, and excess vitamins are usually excreted by the kidneys in the form of urine. Hence, a consistent supply of these vitamins is needed. That's why their daily intake is recommended. Unlike fat-soluble vitamins, these vitamins are easily depleted during cooking, heating, processing, and boiling of foods especially green-stuffs. While boiling green-stuffs, most of the vitamins are lost in the water. So the foods must be prepared with great care. Steaming or grilling is a better option for cooking food as these methods retain most of the vitamins. Even, improper food storage methods—foods stored in a place where they get more exposure to air or sunlight for a long time—also deplete vitamins. Foods must be stored in a cool and dry place.
Some common water-soluble vitamins are being discussed here:
1. Vitamin B
Vitamin B is not a single water-soluble vitamin like vitamin C; it's a group of eight vitamins and each vitamin performs unique functions. This group is known as B-complex vitamins. The B-complex vitamins are naturally found in foods, needed by the body to obtain energy from food. They are vital for normal appetite, good vision, red blood cell formation, healthy skin, and nervous system. Further, they act as co-enzymes, that is, they help the enzymes to function properly. Their names are as under:
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid)
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
- Vitamin B7 (biotin)
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate)
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin or cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin B1: Thiamine
Function and role: Thiamine or vitamin B1 is also known as aneurin. It remains stored in the liver but for a maximum of eighteen days. It gets directly absorbed into the blood from the gastrointestinal tract. It's a colorless compound and insoluble in alcohol. It has the following important functions and roles to play:
- Thiamine helps to release energy from foods.
- It promotes a normal appetite.
- Vitamin B1 is important in maintaining proper nervous system function.
- It prevents eye fatigue and other vision problems such as cataracts, and glaucoma.
Food sources for thiamine: For vegans, thiamine is commonly found in whole grains. Other sources include pork, liver, legumes, and peas. Thiamine is easily found in fortified grain products such as cereal, and enriched products like bread, pasta, rice, and tortillas.
Enriched products are processed foods that have lost the nutrients during the milling process, but these processed foods are later enriched by adding some nutrients that were originally present in them. No new nutrient is added in the enrichment process while in fortified products a new nutrient is added during fortification that was not originally present in the food.
Thiamine deficiency: Nowadays, due to changing lifestyle people are consuming more processed foods, getting processed carbohydrates and low-calorie diets which may place an individual at risk of thiamine deficiency. Furthermore, if someone is an alcoholic the risk of thiamine deficiency increases. It might cause mental confusion, muscle weakness, wasting, water retention (edema), impaired growth, and a disease known as beriberi. The common symptoms of thiamine deficiency are:
- abdominal discomfort
Daily intake: The Recommended Dietary Allowance for thiamine is 1.2 mg/day for adult males and 1.1 mg/day for adult females.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily intake of nutrients considered necessary to maintain good health among healthy individuals. RDA is developed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. It is updated periodically, gives new insights. RDA is popularly known as Recommended Daily Allowance.
RDA for thiamine is mentioned in the table below for different age groups, gender, and their reproductive status:
Table 1: Recommended Daily Allowances for Thiamine
|Age Groups||Male||Female||Pregnant Mothers||Lactating Mothers|
0–6 months *
7–12 months *
Above 50 years
Excessive intake of thiamine: If thiamine is consumed in higher amounts in the form of natural foods, no adverse side effects have been known to occur. Even higher doses of thiamine supplements are well tolerated by the body, however, certain allergic reactions may occur if repeated doses are administered via injections. No upper limits of thiamine consumption have been established by the Food and Nutrition Board.
Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
Function and role:
- It helps to release energy from foods.
- Riboflavin is essential for the absorption of calcium.
- It promotes good vision and healthy skin.
- It also helps to convert an amino acid called tryptophan, responsible for making proteins, into niacin.
Rich sources of food to obtain vitamin B2: Organ meats such as kidneys and liver, eggs, nuts, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole and enriched grain products, bread, cereals, and milk. The richest natural source of riboflavin is yeast
Vitamin B2 gets destroyed by the ultraviolet radiation, which is why most milk must be packaged in opaque containers instead of clear glass containers.
Riboflavin is the only water-soluble vitamin that is used in food coloring. It has a yellow-orange color.
Riboflavin deficiency: The deficiency of riboflavin can be observed in the elderly. Symptoms of deficiency include cracks and sores at the corners of the mouth and outside of the lips, dermatitis on the nose and lips, light sensitivity, red tongue, and cataracts. Those who consume excessive alcohol are more prone to the deficiency of vitamin B2 which may cause malignancy or hyperthyroidism.
