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Health Benefits of Alkaline Water - The Healthy Drinking Water

Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.

Water Is Vital For Our Health And Well Being

Water Is Vital For Our Health And Well Being

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The Importance Of Water And Healthy Drinking Water

Water is the basis of life for all practical means. It is necessary for the normal metabolic processes of living beings including humans. Functions like flushing out toxins, the process of digestion and absorption of food, carrying nutrients to each and every tissue and cell of the body and cooling of the body are invariably done by water.

Next to air, water is the most important for survival. Therefore, the importance of healthy drinking water cannot be overemphasized. Water is needed to properly hydrate the body and is a fundamental requirement for keeping the body healthy. Despite this, we tend to forget this basic truth.

We should be drinking somewhere like 3 to 4 litres of water every day or as a simple rule drink 1 litre of water per 40 pounds of body weight.
75% of our body weight is water and 70% of the muscles are made up of water. What more incentive and proof than this is needed for us too realize how important water consumption is.

It has been found that a 5% drop in body fluids will cause a 20-30% loss in energy in most people. Even mild dehydration can reduce our metabolism by 3%. Also, a drop in body fluids by 15% can lead to death.

Dehydration can lead to symptoms like thirst, depression, fatigue, digestive problems, skin problems, obesity and even cancer apart from various other health issues.

Most of the time, just drinking enough pure water can solve a lot of these conditions. Some of the benefits of drinking about 7 to 8 glasses of healthy drinking water, every day, is;

  • Removal of toxins and wastes from the body
  • Boosting of the metabolism
  • Reducing weight
  • Reducing the risk of a heart attack
  • Decrease the risk of colon cancer
  • Decrease the risk of breast cancer.

Before I get down to the benefits of alkaline water, which is healthy drinking water, there are some terms like alkaline water, PH, reduced water, ORP or redox potential and their relation with one another that need to be explained further to better understand the entire concept of ionized alkaline water being good for health.

PH (Potential Of Hydrogen)

PH or potential of hydrogen is a numerical value that measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The values range from 0-14 (highly acidic to highly alkaline).

It expresses the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. As you know water is made up of hydrogen(H+) and hydroxide(OH-) ions. When the H+ ions are predominant the solution is acidic and when the OH- ions are predominant, the solution is basic or alkaline.

At PH 7, the H+ and the OH- ion concentration is equal and the solution is neutral.

The PH scale is a log scale meaning a change of 1 PH unit means a change of 10 times in the concentration of the hydrogen ions.

How Is PH measured?

PH is measured in 3 ways by :

  • A PH meter and electrode in the lab. This is the most accurate method.
  • A pocket PH meter for testing in the field.
  • By PH strips and checking the intensity of the colour obtained when compared to a chart.

Difference Between PH & Alkalinity

Most of us are of the view that PH is the most important thing when looking for alkaline water. The higher the PH more alkaline the water. In reality, this is not so. PH and alkalinity are 2 different things.

PH indicates how acidic or basic ( alkaline?) a solution is,- in the case of our hub, how acidic or basic water is. It expresses the hydrogen ion concentration of water.
Alkalinity, on the other hand, is the measure of the capacity to resist a sudden change in PH. This capacity is also called the buffering capacity.

For example, if a weak acid solution is added to 2 water samples both of PH 7 but one having zero alkalinity (no buffering power) and the other with alkalinity 50 mg/litre (buffering power) then the PH of the zero alkalinity water will drop immediately while the PH of the water with buffering capacity will hardly change at all.

For this reason, one can have water with high PH and low alkalinity and conversely water with a low PH but high alkalinity like in sparkling mineral waters.

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Alkalinity is also the capacity of a solution to neutralize acids.

Though PH & Alkalinity are related, alkalinity does not depend entirely on PH.
PH just measures the degree of alkalinity, not its quantity.

Alkalinity measures the concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate and OH ions. Sodium bicarbonate is the main alkaline buffer in our blood. Alkalinity is an indication of how much bicarbonate is present in water. It is measured in mg/litre or ppm as CaCo3 in the laboratory.

ORP/Redox Potential & Its Relation To Alkaline Water

Alkaline medium has the property to discourage the growth of pathogenic bacteria while an acidic medium favours bacterial growth. Hence alkaline water is the kind of healthy drinking water we should be drinking to remain healthy.

