What is Atherosclerosis;
When plaque forms inside the arteries, atherosclerosis occurs.
Plaque contains fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other blood components. Plaque builds up on arterial walls over time, reducing them.
The amount of oxygen-rich blood reaching the organs and other sections of the body has decreased.
Atherosclerosis can cause major health issues, such as heart attacks, strokes, and death.
In both the general population and people with different cardiovascular illnesses, heart rate (HR) is a powerful predictor of significant cardiovascular risk.
In animal models and people, having a higher HR has been linked to faster development of coronary atherosclerosis. In individuals with coronary atherosclerosis, a high HR has also been linked to an increased risk of plaque rupture.
Effects Of Atherosclerosis On The Heart Causes;
I) Atherosclerosis progression, plaque rupture, and heart rate are all factors to consider.
Heart rate (HR) might have a role in the progression of coronary artery disease and the associated risks. The severity and development of atherosclerosis on coronary angiography were linked to males who had a heart attack at a young age.
Mechanical and metabolic factors may play a role in atherogenesis resulting from increased HR. Endothelial damage may be increased arterial wall stress, increasing the complex sequence of reactions that leads to atherosclerosis.
The Plaque Research reveals that taking a -blocker delayed the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic people.
A high HR has also been connected with a higher likelihood of coronary plaque rupture.
ii) Endothelial dysfunction and heart rate
Endothelial dysfunction has been attached to negative cardiovascular problems, a crucial component of the processes that cause atherosclerosis to develop and spread.
Lipoproteins can enter the intima because of endothelial dysfunction and undergo oxidation and glycation in situ.
Endothelial dysfunction increased because of this movement, which will increase macrophage attachment to the endothelium and migration into the intima. The production of an extracellular matrix will then help to create a fibro-fatty lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque.
The plaque can rupture and improve the effectiveness of an intraluminal thrombus, resulting in an acute coronary syndrome, when hemodynamic stress and extracellular matrix degradation occur.
iii) Pure heart rate reduction to preserve endothelial function
HR does not affect blood pressure, myocardial contractility, or intracardiac conduction in mice, and it has no effect in humans on blood pressure, myocardial contractility, or intracardiac conduction. The ability of endothelial vasodilators was used to show endothelial role preservation.
Increased HR has been associated with common risk factors and an increased risk of coronary plaque rupture. Pure HR reduction prevented atherosclerotic progression and improved endothelial function in animal experiments.
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