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Types of Epileptic Seizures

Jo has been an ITU nurse at the London North West NHS Trust for 14 years. She obtained her RN at University College London Hospital.

Epilepsy, An Electrical Storm in the Brain

Epilepsy in Europe,The Facts and Figures

QUOTE: A typical Story from The Epilepsy Foundation on temporal Lobe Epilepsy

“ I get the strangest feeling- most of it

can't be put into words. The whole

world suddenly seems more real at

first. It's as though everything

becomes crystal clear. Then I feel as

if I'm here but not here, kind of like

being in a dream. I hear what people say,

but they don't make sense. I know

not to talk during the episode, since I

just say foolish things. Sometimes I

think I'm talking but later people tell

me that I didn't say anything. The

whole thing lasts a minute or two”

Babylonian Tablet on Epilepsy


Epileptic Seizures

The word 'epilepsy' comes from the Greek verb meaning “to seize, possess, or afflict.” The ancient Greeks had contradictory ideas about epilepsy, although they viewed the disorder as evil, they also associated it with sacred and genius.

Epilepsy is a disease of the brain that causes seizures.

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A seizure is a disruption of the electrical communication between neurons (nerve cells).

A person is considered to have epilepsy if they meet any of the following conditions.

1. At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart.

2. One unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60% ) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next ten years.

Epileptic seizures occur as a result of abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the brain. These disturbances are likened to an 'electrical storm.' Neurons fire electrical impulses to neighbouring cells stimulating them to fire. In people with epilepsy, too many neurons fire at once, resulting in seizures that can have neurobiological, cognitive, psychological and social consequences.

Epilepsy is an ancient disorder that can be traced as far back as the existence of the first medical records. The condition is equally distributed in Europe and the US, with no racial, social or gender boundaries. However, nearly 80% of people with the disease are found in developing countries.

The dramatic nature of epileptic seizures has often been the cause of much fear and misunderstanding throughout the ages, leading to the social stigma that can add to the burden of the disease for those affected.

In ancient times, epileptic seizures were believed to be the result of divine visitation, possession of the body by evil spirits or other supernatural forces, requiring exorcism and incantations.

We now know that epileptic seizures occur as a result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain of people who are predisposed to the disorder. The earliest detailed account of epilepsy is in the British Museum on a Babylonian tablet written around 2000 to 3000 years ago.

The chapter from the textbook on medicine consists of a collection of 40 cuneiform or tablets that describe various diseases and is known as Sakkiku, translated as “All Diseases.

Archaeologists discovered two copies of an edited version of the Sakkiku, dated from the seventh century BCE, the twenty-fifth tablet of the Babylonian text, refers to the manifestations of miqtu, Babylonian for “ the falling disease.” However; since the Babylonians apparently had no real understanding or concept of pathology, each seizure type was associated with invasion of the body by a particular named evil spirit, therefore; treatment of the condition tended to be spiritual rather than medical. The idea that epilepsy was caused by supernatural means, continued well into modern times, and still retain a somewhat negative social influence in some parts of the world today.

Epileptic Seizures

When a seizure occurs in someone with epilepsy, there is a temporary loss of control that is often, but not always, accompanied by convulsions, unconsciousness or both. The sudden abnormal electrical discharges in the brain cause an alteration in sensation, behaviour or consciousness.

The term 'seizure' is often used interchangeably with convulsions; this is when the body shakes rapidly and uncontrollably. During an episode of seizure, the muscles contract and relax rapidly. There are different types of seizures; some may have mild symptoms with no shaking of the body. The primary symptoms of epilepsy are repeated seizures. There are over 40 different types of seizures, depending on the area of the brain affected and the person's age.

Although the majority of people with epilepsy can experience a variety of seizures, most follow a consistent pattern of symptoms known as an epileptic syndrome. Seizures are medically classified by how much of the brain is affected.