Daily intake: The RDA for riboflavin is 1.3 mg/day for adult males and 1.1 mg/day for adult females.
Table 2: Recommended Daily Allowances for Riboflavin
|Age||Male||Female||Pregnant Women||Lactating Mothers|
0–6 months *
51 years and above
Excessive intake of riboflavin: Its toxicity is rare if taken, in excess, only through natural food sources, any excess amount is excreted. However, the daily requirement for riboflavin is less than two milligrams and taking excess of riboflavin (i.e., more than 100 mg a day) in the form of nutritional supplements may cause toxic effects on cells, eyes, and liver; excess of free riboflavin being photoreactive produce toxic peroxides. In pregnant women, it may change the color of urine if large doses are administered, so caution is necessary.
Vitamin B3: Niacin
Function and role: Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are other forms of vitamin B3, used in some food fortification and nutritional supplements. Its function and role are as under:
- Niacin is involved in energy production.
- It helps in normal enzyme function, digestion.
- It promotes normal appetite, healthy skin, and nerves.
- Body converts absorbed niacin into other metabolic active forms such as NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and 2'-phosphate ester NADP. NAD is required in many cellular functions such as protecting DNA from damage, communication between cells while NADP is required in the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids.
- Niacin lowers LDL (low-density lipids, i.e., bad cholesterol) levels and raises HDL (high-density lipids, i.e., good cholesterol) levels.
Food sources to obtain niacin: Fortified breakfast cereals, beef liver, chicken breast, red-fish such as salmon, tuna; sunflower seeds, soya milk, vegetables such as spinach, tomatoes.
The human body can convert an amino acid, a protein, called tryptophan into niacin but cannot produce tryptophan. So tryptophan must be obtained from the diet. Some rich sources of tryptophan include pumpkin and sesame seeds, poultry, meat, salmon.
Niacin is also available in the form of dietary supplements with other B-complex vitamins, multivitamins; only niacin supplements are also available.
Deficiency of niacin: Deficiency usually occurs due to poor intake of diet having low niacin and protein content, common among people living in poverty. Furthermore, if a person is addicted to alcohol, the deficiency of niacin might result in protein malnourishment. Excessive consumption of alcohol interferes with the absorption of niacin or tryptophan. Even, severe niacin deficiency may cause a disease called Pellagra. Its symptoms include cramps, diarrhea, nausea, depression, mental confusion, and skin problems. Pellagra may cause digestive system related disorders too. Severe niacin deficiency may eventually lead to death if left untreated.
Daily intake of niacin: RDA for niacin is 16 mg/day for adult males and 14 mg/day for adult females.
Excessive intake of niacin: No side effects or serious health problems have been noticed from excessive consumption of niacin if taken through natural food sources. Excessive intake of niacin, however, in the form of dietary supplements may cause flushed skin, rashes, or liver damage.
Vitamin B5: Pantothenic Acid
Function and role: Its function and role are as under:
- It helps in energy production.
- It aids in the formation of hormones.
- It helps in the metabolism of fat, proteins, and carbohydrates from food.
- Vitamin B5 is absorbed in the intestine and delivered directly into the bloodstream by active transport.
- Food sources for vitamin B5: Liver, kidney, meats, egg yolk, whole grains, avocados, mushrooms, milk-fat, and legumes. Pantothenic acid is also made by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B5: The deficiency of pantothenic acid is rare due to its wide availability in most foods. Its deficiency, however, may result in symptoms such as irritability, tiredness, numbness, depression, vomiting, insomnia, stomach pains, burning feet, and upper respiratory infections.
Daily intake of vitamin B5: The Adequate Intake for pantothenic acid is 5 mg/day (milligrams per day) for both adult males and females. Adequate Intake is based on the approximate values related to average nutrient intake level by a group of healthy people where RDA is not available.
Excessive intake of vitamin B5: A higher dose of vitamin B5 doesn't cause any significant problem, however, an excessive intake in the form of dietary supplements may cause diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, calcification in blood vessels, or stomach upset.
Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
Function and role: Other names of vitamin B6 are pyridoxal, pyridoxamine. Its function and role are as under:
- It aids in protein metabolism and red blood cell formation.
- It is also involved in the body’s production of chemicals such as insulin and hemoglobin.
