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The Health and Nutritional Benefits of Chia Seeds

Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.

Chia Seeds

About Chia Seeds

Chia seeds are the seeds of the plant Salvia hispanica. They are tiny and come in white, grey, brown, and black colours and have a mottled pattern.

Chia seeds were used by ancient Aztec and Mayan warriors during combat and by running messengers as an energy food. They have a very mild, nutty flavour and can be used whole or ground, added to yoghurt, smoothies, soups, and juices. Sprinkle them on salads or bake into muffins. They can even be added to water, stirred a couple of times to break up the clumps, and consumed about 15 minutes later when they've turned into gel.

Chia Seeds and Basil Seeds

There is confusion about these two, very similar, seeds. Basil seeds are always completely black in colour and they swell almost instantly when soaked in water.

Basil seeds belong to the sweet basil plant. In India, they are known as sabja seeds. Other names include tukhamaria, takmaria, and falooda.

In the video below, you can watch basil seeds turn into a gel in water in just seconds. Chia seeds take a while to swell and swell to a smaller extent. This is visible by their swollen size.

Watch Basil Seeds (Sabja) Form a Gel

A Great Source of Omega-3

Since chia seeds do not need to be ground into order to be metabolized, they are easier to use than flax seeds. Also, rancidity is not a problem with chia seeds, as they are more stable. They contain antioxidants that prevent spoilage and have a much longer shelf life than flax seeds. Just store them in a cool, dry place.

As a source of Omega-3 fatty acids, chia seeds are a great choice over flax seeds and other sources, including fish.

A two-month-old chia plant.

A two-month-old chia plant.

Chia Plants

Chia belongs to the mint family and is native to central and southwest Mexico as well as Guatemala. Today, chia is grown commercially in Mexico, Argentina, Guatemala, Bolivia, Australia, and Ecuador, but Australia is the leading producer.

Benefits of Chia Seeds

  • Higher levels of Omega-3 fatty acids than flax seeds.
  • Seeds have 20% protein, 34% dietary fibre, and high levels of antioxidants.
  • Gluten-free and low in sodium.
  • Long shelf life.
  • High in calcium and potassium.
  • Very hydrophilic in nature. They hold about 10 times their weight of water.
  • Easy to digest.
  • Inexpensive.
  • Versatile, with a very mild taste.

Nutrients In Chia Seeds (Source:USDA)

NutrientUnitValue per 100g1 oz / 228.35g













Total Lipid (Fat)




Carbohydrate, by difference




Total Dietary Fiber




Minerals in Chia Seeds (Source:USDA)

MineralUnitValue per 100.0g1 oz/28.35g

Calcium, Ca




Iron, Fe




Magnesium, Mg




Phosphorus, P




Potassium, K




Sodium, Na




Zinc, Zn




Vitamins in Chia Seeds (Source:USDA)

VitaminUnitValue per 100.0g1 oz/28.35g

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid
















Vitamin B-12

micro mg



Vitamin A, IU




Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)




Lipids in Chia Seeds (Source:USDA)

LipidsUnitValue per 100.0g1 oz/28.35g

Fatty acids, total saturated




Fatty acids, total monounsaturated




Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated





Our bodies need fat and healthy cholesterol in order to function properly. The high levels of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids in chia seeds help to lower the LDL and raise the HDL levels (the bad and good types of cholesterol). It is believed that the properties of Omega-3 fatty acids are almost on par with those of pharmaceutical statins that are prescribed for this purpose. Chia seeds contain long-chain triglycerides, which are large molecules that help to brush off the cholesterol deposits from the arterial walls.

The anti-inflammatory action of chia seeds keeps the blood vessels dilated, thus reducing the risk of heart disease.

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Chia seed coats contain soluble fibre that is different from flax seeds and oats. Chia seed coats are hydrophilic in nature, which means they can absorb water, almost 10 times their weight. The gel that forms creates a barrier in the digestive system between carbohydrates and digestive enzymes. This results in slower conversion of carbohydrates into sugar, which keeps blood sugar levels from spiking.

Weight Loss

Soluble fibre is also a form of roughage, which slows down digestion and leads to a long feeling of fullness, thus controlling hunger and overeating. This also helps avoid spikes and falls in blood sugar levels as the carbohydrates are absorbed slowly. Steady blood sugar levels keep hunger at bay for a longer period of time, and a slow release of nutrients helps maintain energy levels for a longer period.

All these factors together can help control overeating and lead to weight loss.

