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Sorghum (Jowar) - Nutrition And Health Benefits

Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.

Sorghum

Latin name: Sorghum bicolor

About Sorghum

Sorghum is a crop which is grown for its grain which is used as food for humans as well as livestock. It can also be grown as a forage or as a sweet crop.

Sorghum belongs to the grass family and consists of many subspecies that are broadly divided into 4 groups.

  • Grain Sorghum - for use as a cereal grain
  • Grass Sorghum - grown for pasture and hay
  • Sweet Sorghum - also called sorgo and used to produce sorghum syrup
  • Broom Corn (Kaffir Corn) - used to make brooms and brushes

This article will focus on the most popular and widespread variety of Sorghum which is used as a cereal grain - the grain sorghum or commercial sorghum.

Grain or commercial sorghum is also known by a number of other names like milo, jowar or jowari (in India), guinea corn (in West Africa), Kafir corn (in South Africa) and kaoliang (in China).

Popularly, grain sorghum is just called sorghum.

Sorghum is native to Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan from when it moved to Africa, where it became and still is the most important cereal crop.

It is the 3rd most important cereal crop grown in the U.S. and the 5th most important cereal crop in the world.

Sorghum bicolour is the most cultivated and widely grown species of sorghum and is used for a variety of purposes besides food.

Sorghum is a crop of the hot tropical and subtropical regions, those areas that receive scanty rains as well and where other crops fail to even thrive, especially in Africa and Asia.

It is very drought resistant and therefore was grown in the developing countries of the world since ancient times to date, and it still remains the main source of the peoples' daily nutritional needs.

Since sorghum does not contain gluten, it is just the right replacement for wheat, for people sensitive to wheat or gluten, or those who have celiac disease.

Sorghum bicolor

Uses Of Sorghum

Sorghum is used to make sorghum flour, porridge, malted and distilled beverages, sorghum syrup/molasses and even popped grain much like popcorn.

Sorghum fibres are used to make wallboards, fences, biodegradable packaging materials and solvents. The dried stalks are used as cooking fuel. The dye extracted from the plant is used to colour leather. Sorghum is also used to produce adhesives, paper and ethanol.

Whereas in Africa and Asia it is grown for human consumption mostly, in the U.S. it is grown mainly for livestock feed and producing ethanol.

Popped Sorghum

Popcorn on the left and popped sorghum on the right

Popcorn on the left and popped sorghum on the right

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Sorghum Nutrition

Nutritionally, sorghum is at par with wheat with the added benefit of being gluten-free and exceeds corn in nutrition.

Jowar is rich in antioxidants which include tannins, phytochemicals and anthocyanins. It a non-GMO food. Sorghum based foods have a lower glycemic load than wheat or rice-based foods.

Sorghum:

  • has good amounts of several B complex vitamins like niacin, thiamine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin & vitamin B6. It also contains some vitamin E.
  • has excellent levels of magnesium and manganese and good levels of copper, iron, phosphorus, zinc and potassium.
  • supplies 21% of the daily protein needs in 100 grams of the grain.
  • is sodium and cholesterol-free.
  • has high levels of fibre.
  • supplies almost 1/4 of the daily requirement of carbohydrates in 100 grams.

See the table below for the individual nutrient values.

Sorghum Nutritional Values

Source : USDA

NutrientsSorghum, grain% of Daily Requirement

 

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

 

 

 

 

Energy

1,377 kJ (329 kcal)

 

 

 

 

Carbohydrates

72.1 g

24%

 

 

 

Dietary fiber

6.7 g

27%

 

 

 

Fat

3.5 g

 

 

 

 

Protein

10.6 g

21%

 

 

 

Vitamins

 

 

Thiamine (B1)

0.33 mg

22%

 

 

 

Riboflavin (B2)

0.1 mg

6%

 

 

 

Niacin (B3)

3.70 mg

18%

 

 

 

Pantothenic acid (B5)

0.4 mg

4%

 

 

 

Vitamin B6

0.44 mg

22%

 

 

 

Folate (B9)

20 mcg

5%

 

 

Vitamin E

0.50 mg

2%

Minerals

 

 

Calcium

13 mg

1%

 

 

 

Iron

3.4 mg

19%

 

 

 

Magnesium

165 mg

41%

 

 

 

Manganese

1.6 mg

80%

 

 

 

Phosphorus

289 mg

29%

 

 

 

Potassium

363 mg

8%

 

 

 

Sodium

2 mg

0%

 

 

 