- Pyridoxine is responsible for the synthesis of coenzyme A, crucial in many biochemical reactions that sustain life.
Food sources to obtain vitamin B6: Whole grain cereals, nuts, legumes such as chickpeas; organ meats such as liver; fish, some vegetables such as potatoes, spinach; noncitrus fruits such as bananas and avocados.
Deficiency of vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 dietary deficiency is rare due to its availability in most foods.
Daily intake of vitamin B6: RDA is 1.3 mg/day for adult males and females. Above 50, it's 1.7 mg/day for males and 1.5 mg/day for females. For infants, breast milk is a very good source of vitamin B6, another good source after breast milk is infant formula.
Excessive intake of vitamin B6: No adverse effects have been observed if vitamin B6 is taken through natural food sources, however, if taken excessively in the form of supplements and multivitamins, it may cause neural problems related to body movements, reducing the ability to sense pain or extreme temperatures. Other side effects are skin-related problems, photo-sensitivity, gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and heartburn.
Vitamin B7: Biotin
Function and role:
- Biotin helps release energy from carbohydrates.
- It aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates from food.
- It also aids in maintaining healthy skin, hair, nails, and mucous membrane.
Food sources for biotin: Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, most fresh vegetables, yeast bread, and cereals. Biotin is also made by intestinal bacteria.
Daily intake of biotin: The Adequate Intake of biotin (in micrograms per day) is 30 mcg/day for adult males and females.
Biotin deficiency: The deficiency of biotin is uncommon under normal circumstances, but its symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, depression, muscle pains, heart abnormalities, and anemia.
Excessive intake of biotin: Proper shreds of evidence are not available to see any adverse side effects of extremely high doses of biotin.
Vitamin B9: Folate
Function and role: Other names of vitamin B9 are folic acid, folacin. Folic acid is the manufactured form of vitamin B9, used as a dietary supplement and in the fortification of foods. Its function and role are as under:
- Folate aids in protein metabolism.
- Its chief function is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic material) synthesis that aids in promoting red blood cell formation.
- It also helps in lowering the risk of neural tube birth defects; folate is essential for proper development of the central nervous system in embryos.
- Folate may also play a role in controlling homocysteine (a common amino acid in the blood) levels. A higher level of homocysteine may cause damage to arteries and promote blood clots.
Food sources to obtain folate: Liver, kidney, dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, meats, fish, whole grains, fortified grains and cereals, legumes and citrus fruits. But not all whole-grain products are fortified with folate. So check the nutrition label to see if folic acid has been added.
Daily intake of folate: The RDA for adult males and females is 400 mcg/day (micrograms per day), while for a pregnant woman folate intake is 600 mcg/day.
Folate deficiency: The deficiency of folic acid affects cell growth and protein production, which can lead to overall impaired growth. Its deficiency symptoms also include the smooth red tongue, mental confusion, elevated homocysteine levels, anemia, and diarrhea. A folate deficiency in a woman who is pregnant or of childbearing age may result in the delivery of a baby with neural tube defects such as spina bifida (spine and spinal cord are not properly developed). Further, if someone is alcoholic than the chances of folate deficiency become severe as it interferes with the absorption of folate.
Excessive intake of folate: Generally, folate is not considered toxic even at higher doses. There is no proper evidence of whether excessive consumption of folate may cause adverse side effects.
Vitamin B12: Cobalamin
Function and role: It's a crucial B vitamin, also known as cyanocobalamin. Cyanocobalamin is the synthetic form of vitamin B12. Adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin are the natural forms of vitamin B12 found in the body. Its functions and role are as under:
- It aids in the building of DNA, the genetic material in all cells.
- It plays an essential role in the production of normal red blood cells.
- Cobalamin aids in the maintenance of the central nervous system.
- Vitamin B12 is essential for metabolism carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
- Cobalamin with folic acid and vitamin B helps lower the homocysteine levels in the blood as higher levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases and strokes. An intrinsic factor called glycoprotein, produced in the stomach by parietal cells is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. It is absorbed in the last part of the small intestine (i.e., ileum).
Food sources for vitamin B12: The main sources are foods of animal origin such as meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters, shellfish such as clams. Some foods such as yeasts, non-dairy milk, breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin B12.
Daily intake of vitamin B12: RDA for vitamin B12 is 2.4 mcg/day for adult males and females. For the elderly, above 50, the dietary guidelines recommend consuming vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, that is, in the form of fortified foods or multivitamins.
