Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.
Ragi (Finger Millet)
Latin name: Eleusine coracana
About Ragi (Finger Millet)
Ragi, besides being known as finger millet, is also known as African finger millet, red millet, aracan millet, koracan & dagusa.
In India, it is popularly called ragi. Among other Indian names for it, are, mandua, mangal, mandia & nachni.
Though finger millet originated in Africa it has been cultivated in India for about 4000 years. It is extensively grown and consumed in South India. Uganda and Ethiopia are the other countries where it is cultivated on a large scale.
Finger millet is a minor but common cereal in India and belongs to the family of grasses. They have small seeds/grains, and the plant, like all millets, is extremely hardy & adaptable. It can grow in the least of fertile soils and in very diverse ecological areas, from plains to plateaus to hills. It is especially suited to hot and dry areas as its water requirement is very less.
Ragi is a gluten-free grain that is commonly used as flour in India, to make roti, the Indian flatbread. Besides this, finger millet is used to make porridge, puddings, idlis, dosa, laddus and, even, beverages.
Ragi mudde (balls of ragi) is a very popular preparation made from ragi flour in the Karnataka state of India while homemade ragi malt is a popular infant food in South India.
In the Tamil Nadu state of India, ragi porridge is a popular offering to Goddess Kali during any festival associated with this Goddess.
Finger millet is most of the time sprouted, then dried and roasted before it is ground into a flour. This is so because sprouting activates enzymes which breakdown complex starches into sugar & other simple carbohydrates, making it easier to digest.
Ragi protein is as complete as milk protein and is thus a perfect replacement for those who are lactose intolerant. Besides, it is perfect as a cereal for those who are gluten intolerant and cannot tolerate wheat.
Though looked upon as a poor man's food, as it is mostly grown in third world countries, finger millet is a grain that deserves more respect than its more popular, contemporary grains, because of its exceptionally higher nutrient levels.
Ragi (Finger Millet) Nutrition
- Although ragi contains almost the same protein as rice, it has higher levels of tryptophan, cysteine & methionine. Moreover, because of the higher biological value of eleusinin it contains as the main protein fraction, it is absorbed more readily.
- It is a rich source of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium.
- The dietary levels of fiber as well as the antioxidants and the beneficial phytochemicals is high. It is polyphenols' rich as the grains' seed coat is incorporated into the flour.
- Finger millet is rich in B complex vitamins like niacin, B6 and folic acid.
For individual nutrient values, and how they relate to their daily needs, please refer to the nutritional table below.
Nutrient Composition Of Ragi
|Nutrient Composition of Finger Millet|
per gm protein
Some Ragi Dishes
Health Benefits Of Ragi (Finger Millet)
- Keeps Bones Healthy
The high calcium levels help in bone development in children as well as maintaining the strength & integrity of bones in adults. This helps to reduce risk of bones getting fractured or broken as well of osteoporosis, the thinning and weakening of bones, as seen in the elderly.
Include ragi kanji or porridge in the diet of children and adults to enjoy the benefit of having strong bones.
- Controls High Blood Sugar & Diabetes
Because the dietary fibre is high, it is slowly absorbed into the blood. This helps blood sugar spikes. The complex carbohydrates and the phytochemicals too are helpful in controlling diabetes. Finger millet helps in quicker wound healing in diabetics.
- Lowers Cancer & Heart Disease Risk
High antioxidant levels, the phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins, all these help prevent inflammation and oxidation, destroy free radicals, factors that promote the risk of cancer and heart disease.
- Lowers Cholesterol & Other Benefits
Finger millet not only reduces LDL cholesterol but also triglyceride levels. It also prevents their oxidation thereby preventing their deposition in the arteries as plaque which causes heart attack and stroke. It, therefore, reduces the risk of heart attacks and stroke.
The amino acids lecithin, methionine eliminates fat from the liver while the threonine prevents fat formation in the liver.
- Delays Aging
The phenols and antioxidants in ragi prevent crosslinking of collagen in the blood vessels, tendons and skin, thus maintaining their elasticity and preventing stiffness. This delays ageing and its symptoms.
- Aids In Weight Loss
The amino acid tryptophan reduces appetite. Since ragi contains high levels of tryptophan, as also dietary fibre, and is low in fats which are in unsaturated form, the combined effect of all these is reducing weight by reducing hunger pangs by keeping one full longer and slowing down the absorption rate.
- Combats Anemia
High iron levels raise haemoglobin levels while vitamin C that is produced when ragi is sprouted, makes the iron more bioavailable and readily absorbable.
