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Monkeypox - All You Need to Know

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monkeypox-all-you-need-to-know



Monkeypox

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Discovery
  3. Host
  4. Transmission
  5. Path taken
  6. Incubation Period
  7. Symptoms
  8. Progression
  9. Duration

10. Fatality Rate

11. Prevention

12. Treatment


Introduction

Monkeypox is a rare, self-limiting disease caused by an infection with the orthopox virus of the family, poxviridae. Also included in this family is the smallpox and cowpox viruses. The monkeypox virus has attracted attention and awareness of late due to its outbreak in areas in which it normally was not seen. It's incursion into Europe, The United States and other countries outside of Africa have put health bodies on high alert.

Discovery

-First discovered in 1958 in monkeys

-First detected in humans in 1970 in the democratic republic of Congo, and since then has been reported in countries across Central and west Africa, and now spreading across other Continents, aided by international travel.

Host

The natural host of the monkeypox virus is unknown,but rodents like squirrels, rats and non- human primates like monkeys are known to transmit the virus to people.

Transmission

Types -

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  • Animal to human - through bites and scratches
  • Human to human - through respiratory droplets
  • Through the respiratory tract
  • Through the mucus membrane of the eye, nose and mouth.
  • Through broken skin like, scratches
  • Through body fluids

Path Taken

  • Through the respiratory tract
  • Through the mucus membrane of the eye, nose and mouth.
  • Through broken skin like, scratches
  • Through body fluids

Incubation Period

This is the period between infection and appearance of symptoms. It

can stretch from 5 – 21 days, but usually, is between 7 – 14 days.

Symptoms

These include

  • Fever
  • Muscle ache
  • Back ache
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Swollen lymph nodes

Progression

After the fever, a rash develops about three (3) days later, starting

from the head and spreading to other parts of the body. The rash

progresses to-

  • Macules – flat lesions that are generally less than 1 cm in size
  • Papules – elevated areas of skin and can be in various shapes
  • Vesicles or Blister- small thin walled sac of skin, filled with clear fluid
  • Pustule- areas of skin containing a yellowish fluid, known as pus
  • Scab – a hard skin tissue that protects the skin when damaged, and allows new skin to grow underneath.

Duration

The disease usually lasts between 2 and 4 weeks

Fatality Rate

The fatality rate is usually low when adequate health care is provided,

Usually 1 in 10.

Prevention

  • Avoid travelling to endemic areas or areas of outbreak
  • Avoid contact with unquarantined animals, especially rodents from endemic areas.
  • Vaccination – The smallpox vaccine (JYNNEOS- Imvamune or Imvanex).

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for now. However, many antiviral drugs

might be effective, such as, Brincidofovir, Cidofovir and others.

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