How To Use Chia Seeds in Smoothies

Runners and Athletes

Blood sugar level dips can cause dizziness and reduced performance in athletes. Since the carbohydrates in chia seeds are absorbed and released slowly, blood sugar levels maintain a constant level over longer periods.

The gel also holds an enormous amount of water, keeping the body hydrated for longer. This moisture retention enables the body to absorb nutrients while maintaining electrolyte balance.

All these qualities give competitive athletes an extra edge, increasing endurance.


Chia seeds are a very rich source of calcium, with three to six times the calcium found in milk. The presence of boron also helps the body to absorb and assimilate the calcium.


Neurotransmitters are chemicals that process and transfer information from nerve cells to other cells. Balanced neurotransmitters and stable neurotransmitter receptor sites ensure good sleep. Factors like stress, faulty nutrition, lack of exercise, and consumption of stimulants like tea, coffee, alcohol, drugs can throw neurotransmitters off balance. Emotional factors, like anxiety and depression, are also a result of disturbed neurotransmitter levels.

The most important neurotransmitters for great sleep are dopamine, GABA, norepinephrine, and serotonin. When we exercise, these calming neurotransmitters are released.

Also, consuming 5 to 10 grams of protein from superfoods like chia seeds corrects neurotransmitter imbalance. Chia seeds contain tryptophan, which is converted into serotonin, melatonin, and dimethyltryptamine.


Some people may exhibit some allergic reactions to chia seeds, especially those who are allergic to mustard or sesame seeds.

Other precautions to note include:

  • The formation of gel in the stomach feels uncomfortable.
  • Medication is absorbed more slowly, so those taking medications should keep this in mind.
  • Chia thins the blood, so those on blood thinners also need to take this into account. Consult your doctor about using chia seeds.
  • Though no untoward effects have been noted in healthy people, pregnant and nursing mothers should check with their doctor about the safety of consuming chia seeds.


The information provided in this article is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult your physician or health care provider before taking any home remedies or supplements or starting a new health regimen.


  • Baja Arizona Sustainable Agriculture: Chia
  • MyChiaSeeds: The Nutrition Facts for Chia Seeds
  • National Library of Medicine: Chia (Salvia hispanica) -- A Systematic Review...; C. Ulbricht, et al.; September 2009
  • American Dietetic Association: What Are Chia Seeds?
  • "British Journal of Nutrition"; Dietary Chia Seed (Salvia Hispanica L.) Rich in Alpha-Linolenic Acid Improves Adiposity and Normalises Hypertriacylglycerolaemia and Insulin Resistance in Dyslipaemic Rats; A.G. Chicco; 2009
  • University of Maryland Medical Center: Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • American Heart Association: Polyunsaturated Fats
  • Mayo Clinic: Dietary Fiber: Essential for a Healthy Diet
  • Office of Dietary Supplements: Calcium

Chia Seed Breakfast

Chia Nut Milk And Chia Lemonade Recipe

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.


Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 06, 2017:

No idea Brahma Kandula.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on June 20, 2017:

Giteshs that is fine you can add it to falooda or any homemade soft drinks as well. Not aerated drinks that are marketed.

Umer on March 05, 2017:

Do you know what you call Chia Seeds in Urdu or Punjabi?

Giteshs on December 26, 2016:

Hello Rajan, I put Sabja seeds in water for some time and drink it. Is there any other way to eat them? I have found, they also have a great cooling effect on body. I drink it whenever I have digestion problem or burning mouth.

Gitesh Shah on December 22, 2016:

Hello Rajan,

This is really good information. Is it ok to eat Sabja seeds in whole form after putting in water for some time? Or we can grind it like Chia seeds and use? I just put them in water for some time and then drink the water. I mainly use for stomach and internal heat problems.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on December 02, 2016:

Vinay Jain I have no idea about Delhi but you can buy them online.

Vinay Jain on November 07, 2016:

Hi, Can anyone tell me where to buy these seeds in Delhi ?

Dev on May 24, 2015:

Hi Rajan, very informative post, though I am reading it two years later. But I am wondering why nobody has actually done some certified tests on the key factor that makes Chia seeds much sought after: its content of omega-3 and related fatty acids. We are all guessing that the two seeds may be close in nutrients, but really they may be very different at least in this factor. What I see is some people taking advantage of the confusion and trying to sell Sabja at a very inflated price taking advantage of the international publicity on Chia seeds which are actually from a very distinct plant. So, while people are minting money by charging four times or more of the Indian physical market price on special online marketplaces, nobody seems to take an interest in investing in the proper tests on the key factors. Not even the government bodies and NGO's, which should be concerned about cheap nutrition for the poor, and consumer fraud. Or is this an unholy conspiracy to make sure the facts remain hidden so that a few people can rake in big moolah and the consumer majority pay like bakra's as usual? Maybe you have uncovered some more of the pertinent details by now.