The average recommended daily intakes (in micrograms per day) of vitamin B12 for different age groups are given below:
Table 3: Recommended Daily Allowances for Cobalamin
|Life Stage||Age groups||Daily Intake|
Pregnant teens and mothers
Lactating teens and mothers
Vitamin B12 deficiency: The deficiency most commonly affects strict vegetarians, infants of vegan mothers, and the elderly. Symptoms of deficiency include anemia, constipation, fatigue, neurological disorders, degeneration of nerves resulting in numbness, and tingling in hands and feet. Dietary supplements should be taken to prevent its deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can be found in some people suffering from digestive disorders because they cannot absorb the vitamin through their stomach lining (a layer of tissue on the inside of the stomach). This can be treated through vitamin B12 injections. Excessive alcohol consumption also interferes with its absorption. It impairs liver performance and depletes vitamin B12 stores.
Excessive intake of vitamin B12: Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, excess amounts of vitamin B12 remain stored mainly in the liver for years until it is required by the body. The liver can store up to 2000 mcg of adenosylcobalamin. A dose of vitamin B12 up to 2000 mcg is considered safe even if this much amount taken in the form of supplements. Adverse effects through higher consumptions have been rare if taken through natural food sources.
2. Vitamin C
Function and role: Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, the body needs vitamin C to remain in proper working condition. Its functions and role are as under:
- It requires vitamin C for the biosynthesis of collagen. Collagen is an insoluble fibrous protein in the connective tissue that holds muscles, bones, and other tissues together. Further, collagen plays a vital role in wound healing, which demands more intake of vitamin C content.
- Vitamin C helps in the formation of bone and teeth, strengthening the walls of blood vessels, improving the immune system, increasing the absorption and utilization of iron by the body, and acting as an antioxidant.
- Vitamin C also increases the absorption of iron in the gastrointestinal tract by reducing the ferric to the ferrous state.
Since the body cannot produce or store vitamin C, an adequate daily intake of this nutrient is essential for optimum health. Vitamin C with vitamin E acts as an antioxidant that plays a crucial role in neutralizing free radicals throughout the body. An antioxidant is a vitamin, a mineral, or a carotenoid present in foods that slows or inhibits the oxidation process and helps to repair damage to the cells of the body. Recent studies suggest that vitamin C may reduce the risk of certain cancers, heart disease, and cataracts. Further research is still ongoing to observe the degree of these effects.
Food sources for vitamin C: Consuming vitamin C-rich foods is the best way to ensure an adequate intake of this vitamin. Many common plant foods contain vitamin C. The best sources are citrus fruits such as grapes, one orange, a kiwi fruit, amla, and guava. Noncitrus fruits, such as bell pepper, strawberries, tomatoes, and broccoli also contain vitamin C in rich amounts.
Red pepper contains more vitamin C content than an orange, a cup of chopped red pepper contains about 190 mg/day of vitamin C which is 100 mg/day more than the current daily value as per RDA.
Daily intake of vitamin C: RDA is 90 mg/day for adult males and 75 mg/day for adult females. For smokers, the RDA for vitamin C increases by 35 mg/day, to counteract the oxidative effects of nicotine.
Vitamin C deficiency: Severe vitamin C deficiency may result in a disease known as scurvy, causing a loss of collagen strength throughout the body. Since collagen is an essential component of connective tissue and plays an important role in wound healing, the loss of collagen is a serious condition that results in loose teeth, bleeding and swollen gums, and improper wound healing. Vitamin C deficiency is common in alcoholics, the elderly, and in smokers.
The following conditions have been shown to increase vitamin C requirements:
- for people working or living in a condition having environmental stress such as air or noise pollution;
- for women using drugs such as oral contraceptives;
- in wound healing;
- for the growth of children from zero to twelve months and pregnant women;
- during fever and infection;
- smoking, it depletes vitamin C content faster;
- for those who consume alcohol;
- if a patient is suffering from depression or chronic fatigue.
Excessive intake of vitamin C: Being water-soluble, excess of vitamin C is excreted out of the body through urine. However, vitamin C overdoses may cause some common problems such as nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, gastritis.
Beta carotene: provitamin A
Beta-carotene is a water-soluble form of vitamin A. Beta carotene is a provitamin, that is, it gets converted to vitamin. Beta-carotene is a strong red-orange pigment found in plants and fruits provides bright colors to them, responsible for the red, yellow, and orange coloration of some fruits and vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, apricots.