What are the Causes and Triggers of Epileptic Seizures

Seizures can be triggered by a number of factors.

Some Common Triggers are:

  • Missed medication
  • Stress
  • Tiredness
  • Infection of the central nervous system
  • Boredom
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Alcohol
  • Menstruation
  • Bright, flickering or flashing light such as camera flash
  • Missing meals

The European Parliament's Written declaration on epilepsy states that 6 million people in Europe have epilepsy with 300,000 new cases diagnosed each year.

In the UK, approximately 20% of the population have seizures at some point in their life, diagnosis is usually made during childhood and the age of 65, with the highest incidence occurring between the ages of 20 – 60.

National statistics show that 1 in 130 of the UK's population develops epilepsy, including 1 in every 280 children under the age of 16.

The average incidence of epilepsy per year in the U.S is estimated at 150,000. 30% of those diagnosed are children. Almost 500 new cases of epilepsy are diagnosed daily. Around 50,000 Americans die each year from seizures and related causes. One in 10 people will suffer a seizure in their lifetime, yet many people are unaware of this disease.

What causes Epilepsy

The cause of epilepsy is unknown. There is genetic involvement in some cases, and certain events are known to contribute to the development of the disorder.

Around 5% to 10% of all people will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80. Some people develop epilepsy as a result of head injury or medical conditions such as stroke, brain cancer and drug and alcohol misuse. The chances of experiencing a second seizure are said to be between 40% to 50%, in 60% of cases the cause of epileptic seizures is unknown.

Evidence of contributing factors for the development of epilepsy include:

  • Living in areas of high social deprivation
  • Genetic abnormalities
  • Prenatal development abnormality
  • Damage to the brain following an accident resulting in scarring of the brain
  • People born with a neurological condition that may later develop into epilepsy. 30% of people with learning disabilities suffer from epilepsy, 50% to 80% of people with cerebral Palsy suffer from epilepsy. Autism, 30% incidence and 50% with a severe learning disability.

Risk Factors include:

  • Tumours, the risk is greatest for tumours in the temporal lobe and those that grow slowly
  • Birth Trauma

    Head Injury results in between 6% to 20% of epilepsy cases. In people who had experienced a high-powered gunshot wound to the head, the risk is about 50%.

  • Herpes Simplex Encephalitis, the risk of seizures occurring, is about 50%, with a high risk of 25% following the condition
  • Meningitis, following meningitis, the likelihood of epilepsy is less than 10%, but are more common during the infection
  • Prolonged drug and alcohol abuse
  • Stroke account for 15% of cases in the UK
  • Genetic
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Abnormality in brain development during childhood

The condition can often be confirmed by the use of neuroimaging evaluation (e.g., MRI, CT scanning) and electroencephalogram (EEG). However; before epilepsy can be diagnosed, other possible causes of the symptoms such as 'syncope' ( a temporary loss of consciousness caused by low blood pressure) must first be ruled out. Epilepsy cannot be cured. However, seizures can be controlled in about 70% of cases. In those people whose condition do not respond to medication, surgery or neurostimulation, a change in diet may be beneficial. Research shows that a Ketogenic diet, a high fat, low carbohydrate diet can help to control epileptic seizures,

For some people, epilepsy is a lifelong condition, but for a substantial number, the symptoms will improve to a point where medication is no longer necessary.

Ketogenic Diet Shown to be Beneficial In Controlling Epileptic Seizures

Diet to Help Control Epileptic Seizures


Some quick Facts About Epilepsy

  • Epilepsy is a neurological condition, meaning, it affects the brain, but it is also a physical condition because of the impact on the body as a result of seizures

  • Epilepsy is defined as the tendency to have repeated seizures that originate in the brain. It is only diagnosed after a person has had more than one seizures.

  • The first person who believed that epilepsy starts in the brain was the Greek philosopher Hippocrates (460-377 BC)

  • The 19th-century Russian author, Dostoyevsky, is thought to have had a rare form of temporal lobe epilepsy ( Ecstatic Epilepsy) and gave a vivid account of the condition in his novel 'the idiot.'