- Provides Anti Microbial Benefits
Ragi acts against several bacteria including the food poisoning causative Bacillus cereus, typhoid causing, Salmonella typhimurium, and the Staphylococcus aureus which causes skin and tissue infections like abscesses as well as cellulitis.
- An Excellent Infant Food
Since ragi is malted before consumption, it has increased digestibility and nutrient availability. This makes it an excellent infant food as it not only provides high levels of nutrients necessary for growth but is also easy on the infants' stomach being easily digestible.
- Increases Breast Milk
Green ragi (before the grain matures) promotes lactation. Also, as it has many essential amino acids, iron and calcium, it benefits both the mother and the child.
- A Natural Probiotic
Fermented finger millet drink is a natural probiotic treatment for diarrhoea. Also, ragi in the diet prevents mucosal ulcers from developing.
Recipes With Ragi (Finger Millet)
Try these healthy finger millet recipes.
Instant Ragi Dosa Recipe | Ragi Masala Dosa | Finger Millet Dosa
Ragi Porridge Recipe | Ragi Malt Recipe | Healthy Breakfast Recipe
Ambali (Ragi Drink)
Ragi Vada - By VahChef
Ragi Biscuit | Sanjeev Kapoor Khazana
The information provided in this hub is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult your physician, or health care provider before taking any home remedies or supplements or embarking on a new health regime.
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This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
© 2016 Rajan Singh Jolly
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on October 28, 2020:
Thank for stopping by, Peggy.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on October 17, 2020:
Looking at the photo of finger millet, I can see where it got that name. It is nice that this grain can grow on less fertile soils where other plants may not thrive. The nutritional health benefits make it a grain worth using more often.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 06, 2017:
Peggy, not all Indian flatbread is made from Ragi flour. Most of it made with wheat flour. Yes, ragi is a very nutritious grain, and better still a gluten free one, so it makes sense to use it more often.
I'm glad you appreciate the benefits of this millet. Thanks for pinning my article too. I appreciate your visit.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on July 06, 2017:
This was so very informative. Since Indian flatbread is made from Ragi flour I may have eaten some without realizing what was in it. It sounds like a perfect food for so many reasons! Thanks for writing this. Pinning this article to my health board.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 22, 2016:
@Chitrangada, not many in the North consume ragi on a regular basis as not much awareness is there of its so many health benefits. I'm glad you however do try to.
Thanks for reading and appreciating this hub.
@ Vellur, thanks for reading & commenting.
Nithya Venkat from Dubai on July 21, 2016:
An informative hub about millet and the health benefits of millet.
Chitrangada Sharan from New Delhi, India on July 20, 2016:
What a wonderful and detailed hub about Ragi!
I had not seen it's plant . Thanks for sharing the pictures and all the information. The videos are amazing .
Ragi definitely is a very healthy option and I try to include it in my diet as much as possible.
Thanks for sharing this excellent and informative hub!
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 10, 2016:
You are very right Dianna. Ragi can more than compete with most gluten free foods because of its nutritional density. You could possible give it a try. Thanks for stopping by.
Dianna Mendez on July 08, 2016:
This does seem to be equal to the popular gluten free foods out there today. It is highly beneficial to a body and I would certainly use it in recipes. Low sodium, high in potassium, among other things -- seems as if this is perfect food for those needing nutrients.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 07, 2016:
Thank you Devika.
Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on July 07, 2016:
India has an abundance of foods. I like the photos and this is an informative hub. I enjoy learning something about foods and spices.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on July 05, 2016:
@bill, don't worry we have enough of your kind of food too! Lol...
@Flourish, cultural differences always make an outing so much enjoyable. Not to worry though, there is also your type of food here.
@manatita, ragi is a minor cereal so most people, the middle class and up, do not consume it to a large extent depending on the common one like wheat. Thanks for the visit.
manatita44 from london on July 05, 2016:
Seem to be not only rich in protein and minerals, but has a variety of uses also. I have had ladu many times, so it is quite possible that I've had the Ragi. Very informative Hub, Bro.
FlourishAnyway from USA on July 05, 2016:
I've never heard of this but am continually amazed at how people can cultivate crops from land that isn't always hospitable and find diverse uses for them. My daughter has an invitation from an Indian friend to go stay with the girl's grandparents for a few weeks next summer. I don't think she even imagines the differences in culture, including food.
Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on July 05, 2016:
I fear I would starve in your country. You have all these foods I've never eaten. LOL
as always, thanks for the education