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Hepatitis A

My name is Anzeela Arjumand. I am studying in the Punjab university Lahore in the field of biochemistry.

Hepatitis A

HAV is the most common causative agent of the disease hepatitis A and is transmitted by the sexual contacts of the people who are already infected with the HAV. Hepatitis A is the mildest type of hepatitis because it generally affected the liver of human beings and is treated completely because preventive measures are available for the treatment of the hepatitis A.

It is transmitted through the feces of the affected individuals and through sexual contacts and by ingesting the contaminated food materials.

A virus causes many chronic and infectious diseases but hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and unique pathogen which is the main agent of causing hepatitis A and it affects people of all ages. The most infectious disease caused by virus is hepatitis A due to improper hygiene and poor living conditions and is mainly present in developing countries.


Annually, greater numbers of people are affected due to hepatitis A, which is an enigmatic virus. Hepatitis A is the mildest form of hepatitis because it does not causes crucial diseases which are not easily treated.

Hepatitis A belongs to the family of Picornaviruses which are spherical or round shape, icosahedral capsid having 20 different types of shapes and their diameter is about 30nm which is very small to be seen with naked eye for a normal individual.

Hepatitis A is mainly transmitted through fecal-oral route and is also transmitted through sexual contacts among the heterosexual individuals like men have sex with the other men or by ingestion of contaminated food materials or by intaking dirty water from the sewages.

Hepatitis A is also transmitted by direct contact with the infected individuals who do not have proper hygiene facilities and uses harmful drugs which are not beneficial for their health.


Hepatitis A disease

Hepatitis A disease is the most infectious disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) which is transmitted through feces of the infected and normal individuals and also through sexual contacts like men have sex with the other men and is also transmitted due to the lack of hygiene facilities and poor living conditions.

Hepatitis A is cured completely by giving routine vaccination to the affected individuals because it is the mildest type of hepatitis. Hepatitis A mostly affects the liver because it is a liver disease.

As we know, vaccination is very important for the treatment of disease but other preventive measures like proper sanitation, drinking safe water and food which is not contaminated is very important for the hepatitis A treatment.


Hepatitis A is also an age related disease. In the early ages like in the infants hepatitis A is an asymptomatic. Jaundice is also the main symptom of hepatitis A but this symptom is higher in older people.

The severe symptoms of the hepatitis A are nausea, appetite loss, malaise, fever, abdominal discomfort, dark colored urine, yellowing of the skin and hyper bilirubinemia. Necrosis of hepatocytes and apoptosis are the main symptoms of hepatitis A. HAV infected liver contains abundant amount of plasma cells.



Hepatitis A is transmitted by HAV by contact from person to person, by contact with food, by contact with water. Alimentary route is not the transmission route but gastrointestinal transmission was studied in some countries.

Hepatitis A is also known as foodborne disease because it is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food materials.

Oral transmission

In fecal oral route in which viruses are transmitted by contact with the feces of the individuals because pathogen is first excreted out in the fecal route and virus is transmitted in the oral cavity and is then absorbed in the stomach and the small intestine of the individuals. So the HAV started replicating inside the liver which is then excreted into the bile.

Parental transmission

Hepatitis A virus is transmitted through parental route because blood and products of blood rarely causes hepatitis A in the individuals. Hepatitis A is caused if whole blood serum is injected into the individual.

When mother gave birth to child, then there are greater chances that mother got affected with jaundice due to the loss of blood and the next generations also get affected because the disease is transmitted from mother to child and is also transmitted to other individuals through sexual contacts.



Hepatitis A is the most common disease among the individuals now days. So there are many causative agent of the hepatitis A but the main causative agent of hepatitis A is the HAV. It is transmitted through sexual contacts with individuals and also due to the intake of contaminated food materials or water.

The main symptoms of the disease are jaundice, appetite loss, abdominal discomfort etc. It is transmitted through the oral cavity and some viruses are absorbed in the walls of stomach. Parental and oral transmission is the most common methods for the transmission of the disease hepatitis A.


Anny leone on September 02, 2020:

Good effort

Keep it up.

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 29, 2020:


I will do it...


Stesha den on June 29, 2020:

You have to do some more hard work.

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 28, 2020:

Thank you, mattern

You are always amazing, as usual.

Stay safe...

Mattern Pamela on June 28, 2020:

Amazing work...

Keep it up

Noor fatima on June 24, 2020:

MashaAllah ❤keep it up may Allah bless u ❤

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 21, 2020:

Thanks Rida...

Rida Maryam on June 21, 2020:

Great work...

Keep it up...

Anzeela Arjumand (author) from Khanewal on June 21, 2020:

Thanku Ellie...

Ellie John on June 21, 2020:

Very informative article.