Closely related to this concept, is another one, called ORP or Oxidation Reduction Potential. Also called, Redox Potential, it is the capacity or potential to reduce the number of free radicals by attacking them. As is known free radicals are harmful and cause various health problems in the body.

ORP is measured in millivolts (mv) by an ORP meter. It has either a positive or negative number. Water with a negative ORP acts like an antioxidant and is beneficial to the body. Also in most cases higher the PH, more alkaline the water and higher the -ve ORP.

For example, tap water or bottled water has ORP values between +100 to +300. Soft drinks have much higher ORP of +500- to +600, while,
a 9.5 PH water normally has an ORP of about -200 to -300 mv or thereabouts.

Soft drinks as can be seen apart from being highly acidic have a very high ORP. This makes them extremely harmful and unsafe as they allow the free radicals a free reign to attack and destroy tissue. It is for this reason that soft drinks are health destroyers.

So if you are drinking alkaline water, be rest assured that you are taking in antioxidant-rich healthy drinking water, one that is health-promoting.

About Free Radicals

Oxygen is needed by the body to survive. Although it is stable in air, when there is an excess in the body it becomes active and therefore unstable attaching to healthy cells.

When the free radicals are limited in number they benefit by attacking and destroying bacteria, virus etc but when the free radicals are high in numbers they attack and attach to the normal healthy cells and tissues oxidizing them in the process.

For example, if they oxidize the :

  • Liver - it leads to hepatitis, cirrhosis and cancer.
  • Pancreas - it leads to pancreatitis, diabetes and cancer.
  • Kidney - it leads to nephritis, nephrosis and cancer.

To prevent the oxidation of the healthy tissues and diseased conditions, it is essential to scavenge or neutralize this active oxygen. One way to do this is by providing them with free electrons, thus preventing them from attacking healthy tissues. It is here that natural antioxidants like Vitamin C, E, beta carotene etc are helpful.

Also, reduced water, that is, alkaline ionized water which has free electrons to donate to neutralize the active oxygen is very beneficial since the lower molecular weight of reduced water facilitates its easier, faster absorption and thus reaching all tissues in a short time.

The 4 Most Important Benefits Of Alkaline Water

Drink 3 to 4 liters of fresh, pure and good quality water every day to get the following health benefits.

  • Abundant Energy

Dehydration causes a slow down of our metabolism. Water is necessary for all metabolic processes. Dehydration by just 5% can cause headaches, mind and body fatigue, fuzzy thinking, mood swings and depression. When we are dehydrated both the body and mind suffer.

  • Weight Loss

Most of the times low energy levels are perceived to be a sign that the body needs food. This causes us to overeat leading to an increase in body weight. But more often than not dehydration is the cause of this low energy. By staying properly hydrated we eat less and consequently avoid gaining weight.
To add to this an optimally working metabolism prevents us from gaining weight.

  • A Healthy Skin

Skin problems like acne, dryness, eczema, etc tend to go away as the body starts to get hydrated. Under conditions of dehydration, the body conserves its water sores to ensure supply to the critical organs like the heart and brain. The skin suffers as its water supply is curtailed.

Proper hydration ensures the supply of water to all parts of the body including skin and removal of toxins and wastes therefrom.

  • anti-ageing Effect

Accumulation of toxins in our body causes ageing and even premature ageing. Also, an over-acidic condition of the body promotes ageing.

Antioxidants prevent ageing as they detoxify the body. Alkaline water is antioxidant rich water that can slow ageing.

Benefits Of Alkaline Water

Our body is designed to work best in an alkaline medium. Our blood PH is in the range of 7.3 to 7.4. Except for our digestive tract, the body PH is alkaline. When a lot of acidic food is consumed, like bread, sugar, fizzy drinks, processed and refined foods, dairy and its products, meat and meat products, alcohol etc, the body is under a lot of stress to maintain its blood PH at its normal range.

Highly alkaline water helps to maintain the body's alkalinity and flush out the toxins and acids. Therefore, it can be said that to get the benefits of proper hydration from water, the drinking water should be pure and alkaline. It can also be said that alkaline water is healthy drinking water.

