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Hepatitis A

My name is Anzeela Arjumand. I am studying in the Punjab university Lahore in the field of biochemistry.

HAV is the most common causative agent of the disease hepatitis A and is transmitted by the sexual contacts of the people who are already infected with the HAV. Hepatitis A is the mildest type of hepatitis because it generally affects the liver of human beings and is treated completely because preventive measures are available to treat hepatitis A.
It is transmitted through the feces of the affected individuals and sexual contacts and by ingesting the contaminated food materials.
A virus causes many chronic and infectious diseases. Still, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and unique pathogen that is the primary agent of causing hepatitis A, and it affects people of all ages. The most infectious disease caused by a virus is hepatitis A due to improper hygiene and poor living conditions and is mainly present in developing countries.


Annually, more significant numbers of people are affected due to hepatitis A, an enigmatic virus. Hepatitis A is the mildest form of hepatitis because it does not cause crucial diseases that are not easily treated.
Hepatitis A belongs to Picornaviruses' family, which are spherical or round shape, icosahedral capsid with 20 different types of forms. Their diameter is about 30nm, which is very small to be seen with the naked eye for an average individual.
Hepatitis A is mainly transmitted through the fecal-oral route and is also transmitted through sexual contacts among heterosexual individuals like men having sex with other men or by ingestion of contaminated food materials or intaking dirty water from the sewage.
Hepatitis A is also transmitted by direct contact with the infected individuals who do not have proper hygiene facilities and uses harmful drugs that are not beneficial for their health.


Hepatitis A disease

Hepatitis A disease is the most infectious disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is transmitted through feces of the infected and normal individuals and also through sexual contacts like men have sex with other men and is also transmitted due to the lack of hygiene facilities and poor living conditions.
Hepatitis A is entirely cured by giving routine vaccination to the affected individuals because it is the mildest type of hepatitis. Hepatitis A mostly affects the liver because it is a liver disease.
As we know, vaccination is essential for treating disease, but other preventive measures like proper sanitation, drinking safe water, and food that is not contaminated are necessary for hepatitis A treatment.


Hepatitis A is also an age-related disease. In the early ages, like in infants, hepatitis A is asymptomatic. Jaundice is also the main symptom of hepatitis A, but this symptom is higher in older people.
The severe symptoms of hepatitis A are nausea, appetite loss, malaise, fever, abdominal discomfort, dark-colored urine, yellowing of the skin, and hyperbilirubinemia. Necrosis of hepatocytes and apoptosis are the main symptoms of hepatitis A. HAV infected liver contains an abundant amount of plasma cells.



Hepatitis A is transmitted by HAV by contact from person to person, by contact with food, by contact with water. The alimentary route is not the transmission route; that's why gastrointestinal transmission was studied in some countries.

Hepatitis A is also known as a foodborne disease because it is transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food materials.

Oral transmission

In the fecal-oral route in which viruses are transmitted by contact with the individuals' feces, pathogen is first excreted out in the fecal course. The virus is sent in the oral cavity and is then absorbed in the stomach and the individuals' small intestine. So the HAV started replicating inside the liver, which is then excreted into the bile.

Parental transmission

Hepatitis A virus is transmitted through the parental route because blood and blood products rarely cause hepatitis A in individuals. Hepatitis A is caused if whole blood serum is injected into the individual.

When the mother gave birth to a child, then there are greater chances that the mother got affected with jaundice due to blood loss. The next generations also get involved because the disease is transmitted from mother to child and spread to other individuals through sexual contact.



Hepatitis A is the most common disease among individuals nowadays. There are many causative agents of hepatitis A, but the primary causative agent of hepatitis A is the HAV. It is transmitted through sexual contact with individuals and the intake of contaminated food materials or water.
The main symptoms of the disease are jaundice, appetite loss, abdominal discomfort, etc. It is transmitted through the oral cavity, and some viruses are absorbed in the stomach walls. Parental and oral transmission is the most common method for the transmission of the disease hepatitis A.


Anny leone on September 02, 2020:

Good effort

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Keep it up.

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 29, 2020:


I will do it...


Stesha den on June 29, 2020:

You have to do some more hard work.

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 28, 2020:

Thank you, mattern

You are always amazing, as usual.

Stay safe...

Mattern Pamela on June 28, 2020:

Amazing work...

Keep it up

Noor fatima on June 24, 2020:

MashaAllah ❤keep it up may Allah bless u ❤

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 21, 2020:

Thanks Rida...

Rida Maryam on June 21, 2020:

Great work...

Keep it up...

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 21, 2020:

Thanku Ellie...

Ellie John on June 21, 2020:

Very informative article.

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