  • Given the right circumstances, anyone can have a seizure, but most people do not have seizures normally

  • Seizures occur when there is a sudden interruption in the way the brain works

  • There are over 40 different types of seizures, the symptoms vary depends on the particular area of the brain affected

  • Symptoms of epileptic seizures can be as subtle as someone going 'blank' for a couple of seconds, they may move around displaying confusion, or it can be as dramatic as falling to the ground and shake violently with convulsion. However, not all seizures involve convulsion

  • It is not possible to swallow the tongue during a seizure

  • Never attempt to force anything into the mouth of someone having a seizure

  • Never restrain someone having a seizure

  • Epilepsy affects 50,000,000 people throughout the world

  • One in 100 people will develop epilepsy

  • One in 10 people will experience a seizure in their lifetime

  • Epilepsy can develop as a result of genetics, stroke, head injury, infections and many other factors

  • The cause of epilepsy is unknown in two-thirds of patients diagnosed with the disorder

  • Uncontrolled seizures can lead to brain damage and death

  • Seizures cannot be controlled with treatment in about 30% of patients

  • Epilepsy affects more than 3 million Americans of all ages, more than Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophy and Parkinson's Disease added together

  • More people die from epilepsy than from breast cancer

  • Epilepsy will be a long-term problem for many soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury on the battlefield

  • Historically, epilepsy research has been under-funded. Funding for epilepsy lags behind average financing for all diseases by almost 50%

Types of Seizures

What is a Partial seizure

Partial seizures are not easy to recognise by the general public and are easily confused with other conditions. In a partial seizure, the burst of electrical activity is localised to a single part of the brain. The symptoms are focal; they originate from the specific area that is affected. There are many types of seizures, but they are broadly divided into two main types, namely, generalised seizures and partial seizures.

Most people tend to associate epilepsy with generalised seizures, or convulsions, but some people also develop partial seizures that can be simple or complex.

Simple partial seizures

Simple partial seizures are often divided into groups or categories according to the symptoms experienced, such as:

  • Motor seizures

  • Sensory seizures

  • Autonomic Seizures

  • Psychic seizures

While anyone can experience simple partial seizures, the condition is more likely to develop in people who have had a brain injury, stroke, brain tumour or brain infection but often, the cause is unknown.

These types of seizures are brief; they may last for less than 2 minutes. A person experiencing a simple partial seizure is fully awake and remains alert and capable of interacting throughout the seizure. However, simple partial seizures can affect emotion, movement, sensation and feelings in unusual and often frightening ways:

  • Emotions. A sudden feeling of fear or a sense of doom, (something bad is about to happen) may be the result of a seizure affecting the area of the brain that deals with emotions.

  • Movement. Convulsions can be experienced in most parts of the body. There can be twitching of the face, unusual movement of the tongue, eyes may move from side to side.

  • Sensations. Since different areas of the brain control all five senses, simple partial seizures in those areas can cause sensations such as, the feeling of the breeze on the skin, unusual buzzing, hissing or ringing voices that are not there in reality, unpleasant taste, odd unpleasant smells and general distortions in how things appear.

When the area of the brain that is responsible for memory is affected, this can result in disturbing visions from the past. During this type of seizure, sudden nausea, a strange rising feeling in the stomach, sudden sweating, flushing and goosebumps are sometimes experienced.

There are reports of out of body experiences and distortion of time during a simple partial seizure. Well known places may suddenly look unfamiliar and conversely, new places and events may seem familiar, as though they have been experienced before (deja vu). Simple partial seizures can also evoke sudden and uncontrolled episodes of laughter or crying.

Complex Partial Seizures or (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy)

In complex partial seizures, a larger part of the brain is involved, and consciousness is affected. Those affected are not in control of their movements, action or speech, they are unable to interact appropriately, unaware of what is occurring and cannot remember after the event.