Munirvana on September 30, 2014:

excellent article! Always confused between Chia & Sabja! Nutritionally it seems there is very lil difference! Laughed when I saw how suddenly this stuff we used to eat as kids is now a super food

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 12, 2014:

Prubjoat - thanks for the appreciative comments. my friend. I appreciate your reading my article. Thanks again.

Prubjoat on September 05, 2014:

Rajan, it was nice of you to share such a well written article.

for Rekha Bhayana - why don't you, just try it the rotis and check for yourself, it wont harm if you do try. Also as i read in this article Sabja and Chia are similar but not same, they may be at par with its contents and nutrients or one may be better than otherm but both are great! Enjoy them anyway.

Cheers to all.

Rajan - Thanks again. Even I remember having it in sherbats and golas in Mumbai in my childhood :)

Have a wonderful life, buddy


Prubjoat at yahoo dot com

rekha bhayana on February 05, 2014:

can we grind the chia seeds(sabja seeds) to be used in the rotis.because it is the easieest way. is sabja or chia the same thing. my email address is do answer me.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 01, 2013:

Barb, well frankly, I have no idea. Appreciate your visit. Thanks.

Barb on June 30, 2013:

I know gluten is what holds the flour intact when bread is made..... is there a way to use chia in a glutinous form to mix with something that can create a healthier home-made bread? just wondering.....

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on May 18, 2013:

kettergirl, you can take 1 teaspoon of gelatinized chia seeds (chia seeds soaked in water overnight) mixed in milk or any fruit juice morning and evening.

kettergirl on May 17, 2013:

how do you use chia seeds for weight loss and when do you take it for sleep

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on February 09, 2013:

Wow Mitch Alan! that's a lot of good healthy stuff in the smoothie. you really know many ways of using chia seeds. Thanks for your input and read.

Mitch Turnure from South Jersey on February 08, 2013:

I add a tablespoon of Chia seeds to spinach, kale, banana, strawberries, blueberries, carrots, almonds and flax seeds and make a smoothie every morning in the NutriBullet. I also add them to soups and stews to add nutients and as a natural thickener. They can also be added to meatloaf, breads, salads and so much more. Great Hob. Very informative. Keep Hubbing.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on February 08, 2013:

They are healthy shin rock! And certainly would add to the health value of your oatmeal diet. Thanks for reading.

shin_rocka04 from Maryland on February 08, 2013:

I never knew why people ate these types of seeds, but I know it would be great to incorporate with my daily oatmeal intake. Voted up!

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on January 28, 2013:

Caroline, I'm glad you like the info.

Thanks for stopping by.

C from Denmark on January 27, 2013:

Thanks for a long and great hub.

So much information, and so good!

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on January 11, 2013:

Thanks Patricia. Glad to provide you with some new and useful information. Certainly appreciate your comments and visit. Thank you.

Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on January 10, 2013:

I must come here and read more often. Every time I do I find out much I do not know. I have never heard of chia seeds but do understand why they are called a wonder food.

thank you for sharing this detailed information with us.

Sending Angels to you and yours :) ps

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on October 02, 2012:

Hi Rekha, chia does not grow in India. I'm not aware of the hindi name if there is one. However the closest to chia we have here is Sabja and I have written about it here.

Thanks for reading.

rekha on October 01, 2012:

hi Rajan,what is chia seeds in hindi?

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 13, 2012:

Absolutely, Jatin and I should think from these preliminary reports that sabja would not lag far behind in nutritional value if a proper nutrient analysis is done by a competent lab. It would surely be a boon to Indians as sabja is very cheap compared to chia seeds.

I remember consuming sabja everyday, in the ice golas that the roadside vendors used to make back then, during my school and college days in Mumbai.

Well lets hope that day is not far off.

Thanks for reading.

Jatin on September 13, 2012:

Thanks Rajan for prompt reply. I am aware of the link, all comments and gentleman in person as well. I was more keen on omega 3 levels in Sabja seeds, which is nowhere available and shall remain unanswered unless Indian research institute on food and nutrition like the one in Hyderabad takes lead. The product can then be lifted as having good market potential as cash crop. I decide to consume chia until my stock lasts and then switch to Sabja :-)

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 13, 2012:

Jatin, none of the nutrient value of chia is being attributed to sabja in this article. My short write up just shows what sabja is. The video is just to show how fast it swells in water.