Zinc

1.7 mg

11%

Copper

0.284 mg

14%

Health Benefits Of Sorghum

  1. The fact that it is gluten-free makes sorghum flour an excellent substitute for wheat flour and a valuable one for those who have gluten sensitivity/allergy. Being gluten-free, it is also easier to digest.
  2. Since sorghum is grown from hybrid seeds, the traditional way of growing it over the centuries, it is a non-GMO food and therefore does not cause issues like digestion, inflammation and allergies.
  3. Having a low glycemic index and high levels of fibre, sorghum is digested and absorbed slowly which helps to keep the blood sugar levels low. This is a boon to diabetics.
    The high fibre content helps keep the digestive and cardiovascular system healthy and keeps the hormones in balance.
  4. Being a good source of several antioxidants sorghum helps lower inflammation by scavenging free radicals. Along with the various phytochemicals, viz., tannins, phenolic acids, phytosterols, anthocyanins and policosanols, present in sorghum, these reduce risk of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, among others.
    The policosanols also lower the LDL cholesterol and have been found to be as effective as statins in this respect. The phenolic compounds additionally improve the health of the arteries.
  5. The tannins also help in controlling weight gain ad obesity and other metabolic disorders.
  6. Sorghum is safe for those with celiac disease as has been demonstrated in a study by the absence of any symptoms during the 5 days such people were fed sorghum foods.
  7. The high iron and copper content helps raise haemoglobin levels and counters anaemia.
  8. High levels of magnesium increase the absorption of calcium. This improves bone health and strength thus preventing problems like arthritis and osteoporosis.
  9. Vitamin B6 helps boost energy levels thus keeping fatigued at bay longer. Niacin is necessary for the breakdown metabolism of food into energy.

Since the levels of the nutrients mentioned above in Sorghum is relatively much higher than commonly used grains like wheat and rice it stands to benefit using more of this less used millet and the poor man's food to not only control but reduce risk of developing many health issues that afflict many of us today.

Jowar Masala Roti Recipe | Gluten Free Roti

Disclaimer

This hub is for informational purposes only. Always consult your medical doctor or health practitioner before starting any home remedies or any new health regime.

References

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16140904
  • http://archive.gramene.org/species/sorghum/sorghum_intro.html
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19256554
  • http://wholegrainscouncil.org/whole-grains-101/sorghum-june-grain-of-the-month
  • https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs/abstracts/18/2/CS0180020205
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_sorghum
  • http://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614%2807%2900093-3/abstract
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorghum
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11312905
  • http://www.nutritionvalue.org/Sorghum_grain_nutritional_value.html
  • http://agrifarming.in/jowar-farming
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18570276
  • https://trueayurveda.wordpress.com/2015/08/08/3-millets-jowar-bajra-and-ragi-gluten-intolerance-people-here-ya-go-its-the-newest-superfood/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15617883
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184005

More Hubs By The Author

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2016 Rajan Singh Jolly

Comments

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 03, 2016:

@teaches - thanks for appreciating the article and it's heartening to know you already have it in your diet. I'm glad this information is useful to you. Thanks.

@Genna - thanks a lot for reading and appreciating the hub.

@sukhneet - I'm glad the information is appreciated and thanks to you for reading this article and forwarding it to your uncle. My thanks to him as well.

Sukhneet Kaur Bhatti from India on July 03, 2016:

After going through your article, I forwarded the link to one of my uncle's. He likes researching on cereals and pulses and this one was something he really found informative and thanked me for sharing:) Great job done!

Genna East from Massachusetts, USA on July 01, 2016:

Your articles are always a treasure trove of helpful info. Thank you.

Dianna Mendez on July 01, 2016:

I'm not sure why my first post didn't go through so I am reposting my appreciation of your article. I have had it as a flour source and can now appreciate the value to my health.

Dianna Mendez on July 01, 2016:

I have had this as flour but didn't realize it has so much value. Thank you for the education.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on June 25, 2016:

Thanks for stopping by Devika

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on June 25, 2016:

A unique and useful hub! Informative and new to me.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on June 24, 2016:

@Bill, glad to provide this information. Thanks for always reading and supporting.

@manatita, this gluten free grain is a great replacement to wheat & other grains containing gluten. Hope you like it.

@Flourish, thank you for appreciating.

FlourishAnyway from USA on June 24, 2016:

I've heard of this and seen it on ingredient labels but knew nothing about it. You always impart such interesting and well researched information.

manatita44 from london on June 24, 2016:

An interesting one, especially as it's gluten-free. Perhaps I can take it instead. I will look for it, at my next visit to As Nature Intended. Some excellent benefits noted.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on June 24, 2016:

I've heard of it but knew nothing about it. Thanks for my continuing education.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on June 24, 2016:

Thanks Sukhneet.

Sukhneet Kaur Bhatti from India on June 24, 2016:

very informative :)

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