Although an affected person may appear to be conscious, and able to move about, it is an altered state of consciousness, almost trance-like. Seizures often develop in one of the brain's temporal lobes and are referred to as temporal lobe epilepsy, also known as psychomotor epilepsy. There are two types of temporal lobe epilepsy:

  • Medial temporal lobe epilepsy involves the medial or internal structures of the temporal lobe and most common of the two, accounting for 80% of all temporal lobe seizures that begin in the part of the brain known as the hippocampus or its surrounding areas.

  • Neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy occurs in the outer portion of the temporal lobe, and differs from the other types of epilepsy; this is because there is often no clearly defined area from which the seizure originates. The cause can include, lesions like tumours and vascular malformation, traumatic brain injuries or infections.

What are Generalised seizures

A person experiencing generalised seizures will be completely unconscious in most cases. There are six main types of generalised seizures:

  • Absences, once known a petit mal and most often seen in children. The affected person becomes unaware of their surroundings for a few seconds; they appear to be staring vacantly into space or daydreaming. Some children may flutter their eyes or smack their lips, but have no memory of the seizure. This type of seizure can happen several times a day, and while not considered dangerous, it can impact on the child's performance at school.

  • Myoclonic jerks, Appears similar to someone receiving an electrical shock, it causes the arms, legs or upper body to jerk and twitch, lasting only for a fraction of a second and consciousness is maintained. Myoclonic jerks often occur in conjunction with other types of generalised seizures.

  • Clonic Seizures, loss of consciousness may occur, symptoms last longer, often up to 2 minutes.

  • Atonic Seizures causes all the muscles in the body to relax suddenly. Chances are, the affected person may collapse to the ground, facial injuries are often sustained during this type of seizures.

  • Tonic Seizures, here, the reverse to atonic seizure happens, tonic seizure causes all the muscles to become suddenly stiff. Injury to the back of the head is often sustained due to falls from a lack of balance.

  • Tonic-clonic Seizures, also known as grand mal, this is the most common type of seizure occurring in 60% of all seizures due to epilepsy and is what most people think of as an epileptic seizure or fit. Tonic-clonic seizures occur in two stages. The body becomes stiff, the arms and legs start to twitch. Consciousness is lost and in some cases, there is incontinence of the bladder or bowel. Seizures often last around one to three minutes or longer.

What are Auras, Auras are basically the same as simple partial seizures, Auras describe the symptoms that may develop before a seizure, "a warning" that may include:

  • Visual changes such as bright lights, zigzag lines, slowly spreading spots, distortion in the size or shape of objects, blind spot or dark spots in the field of vision.
  • Auditory hallucinations (hearing voices or sounds)
  • Olfactory hallucinations ( strange smells)
  • Feelings of numbness on one side of the face or body
  • Feeling separated from the body
  • Anxiety
  • Fear
  • Nausea

Status Epilepticus (SE) is defined as a life-threatening condition in which the brain is in a state of persistent seizure. SE is defined as one continuous, unremitting seizure lasting longer than five minutes. The previous definition states a 30 minutes time limit, but treatment usually begins after the seizure has lasted around 5 minutes. There is evidence that after five minutes, seizures are unlikely to self-terminate. Five minutes is said to be sufficient time in which the neurons or brain cells can be damaged. SE is always considered to be a medical emergency.

Types of Epileptic Seizures


Dos and Don'ts, First Aid Treatment For A Person Experiencing An Epileptic Seizures

There are many misconceptions about epilepsy



Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 25, 2014:

Michelle, you've been through such a lot, I really admire your grit, it's true that adversity like pressure can create pure diamonds. Thank you for reading this. Take care and have a wonderful weekend.