It would interest you to check the link I'm giving here. There is some practical info here which might interest you.

You will also get an answer to whether, costly is better! Just read through all the comments.

Thanks for visiting and appreciate your comments.

jatin on September 13, 2012:

While subja seeds are from same mint family, how can we attribute chia seeds benfits to sabja seeds as well. Has anyone really analysed fat content and omega 3 portion of sabja seeds? I recently got chia seeds from USA with the help of friend. They are quite expensive compared to Sabja. We need to know authoritative nutrient profile of sabja seeds to make switch and also recommend to others.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 08, 2012:

Hi Aurelio,

Is the chia drink easily in the US? Sabja seeds are almost similar to chia seeds. I hope you saw the the first video ! Its amazing !

I'm glad you liked the information. Thanks for reading and giving votes.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 08, 2012:

Hi Rema. Sabja is the Indian version of chia seeds having almost similar benefits. And yes we in India use sabja seeds in falooda icecream. Also, in Mumbai, the vendors selling ice golas in summer add sabja to the sharbet they made for dipping the gola. As a child I loved the golas but especially the seeds of the sabja. Not knowing at that time the various health benefits. Sabja seeds are somewhat greyish black.

It's always a pleasure to see you here and many thanks for all the sharing, Rema.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 08, 2012:

@ Nithya - thank you. Appreciate your visit.

Aurelio Locsin from Orange County, CA on September 08, 2012:

I actually had a Chia drink the other day and am glad to know that not only was it delicious but that it had healthy properties as well. Voting this Up and Useful.

Rema T V from Chennai, India on September 08, 2012:

Yet another informative hub. I have seen sabja seeds, even had them in my 'falooda' but didn't know they had these amazing properties. I want to try a different breakfast food, so in addition to bread and oats I think now I'll start making a healthy breakfast with chia seeds.

Do you remember seeing these seeds in falooda? I have found them to be green in colour. Can you please enlighten me on this? I have heard that falooda is made of a variety of things the main among them being these sabja seeds. Would appreciate an explanation from you if possible.

Thanks a lot for the wonderful information. Sharing and tweeting as always. Cheers, Rema.

Nithya Venkat from Dubai on September 07, 2012:

Never even considered including chia seeds in my diet. I did not know it had so many benefits. Great hub, thanks for sharing. Voted up.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 07, 2012:

@ tillsontitan - I'm glad you liked the info. Thanks for reading and commenting.

@ Pamela - chia seeds need not be kept in the fridge. Thanks for stopping by and commenting.

Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on September 06, 2012:

This is a very informative hub about chia seeds. I haven't tried them, but have always kept flax seeds in the refrigerator and grind small amounts at a time. I will try the chia seeds as they sound so simple. Very useful hub.

Mary Craig from New York on September 06, 2012:

And I thought Chia seeds were just for pets! Wow, I'm going to have to go look for these guys, what great properties they have. You always provide us with such helpful and healthy information. Keep 'em coming Rajan.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 06, 2012:

Hi Gypsy, chia seeds are available at health food stores. Nice to know you like the information. Thanks for reading and passing it forward. Thank you.

Gypsy Rose Lee from Daytona Beach, Florida on September 06, 2012:

Thanks for this very informative and interesting hub. Had heard about these seeds but didn't know too much about them. Great videos. Passing this on.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 05, 2012:

Absolutely, right dwachira. Chia seeds pack a big punch for something so tiny. Thanks for appreciating the write up. Thanks for reading, giving the vote up and passing it on.

Danson Wachira from Nairobi, Kenya on September 05, 2012:

Another very resourceful article rajan, from the reading, it is obvious that Chia seeds have a lot of benefits. I like the information that you can make a drink of Chia seeds mixed with favorite mix like honey to help with calming neurotransmitters for sound sleep. Voted up, useful and shared.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 05, 2012:

John - Thanks for appreciating this hub.

spy - India imports chia seeds. You might one in health stores around your place.

Carol - glad to provide some new info. Appreciate the read, bookmark and sharing.

Jools - thanks for such kind words. I think health stores should carry them. Appreciate your read and comments.

healthylife - glad you are thinking of using these. They should be available at health food stores. Amazon does have it though. But I'm not sure if one can order it from here.

Harsha - India imports these. The local variation is sabja. Has almost the same nutrients. Thanks for reading.

manatita - Nice to know you are aware of these seeds. They indeed have some amazing benefits.

