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Key Information About Multiple Sclerosis

Srikanth is passionate about helping people improve their quality of life.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable illness of the central nervous system.

It disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and other parts of the body.

It is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system.

Around 2.3 million people live with this long-lasting disease globally. Global prevalence of this condition is about 270 per 100,000 people.

Studies have shown that 10 years after disease onset, approximately 50 percent of patients are using a cane to walk and 15 percent need a wheel chair.

March is multiple sclerosis awareness month.

MRI of Multiple Sclerosis

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons


Doctors still do not understand what causes multiple sclerosis; but ongoing research shows that it is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

An epidemiological study led by Albert Ascherio, PhD, professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, demonstrated that the risk for this condition increases 32-fold upon infection with Epstein Barr Virus and not upon infection with other similar viruses.

Most people receive a diagnosis between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Most forms of this progressive disease are twice as likely to affect women than men.

There are many theories regarding the reason that people develop this condition. These theories range from vitamin D deficiency to viral infection. Even excessive consumption of salt is being looked at as possible cause.

World Multiple Sclerosis Day is observed on May 30. The day is meant to raise awareness about multiple sclerosis.


Fatigue, weakness, spasticity, loss of balance, sensory deficit, tingling, blurred vision, poor contrast or color vision, pain on eye movement, involuntary muscle spasms, bladder problems, sexual problems, pain, cognitive issues, itching, depression, mood swings, irritability and numbness are some common symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

"I had numbness in my feet, so my doctor first said I had poor choice in footwear.... But I of course still had it, plus numbness in my hands, a few months later, and my doctor then said it was because of homework and studying. When I started my first job I had double vision, and an ophthalmologist was actually the first person to mention it could be MS, and I was diagnosed soon after," said Jennifer Digmann, writer and multiple sclerosis patient.

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons

I am disabled. I fall sometimes. I drop things. My memory is foggy. And my left side is asking for directions from a broken GPS. But we are doing it. And I laugh and I don’t know exactly what I will do precisely but I will do my best.

— Selma Blair Beitner, American actress and multiple sclerosis patient.

Selma Blair

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons

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Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is not easy. No single test can provide a definitive multiple sclerosis diagnosis.

To understand what is causing symptoms, your doctor may perform a physical examination.

You may also have blood tests and imaging tests, including MRI.

An MRI looks for evidence of lesions in the brain or spinal cord that indicate multiple sclerosis.


Multiple sclerosis causes the body's immune system to be directed against the CNS. If untreated, it can cause permanent damage and disability.

Treatment of multiple sclerosis has 2 aspects: immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) for the underlying immune disorder and therapies to relieve or modify symptoms.

Most neurologists agree that a course of high-dose corticosteroids is the best treatment for a severe MS relapse.

Intravenous methylprednisolone is typically given in 3 or 5-day courses with 1 gram (1000 mg) of steroids infused daily.

Some people with multiple sclerosis might consider amputating the limb. This is extremely uncommon, but it may be necessary in certain cases including infected pressure sores, chronic neuropathic pain and paralysis.

Kesimpta may be more effective at reducing relapse rates than other disease-modifying therapies in Japanese adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, according to a review of clinical trial data. The review study was published in the journal Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology.

Early diagnosis and availability of new drugs and treatment options can help improve the quality of a MS patients’ life.

— Dr Satish Khadilkar, Dean, Bombay Hospital and Medical Center.


Do not use tobacco products. Ensure that your BMI is between 18.5 and 24.9; yoga will help you in this.

People who are obese at age 20 are twice as likely to develop multiple sclerosis later in life as people who are not obese.

Multiple sclerosis didn’t stop me becoming the best in the country.

— Aimi Bullock, UK’s number one golfer with a disability and multiple sclerosis patient.


For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.

  1. Multiple sclerosis is a disease of ________
    • Lungs
    • Kidney
    • Liver
    • CNS
  2. What increases the risk of multiple sclerosis?
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • All the above
  3. Intravenous methylprednisolone is typically given in 3 or 5-day courses with how many grams of steroids infused daily?
    • 3
    • 2
    • 1
    • 4
  4. Corticosteroids are used to treat multiple sclerosis.
    • True
    • False
  5. Which among these is a symptom of multiple sclerosis?
    • Pain
    • Fatigue
    • Blurred vision
    • All the above

Answer Key

  1. CNS
  2. All the above
  3. 1
  4. True
  5. All the above

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2019 Srikanth R

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