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Key Information About Typhoid

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Overview

Typhoid is a communicable disease. Between 11 and 21 million cases of typhoid infection, and 128,000 to 161,000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide.

This disease typically occurs in parts of the world where water is more likely to be contaminated with sewage.

“Typhoid is a neglected infectious disease all over the world where there is poor water, sanitation and hygiene. It’s one of the most common ... bacteremic illnesses in children in developing countries,” said Anita Zaidi, MBBS, SM, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

key-information-about-typhoid

Causes

Also known as enteric fever, typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria (also known as Salmonella enterica serotype typhi).

This life-threatening disease is contracted by the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

When the bacteria get into the body, they quickly multiply and spread into the bloodstream. Salmonella typhi lives only in humans.

A small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S.typhi in their feces.

Bacilli of Typhoid Fever from a Culture

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons

S. typhi thrives in human intestines and blood, and if untreated sewage gets into the water supply or a cook doesn’t wash his hands after a bathroom break, bits of feces — laced with bacteria — end up in food and water.

Symptoms

Symptoms of typhoid vary from mild to severe and life-threatening. They usually develop 1 or 2 weeks after a person becomes infected with the bacteria.

Main symptoms include headache, fever, loss of appetite, malaise, rose-coloured rash, abdominal discomfort, dry cough, and constipation or diarrhoea. Constipation occurs more often than diarrhoea in adults.

Persistent fever develops and gradually rises, usually in a stepwise fashion, reaching a peak of 39 or 40 °C (103 or 104 °F) after 7–10 days.

key-information-about-typhoid
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Typhoid Test

Assays that identify Salmonella antibodies or antigens support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, but these results should be confirmed with cultures or DNA evidence.

Treatment

Emergence of multidrug resistance and decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in some parts of Asia have rendered older medicines, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, ineffective or suboptimal for typhoid.

Many doctors prescribe gatifloxacin, an antibiotic agent and a member of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone family.

With appropriate antibiotic therapy, most patients recover from this potentially life-threatening illness.

"Typhoid fever can be a very serious disease, but antibiotics are an effective treatment," said a health official in Ireland.

Diet

Fresh fruit juice

Poached eggs

Boiled rice

Yogurt

Baked potato

Cottage cheese

Prevention

Get yourself vaccinated. WHO recommends three vaccines. They are:

  1. Ty21a
  2. Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViCPS)
  3. Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV).

Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a is a live attenuated typhoid fever vaccine for oral administration. It is the only oral vaccine indicated for use against Salmonella Typhi.

The World Health Organization recommended the typhoid conjugate vaccine in 2018 for use in countries where the disease is endemic.

Avoid consuming raw food. Drink bottled water or water that has been boiled. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating. Do not buy foods from street vendors.

In November 2021, EuBiologics said it has completed phase 3 clinical trials of its originally developed vaccine, EuTCV, against typhoid fever conducted in the Philippines.

Introducing a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) into routine child vaccine schedules and conducting a catch-up campaign to vaccinate all children up to age 15 is a cost-effective solution for many low- to middle-income countries severely burdened by typhoid.

— Yale School of Public Health

Quiz

For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.

  1. What is typhoid also known as?
    • Centric fever
    • Eccentric fever
    • Enteric fever
    • Killing fever
  2. Typhoid is caused by which bacteria?
    • Marshmallow typhi bacteria
    • Salmonella typhi virus
    • Salmonella lyphi bacteria
    • Salmonella typhi bacteria
  3. Which are the symptoms of typhoid?
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Malaise
    • All the above
  4. Gatifloxacin is used to treat typhoid.
    • True
    • False
  5. Which is live attenuated typhoid fever vaccine for oral administration?
    • Ty21d
    • Ty21a
    • Ty21b
    • Ty21c

Answer Key

  1. Enteric fever
  2. Salmonella typhi bacteria
  3. All the above
  4. True
  5. Ty21a

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2019 Srikanth R

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