Thanks for commenting.

manatita44 from london on September 05, 2012:

I have tasted them Rajan, from a friend. I need to buy some soon. Yes. I read of their amazing properties from time to time.

Harsha Vardhana R from Bangalore on September 05, 2012:

Thanks for the great information.

Sometime back I tried searching for Chia in India but was informed that it is not easily available. Is it only through import or do we have any local variations too?

healthylife2 on September 05, 2012:

Found this completely fascinating. I avoid dairy so have a hard time getting calcium and a hard time sleeping so will try to add these to my smoothie. It already tastes terrible so I'm not worried about altering the flavor. Where do you find chia seeds? Voted up and shared with my followers.

Jools Hogg from North-East UK on September 05, 2012:

I don't think I have ever seen Chia seeds in the health stores but I will start to look out for them. It may be that they get more popular after this hub Rajan :o)

carol stanley from Arizona on September 05, 2012:

Never had a clue. Great information and opened up a whole new way of thinking. This is a great hub and worthy of voting up, bookmarking and sharing. Thanks for providing this information for us with great photos.

Life Under Construction from Neverland on September 05, 2012:

Interesting facts and details. I haven't seen Chia seeds..maybe it's only on India?

JCielo from England on September 05, 2012:

Hi Rajan! In terms of omega-3 fatty acids you're so right to highlight the fact that chia seeds can be stored whole and not have to be ground. Pulverizing seeds breaks the protective outer shell which leads to oxidization which then damages the highly perishable omega-3 fats.

Wonderful hub yet again. Voted up, useful and shared.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

@ ehealer - Thanks for finding this hub useful Deborah. Appreciate your visit and comments.

@ Girish - thank you.

@ Lord - I think the ancient civilizations ere far ahead of us in technology and science. After their extinction we are rediscovering these things which were known to them.

Thanks for coming by. And the sharing too.

@ Aman - Glad you liked it. Nice to see a new reader. Thanks for sharing.

Aman Thakur from India on September 04, 2012:

These indeed a very informational hub. You have very lucidly explained the various health benefits of chia seeds along with their nutritional status.

Voting this hub up and sharing with the followers.

Joseph De Cross from New York on September 04, 2012:

Tremendous potential and rich in essential proteins and Omega-3. I just wonder how Mayas and Aztecs knew of their benefits. There must've been some kind of knowledge that started from a source. Great hub for all of us Rajan! Sharing

Girish puri from NCR , INDIA on September 04, 2012:

It's great to know about the useful properties of Chia seeds, prior to this, i never thought of any substitute for Omega 3 Fatty acids, very much useful hub, thanks.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

Hi Kim, a chia pet would looks so wonderful! I guess children would love them. I'm so glad you like these hubs.

Thanks for reading, appreciating and sharing.

Deborah from Las Vegas on September 04, 2012:

Hey Rajan, I guess I'll start eating my chia pet! I had no idea that chia seeds were even edible! Thanks again for a well researched article that is so well done. Voted up!

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

Hi Deborah, I'm glad you enjoy reading these healthy food hubs of mine. Thanks for stopping by and sharing it too.

Aloe Kim on September 04, 2012:

Ahh I had Chia pets!! Now I wish I would have let the sprouts grow into full plants! Hmm... maybe I should get a chia pet for my 3 year old ^_^ fantastic hub, I love all the things you teach us. Voted and shared.

Deborah Brooks Langford from Brownsville,TX on September 04, 2012:

wow I had no idea.. what a great hub.. I love your hubs they are so informative..

I will share


Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

Rock_nj, Glad you found this hub answering a few queries you had. thanks for sparing time to read and comment.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

Hi Audrey, yes of course, you can add them to any dish you want.

Thanks for reading and commenting.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on September 04, 2012:

Hi Bill, glad you like these healthy food hubs of mine. I appreciate your visits and comments. Thank you.

John Coviello from New Jersey on September 04, 2012:

Interesting! Voted Up! My wife started putting Chia seeds in milk shakes, and I was wondering why on Earth digesting Chia seeds makes sense. You just answered my question. Thanks! Please pass the Chia seeds! Much better than fish oil, which as you point out could contain heavy metals and has in may cases been found to contain these bad constituents.

Audrey Howitt from California on September 04, 2012:

I will have to give this a look--can you just cook with them?

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on September 04, 2012:

I didn't know you could eat them! Where do you find this information? Great stuff as always, Rajan! You are a fountain of useful knowledge and I thank you for the continuing education!

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