What is a psychological disorder means?
The differences between normality and abnormality are often one of Cultural relativism or Persistence and Degree or Based on Statistics or Social Conformity or Subjective Discomfort. Psychological disorders mainly impact the behavior of individuals.
In cultural relativism, it says an abnormality in behavior is relative to the norms in the culture.
In persistence and degree says behavior is normal when several responses considered acceptable because they are demonstrated occasionally and to a mild degree. If the behavior is frequently and intensely displayed (i.e., grief, use of alcohol) it is an abnormality.
Based on statistically a behavior that occurs most frequently is considered the norm. Normal is not a specific quantity but a range called normal behavior. Behaviors that are rare or unusual called abnormal behavior.
In social conformity are behaviors that conform to social expectations called normal behaviors. Abnormal behaviors which they do not conform to social expectations.
In subjective discomfort, behaviors should only be measured abnormal, if the individual suffers as a result of the behaviors, and they wish to get rid of them.
An accurate explanation of psychological disorder can be said as if a individuals’ own behavior causes trouble to himself and others and their day-to-day life.
What are the most common psychology disorders?
- The word schizophrenia comes from the Greek words “schizo” meaning split, and “phrene” meaning mind, and it is one of the most serious mental disorders. Schizophrenia occurs across cultures about equally in men and women. It has an incidence rate of roughly 1% in a given people.
- This disorder mostly occurs in individuals in young adulthood.
- There are many symptoms of schizophrenia. Few patients having schizophrenia show all these symptoms.
- Disturbance of thought and attention: Thoughts of the individual jump from one thing to another soon. Often a word in one sentence prompts a different, irrelevant association in the next, and so on. They seem to make sense, but there is no continuity of meaning at all sometimes.
- It appears that in schizophrenia, people have difficulty filtering out irrelevant stimuli from internal and external sources. It seems as, if they do not have selective attention, and therefore experience too much stimulation.
- Withdrawal from reality: People pull out from social connection. They become absorbed in their own thoughts and fantasies. The person loses touch with time (date) and place (where they are) and the situation.
- Hallucinations are perceptual experiences that occur in the absence of sensory stimuli.
- The most common hallucination in schizophrenia is “hearing” voices (auditory hallucinations). Visual hallucination is less common, and hallucinations of smell, taste, and touch are rare.
- Disturbance of affect: The disturbance of affect refers to a disturbance in emotional response
- Oversensitivity. They demonstrate exaggerated responses to trivial incidents.
- Sensitivity declines and many patients display a complete lack of emotional expression.
- They may stare blankly in situations that should make them happy or sad. In other cases, people with schizophrenia display inappropriate emotional responses. They may, for example, laugh upon hearing the tragic news.
- Disturbance of behavior: In the context of disorganized thought and feelings, people with schizophrenia often display disturbances of behavior. Some develop grimaces, others make repetitive gestures or initiate movements they are currently observing. Others remain motionless for long periods of time, as in catatonic schizophrenia.
- 1 percent of the population is suffered from Schizophrenia. And it commonly appears with young men.
9. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- It appears after a shocking event such as an accident, fight, fire, flood, rape, ethnic conflict. There is an initial shock by the shocking event that happened then they are helpless. Victims of Post-traumatic stress disorder have problems in concentrating and sleeping, phobias to the upsetting conditions. Depression and anxiety can be detected as well as impulsiveness in some cases. Through dreams and nightmares, they relive stressful events. The symptoms can appear within a few days or weeks after the shocking event, and it can be last for months or maybe years.
- 1 to 6 percent of the general adult population is suffered from Posttraumatic stress disorder.
8. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
- Obsessions are determined interruptions of unwanted thoughts or images. Compulsions are irresistible impulses to carry out certain acts or rituals. They can be linked.
- Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder seriously get to interfere with daily life due to those thoughts and impulses occupy so much time.
- They know that those feelings are damaging their personal life, but they can’t control them. That they feel anxious if they neglect those.
- Compulsive acts can be range from mild kinds of superstitious behavior.
- People having such disorders feel strongly anxious when they try to battle their compulsions and feel relieved even after when the act is performed.
- Nearly 2 percent of the general population are suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. These types of disorders may affect the entire life span of the person.
“What mental health needs is more sunlight, more candor, and more unashamed conversation.”
— Glenn Close
7. A phobia.
- Excessive fear of a specific object or animal or situation is called a phobia which is handled by avoidance. Individuals suffering from a phobia know that there is no danger to involve with, but they can’t control it.
- Unlike the fears that occur in panic disorders and general anxiety, these fears are quite specific. Unless it considerably interferes with individuals’ personal and daily life, fear is usually not diagnosed as a phobia.
- The most common phobias are;
- Arachnophobia — fear of spiders.