Michelle Liew from Singapore on July 25, 2014:

I had these before my pituitary tumor was discovered. It was a scary time indeed. Wonderful, Jo.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 23, 2014:

Hi Genna, sad to learn about your friend's condition, but it's good to know that the diet and medication are helping. The old myths and misconceptions will persists around epilepsy until the disease is better understood. Writing about it and discussing it can help to spread awareness, but the condition also needs funding. Unfortunately, the suffering goes on for millions of people all over the world.

It's always great to see you, thanks for the very kind comment, much appreciated, take care and my best as always.

Genna East from Massachusetts, USA on July 20, 2014:

A friend of mine has Jacksonian epilepsy. Proper diet and medication have helped him tremendously. What I like about your article -- besides the meticulous research and presentation -- is that it dispels some of the myths about this condition…as well as its causes and treatments. Well done, Jo!

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 18, 2014:

Hi Kevin, thank you for taking a look, much appreciated. Sorry it took so long to respond to your very insightful comment but I'm away on vacation and it's hell getting a connection. I'll be paying you a visit when I get home. Take care and my best to you.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 18, 2014:

Suzette, witnessing an epileptic seizure can be a scary thing, but we all need to know what to do and what not to do in this type of situation. Sorry I took so long to get back to you, I' m away on my hols and can't always get a connection. Take care and my best to you.

Suzette Walker from Taos, NM on July 15, 2014:

This is another important and vital article, Jo. So many people need to read this so they understand what epilepsy is all about. I had a student have an epileptic seizure during class one day. It was frightening for me (although I didn't show it) and for the other students. The student was okay in a moment or two, and I just stuck a pencil between his teeth, which he nearly bit through. By the time it was over the nurse was there and she took it from there. This is such an informative and interesting article and I didn't realize all the different types of seizures one could have. Thanks for sharing your knowledge with us.

The Examiner-1 on July 15, 2014:

This Hub was very helpful and useful. You explained it all well in detail. There are too many commercials and funds for other diseases but you never hear epilepsy mentioned. I think that more people might be saved if there were more studies available for it. I voted it up, shared it and pinned


Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 12, 2014:

Hi thom, I'm just happy to know that you've found the information helpful. I appreciate the visit and comment.

My very best to you

thom w conroy on July 12, 2014:

Great hub! Gave me much to think about - things I never realized before (long story) Thanks so much.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 12, 2014:

Hello Faith, I'm so glad you found this hub informative and useful, epilepsy is the most common disease that affects the brain, yet so many people are in the dark about it. As we get older we are much more likely to experience seizures, with our ever growing population of older people, the more we understand this types of diseases, the better we can deal with them if and when we encounter them.

I hope all is well, lovely to see your smiling face. :)

Take care my best always.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 12, 2014:

Leslie, thank you for taking the time, much appreciated. Have a great weekend and my best to you.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 12, 2014:

Jackie, you said it!! Epilepsy is not something anyone would want to have to live with, but if we can raise awareness, not only can we help save lives, we can also help to demystify the disease to make life that much easier for those people with epilepsy and their family. Always a pleasure, have a wonderful weekend, my best always

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 12, 2014:

Hi Nell, so sorry to hear about your mother, seizures can be very scary, especially when it's happening to someone close to you. Thank you for taking a look at this, I'm glad you found it useful. Take care and enjoy the weekend, my best as always.

Faith Reaper from southern USA on July 11, 2014:

Dear Jo,

What a comprehensive hub here! I was totally in the dark about epilepsy but not any longer due to your outstanding hub here. I know without a doubt this hub will help many understand epilepsy and what to do and not to do during a seizure. Such an important hub.

Voted up +++ tweeting, pinning, G+ and sharing

Bless you lovely lady

Leslie A. Shields from Georgia on July 11, 2014:

Thanks for sharing this one, tobusiness..... very informative

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on July 11, 2014:

What a horrible tragic thing in many peoples lives that they and family and friends must live with and be willing to help with. Great information and everyone should have a basic idea of seizures; and what to do. Up and shared.