- Water-soluble vitamins include vitamin B-complex and vitamin C. These are essential nutrients required in very small quantities, but with a steady intake for the proper growth and development of the body.
- The B-complex vitamins can be found in a variety of enriched foods like cereal grains and bread, as well as other foods, such as meat, poultry, eggs, milk, fish, legumes, and fresh vegetables. Citrus fruits and vegetables are a good source of vitamin C.
- Special attention should be paid to folate intake during pregnancy, to avoid birth defects.
- Vegans should consume more dairy products to get vitamin B12 because it is rarely found in plant foods.
- Some conditions demand more intake of vitamin C such as smoking, alcoholism, environmental stress, growth, and sickness.
- Vitamin A is fat-soluble, but it's water-soluble in its beta-carotene form.
- Excessive consumption of vitamin B-complex, vitamin C supplements, and multivitamins are not recommended. They do not provide benefits if taken in excess.
Let's have some MCQs on the topic you have read
For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.
- Q.1 Which of the following groups of vitamins are water soluble?
- 1. vitamins A, B, C, K
- 2. vitamins A, D, E, K
- 3. vitamins A, C, E, B
- 4. vitamins B and C
- Q.3 Which of the follwing vitamins is used in food coloring?
- 1. riboflavin
- 2. cobalamin
- 3. folate
- 4. boitin
- Q.2 Which of the follwing vitamins belong to B-complex group ?
- 1. retinol, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, folate
- 2. thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, cobalamin
- 3. cobalamin, thiamine, riboflavin, folate
- 4. ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin
- Q.4 Which of the following water-soluble vitamins remain stored in the liver for a long time?
- 1. vitamin C
- 2. vitamin B7
- 3. folate
- 4. cobalamin
- Q.5 Which of the following statements is/are true?
- 1. severe deficiency of vitamin C may cause scurvy
- 2. animal sources are rich in vitamin C content
- 3. 1 and 2 both
- 4. none
- Q. 6 Which of the following statements about collagen is/are true?
- 1. It's a soluble fibrous protein
- 2. It's an insoluble fibrous protein in various connective tissues
- 3. It helps in wound healing
- 4. 2 and 3 both
- Q.7 Which of the following statements about cobalamin is/are true?
- 1. cobalamin aids in the building of DNA
- 2. plants-based foods are the main sources
- 3. main sources are foods of animal origin
- 4. 1 and 3 both
- Q.8 Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins.........
- 1. A, C, E ,K
- 2. A, B, D, K
- 3. A, D, E, K
- 4. A, B, C, D
- Q.9 Beriberi is caused by the deficiency of ......
- 1. cobalamin
- 2. biotin
- 3. riboflavin
- 4. thiamine
- Q.10 Beta-carotene is ....
- 1. insoluble in water
- 2. soluble in water
- 3. provitamin A
- 4. 2 and 3 both
- 4. vitamins B and C
- 1. riboflavin
- 3. cobalamin, thiamine, riboflavin, folate
- 4. cobalamin
- 1. severe deficiency of vitamin C may cause scurvy
- 4. 2 and 3 both
- 4. 1 and 3 both
- 3. A, D, E, K
- 4. thiamine
- 4. 2 and 3 both
Interpreting Your Score
If you got between 0 and 3 correct answers: Sorry, very poor performance! You need a thorough study.
If you got between 4 and 6 correct answers: average performance
If you got between 7 and 8 correct answers: Try for better!
If you got 9 correct answers: Very Good!
If you got 10 correct answers: Excellent!
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- Peechakara, B. V., & Mohit Gupta. (2019, October). Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). Retrieved December 5, 2019, from Nih.gov website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525977/
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- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of dietary supplements. (2019, July 9). Vitamin C—Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from Nih.gov website: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2019, July 9). Vitamin B12—Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from Nih.gov website: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2019, July 11). Vitamin B12—Fact Sheet for Consumers. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from Nih.gov website: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-Consumer/
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2019, September 19). Vitamin B6—Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from Nih.gov website: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminB6-healthprofessional/
- Ganguly, P., & Alam, S. F. (2015). Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition Journal, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-14-6
- Ankar A, Kumar A. Vitamin B12 Deficiency (Cobalamin) [Updated 2019 Jan 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441923/
- Institute of Medicine (US) Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998. What are Dietary Reference Intakes? Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45182/
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Riboflavin, CID=493570, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Riboflavin (accessed on Apr. 14, 2020)
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
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