- Ophidiophobia — fear of snakes.
- Acrophobia — fear of heights.
- Agoraphobia — fear of situations where escape is difficult.
- Cynophobia — fear of dogs.
- Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia- fear of long words (one of the longest words in the dictionary — and, in an ironic twist, is the name for it).
- 2.6 percent to 12.5 percent of people suffer from phobias. And the most common one is arachnophobia – fear of spiders and the rarest one is panophobia- difficult dealing with just one phobia but imagine being afraid of everything. These types of disorders may affect the entire life span of the person.
6. Panic disorders.
- Unpredictable panic attacks occur in individuals. This condition is attended by a tremor, nervous feeling, heart palpitations, perspiration, shortness of breath, nausea, etc. this condition often appears and makes a general tension.
- 284 million people experience panic disorder in the world. These types of disorders may affect the entire life span of the person.
5. Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
- Even with panic attacks anxiety can be present. There is tension, but it doesn’t focus on anything. By impacting their work effectiveness, decision-making, and sleeping pattern they overreact to even minor problems which make them been anxious all the time.
- 3.7 percent of people in the world suffer from Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
4. Anxiety Disorders.
- In the face of threatening or stressful situations feeling anxious and tense or stressful situations is normal.
- Anxiety is considered abnormal when it occurs in situations that most people can handle with little difficulty.
- 2.5 to 7 percent of people suffer from bipolar disorders in the world.
3. Bipolar Disorders.
- Depression and manic episodes appear together in an individual suffering from bipolar disorder, and it begins with manic episodes
- More than manic episodes depressive episodes are generally common. Mood can change at any time day. Sometimes it can last for maybe months maybe a few years also.
- 0.3 to 1.2 percent of people suffer from bipolar disorders in the world.
2. Manic episodes.
- The opposite of depression. They are categorized by:
- Exuberant and euphoric behavior
- Excessive energy
- Manic individuals:
- like to be with people so much.
- Have unusual self-confidence and are optimistic.
- Lack of concentrate for long.
- May go from overjoyed to short-tempered, irritated to attacking. Often feel paranoid, can have ideas of power, fame, power, and wealth.
- Are often impulsive, can’t stick to one job, often urinate, defecate, or expose their genitals in public, or dress in eccentric ways.
- Speak loud, speech is rapid, and they joke a lot.
- Because manic individuals do not concentrate for long, they cannot accomplish many tasks.
- During mild manic episodes, the person is enthusiastic, energetic, and in high self-confidence, talks nonstop, and sleeps slightly. As a result, manic individuals move from one activity to another quickly.
- During manic episodes, the individual is extremely excited and must be constantly active. The manic individual sings and shouts, for hours. He/she can get angered when attempts are made to interfere with his/her activities and may become rude. Impulses (including sexual ones) are immediately expressed in actions and words. Delusions of great accomplishment or power or wealth can be detected during manic episodes.
- 0.3 to 1.2 % of people suffer from manic episodes in the world.
- Depression is taken into consideration as odd most effective whilst it is out of percentage to the occasion and maintains past the factor at which most people start to recover. When melancholy is greater than feeling sad at times while a feeling of immoderate unhappiness is expressed, it's miles ordinary.
- Depression is usually described by the incapacity to make selections, initiate a hobby, or take a hobby in anything. The depressed individual feels insufficient and worthless, has crying spells, and may ponder suicide.
- Major depression is characterized with the aid of:
- The depressive isn't always capable of making selections to provoke a hobby, to take a hobby in something or everyone (circle of relative’s participants, friends, meals, sex, pursuits, work, and undertaking).
- Some are passive and torpid; others are restless and agitated. They are critical about themselves, experience responsible, are irritable, and are not able to take control of their lives. They pause a lot after they speak, have memory losses, and difficulties in getting to know something new.
- The depressed individual withdraws from others, neglects his/her responsibilities and duties. Some human beings with major depressions display psychiatric symptoms together with hallucinations. They can also harbor delusions. Delusions are irrational ideas that cannot be shaken by using evidence or reasonable arguments. For instance, a person may additionally consider that her body is rotting.
- Some depressions disappear with time; however, others may also persist. Stress intensifies and prolongs despair.
- Nearly 2 to 7 % of the general population is suffered from depression. This causes most of the suicide cases in the world. With proper medication, this can be cure soon than other disorders.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
© 2021 Lahiru Manukulasooriya
Lahiru Manukulasooriya (author) from Boralesgamuwa on June 13, 2021:
Thank you. Yeah, it is a complex one. Luckily there are many services to help people in those cases. some of them are for free even. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/find-help/
Priya from Pune on June 13, 2021:
Excellent article. This is quite a tough topic but you have explained it so well. People will actually get to know what exactly happens when you are facing any mental health issue.