Nell Rose from England on July 11, 2014:

Hi Jo, this is very close to me because my mother had seizures, they were a sort of epilepsy but caused by brain tumour, so to find out the causes and more info is really helpful, thanks, voted up and shared, nell

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 11, 2014:

Good morning MsDora, classifications of the types of seizures have been changed over the years, it allows for more specific diagnoses and better communication between professional and people with epilepsy. Grand mal and Petit mal do not cover the large spectrum of seizures that are associated with epilepsy. I'm so glad you found the hub useful. Thank you for stopping by, my best to you.

Dora Weithers from The Caribbean on July 10, 2014:

This is very educational. Both the triggers and the types of seizures are new to me. Thank you for the information. Voted up.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

LadyFiddler, so sorry about your granny, unfortunately, stroke is the most common cause of seizures in the elderly, but it depends on what area of the brain is affected. With the aging population growing larger every day, many of us will have to deal with similar situations. Some people have post-stroke seizures for a few years and then recover, I hope your granny will be one of those, it must be heart breaking to see someone you love going through something like this, still, she is lucky to have you. Take care and my best to you both.

Joanna Chandler from On Planet Earth on July 08, 2014:

Interesting! My granny had a stroke in 2010 and she has been having seizures since that . She gets at least one every month or every other month, luckily am around when she gets them. It was scary the first time i saw her jerking uncontrollably, but i read up on it so now i do not panic. Within 2-5 minutes the jerking of the bother stops and she goes back to normal.

All i do is make sure her head is on a pillow and that she turns to the side to avoid choking. I am afraid one day a seizure may be final the brain cannot take so many seizures at once , each one i think it breaks down......

Have a bless day

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

Frank, just doing my bit to spread awareness and clear the water a little. Thanks for the smile, always a pleasure to see you, have a wonderful day, my best always.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

Hi Shyron, so nice to see you! It's amazing how many people believe that seizures are contagious, there are so many misconceptions about the disease, I hope by writing articles like this I can help to clear up some of the misunderstandings. Thank you for taking the time, it means a lot. Have a lovely day and my best always.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

Oh Flourish, you say the nicest things! :) When I write these articles, I hope that the readers will be able to understand the information or there is no point to it, so I'm well please to know that people find the hub user friendly. Thank you so much for the visit and wonderful comment, it means a lot. take care, and best wishes always.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

Hi Pamela, thank you so much for stopping by and for the spectacular comment. :) Yes, as nurses we've seen it all, and while a lot have changed for the better, there is still a long way to go when it comes to public perception of the disease, I hope this hub will help to shed some light on the matter. It's always good to see you, take care and my best to you.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 08, 2014:

Hi Kim, I'm glad you've both found the article helpful, so sorry to learn of your significant other's condition but it's good that the seizures have ceased. It's estimated that 45% of people who experience epileptic seizures have what is known as 'postictal headache' that can last between 6 and 24 hours, sometimes longer. Fascinating how someone can be struck by lightening, not once but twice! Thank you for the visit and the wonderful comment, and no, I haven't thought about publishing in the medical journals but I'm glad that you think I may be up to the task :). Take care now, my very best to you.

Frank Atanacio from Shelton on July 07, 2014:

tobusiness this was very informative and in laymen's term too.. living with any disorder must be a heavy burden but with hubs such as this you can learn a little something about epileptic seizures, thanks Doc :)

Shyron E Shenko from Texas on July 07, 2014:

Jo, this is very informative and unseful to make people aware that this is a condition disease, not a contageous one.

I have a cousin who had seizures when she was a girl but but stopped when she reached her teens.

Thank you for making people aware of all of this.

God Bless you

Thumb up, UABI and shared.

FlourishAnyway from USA on July 07, 2014:

You are a class act, my lady, someone who raises awareness and can do so in the easiest of manners. What a professional. Voted up and more, sharing and pinning.

Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on July 07, 2014:

The first seizure I saw was when I was leaving school for the day when I was in the 5th grade and it was scary. As a nurse I have seen several seizures since that time.

You did an outstanding job of explaining seizures and the way you laid out your page with the information was spectacular. Voted way up and shared!

ocfireflies from North Carolina on July 07, 2014:


My significant one suffers from seizures which are followed by a most horrible migraine. Both of us found this article to be very informative and useful. His doctor believes that the seizures are from wrestling in high school along with being struck by lightening, not once, but twice. He takes medicine which has helped tremendously for he has not had a seizure in a long time. The last time he did have a seizure, it was after he had saw a light flash in front of him. V+/H/P

You are such an awesome technical writer.

Have you ever considered getting published in medical journals?

Best Always,


Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 07, 2014:

Thank you Devika, I'm glad you found this hub useful and the vote is much appreciated. Yes, there are many types of seizures, some are subtle and less obvious so people need to know the signs. Always a pleasure to see you, my best as always.

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on July 07, 2014:

An informative hub! I had no idea of so many types of seizures. You researched to perfection with clearly noted photos and video. This hub deserves a vote up, interesting and useful.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 07, 2014:

Hi Will, yes, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have come a long way, but more research is needed and of course, this means more funding. Epilepsy is grossly under-funded compare to other diseases, I'm not sure why that should be, but the European Parliament are attempting to address the matter.

I'm glad your brother-in-law's condition is now under control. Some of the injuries sustained during seizures are unfortunately caused by well meaning people placing objects in the mouth in an attempt to prevent the tongue from falling backwards or trying to restrain someone during a seizure, so it helps be aware.

Thank you so much for the visit and the insightful comment much appreciated and my best to you.

WillStarr from Phoenix, Arizona on July 07, 2014:

When I was a kid, seizures were mostly uncontrollable, and victims were often injured, so today's medications are a Godsend! My brother-in-law is epileptic, but it's under control.

Excellent work!

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 07, 2014:

Hi Ruby, Status epilepticus is a very serious condition with a high mortality rate, I'm sure managing the condition was very difficult back in the 80s. The blank staring episodes are more frequently seen in children and can easily go unnoticed. Thank you so much for taking a look and for the wonderful support, I hope all is well with you. Take care and my best as always.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 07, 2014:

Bill, there are many different types of epilepsy seizures, but the majority of people only associate epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures, what used to be known as 'grand mal fits'. And yes, these seizures can be very frightening, but they are much more common than most people seem to think. We should try to find out more about the disease, we can never knows when we may be called to offer a helping hand in the event of a seizure, and it may well be someone close to us. Sorry about your friend, it must have been even tougher back then for your friend and terrifying for you as a teenager witnessing the event also. Always appreciate the great support, always a pleasure.

Jo Alexis-Hagues (author) from Lincolnshire, U.K on July 07, 2014:

Eddy, how lovely to see you! Yes, I remember reading in one of your hubs about the young girl, I hope she is well. I'm so glad you found this useful. I hope you've settled down well and enjoying your beautiful new home, take care and my best.

Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on July 07, 2014:

This really brought back some memories when i was still working as a nurse. I remember one man who had continuous seizures and died. This was in the eighties and it happened in a nursing home. I called for an ambulance but they were too late. My son's wife has a sister who was born with cerebral palsy, she has more of the blank/stare episodes. Thank's so much for this. It's a great refresher course.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on July 07, 2014:

When I was a teen, a friend of mine suffered from epilepsy...way back before they knew much about it. I saw a seizure once and it is a frightening thing for sure. Keep raising awareness, Jo. Articles like this one are valuable.


Eiddwen from Wales on July 07, 2014:

I found this hub very useful and interesting. I care daily for a young girl who suffers with epilepsy to and from school and thank you for sharing this great hub tobu.


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