Ways To Make Alkaline Water - Healthy Drinking Water

The following are some of the ways used to make alkaline water :

  • By Using An Ioniser, which gives,

-) A high PH

A PH of 9.5 at the tap outlet is the best.

-) Antioxidant-rich water

Water with an ORP of -150 to -450.

-) Filtered water

Removal of toxins, chemicals, pesticides and heavy metals but keeping the soluble healthy minerals intact.

-) Reduced water

This reduced water can permeate tissues and cell membranes much faster and easier than conventional water thus giving instant and superior hydration.

  • By Using PH Drops

PH drops are an excellent way to prepare alkaline water when one is on the move. By adding these drops one is adding highly concentrated minerals drops to make the water alkaline. There are a number of brands available with similar effects - high PH water.

  • By Using An Alkaline Stick

When travelling this stick is an easy and effective way to make alkaline water. It can convert any water to mildly acidic alkaline water in no time raising the PH by 1 to 2 points. It is quite handy and can last for about a year when used with normal water.

  • By Using Lemon Or Lime Juice

Though lemons and limes are acidic in nature when consumed they alkalize the body, as they contain high levels of alkaline minerals.

Squeeze 1/2 to 1 lemon in 1 litre of water and drink first thing in the morning. Tap water or warm water may be used if preferred. This early alkaline drink alkalizes the system, revs the metabolism, liver and kidneys and stimulates the digestive system into action. It is a great way to start off the day.

  • Adding Other Alkaline Minerals

They do raise the PH but neither filter nor ionize the water. On the contrary, the number of minerals needed to make 3 to 4 litres of water for consumption every day, may exceed the recommended daily limit of these minerals and may be harmful.

It may be used as a supplement to add a glassful of mineral-rich water to your daily intake to kick-start your day.

Water Ioniser

Water Ioniser

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Some of my other hubs on health

Water Ionizers

Tap water normally is around the neutral PH of 7 and an ORP of +400 to +500 mv. Due to its +ve ORP or redox potential, it acquires electrons and oxidises other molecules.

Without going into the technicalities of how ionized water is produced by the water ionizers, suffice it to say here that, they produce 2 types of water viz Reduced water & Oxidized water.

Reduced water is the water in which the in the cluster size is reduced from 10 - 13 molecules to 5 - 6 molecules per cluster and at the same time this water gains -ve electrons.

The ionized water or reduced water is available at the tap while the oxidized water is sent out back through a hose to the sink.
The oxidized water is good for sanitizing hands, washing of vegetables & fruits, utensils and cleaning of minor wounds.

The ionized water so produced is with low molecular weight and high redox potential and is a far superior scavenger of free radicals. Due to the smaller water clusters, this reduced water is more easily absorbed by the body and transported to each and every cell of the body than tap water. The free electrons that it carries are freely donated to the free radicals, thus preventing the free radicals from oxidizing healthy tissue and causing disease.

This reduced water also benefits in reducing excessive fermentation of food in the digestive system leading to a healthier digestive tract.

Concluding Remarks

Scientist, inventor and author of the book "Reverse Aging" and an expert on reverse ageing, Sang Whang says :

"The ingredients in the stomach cell that make HCl acid are carbon dioxide, sodium chloride or potassium chloride which react as shown below :

NaCl + H2O + CO2 -) HCl + NaHCO3 OR
NaCl + H2O + CO2 -) HCl + KHCO3 "

He also says :

" In order to digest food and the possible bacteria and viruses with it the stomach environment is acidic around PH 4. When alkaline water is drunk, PH goes up.
The feedback mechanism orders more HCl acid to be secreted to bring back the PH to 4. So the stomach becomes acidic once more. When we drink more alkaline water more HCl is secreted to maintain the PH value of the stomach."

From the above chemical reaction, it can be seen that sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate is the by-product when HCl is made.

As we keep drinking more alkaline water of high PH more HCl acid is produced as well as a balancing amount of bicarbonate too.

Thus there is a net gain of alkalinity in the body.

For optimum health, drink healthy water - Alkaline water.


The information provided in this hub is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult your physician, or health care provider before taking any home remedies, supplements or starting a new health regime or practice.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2012 Rajan Singh Jolly


Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on December 03, 2017:

Yes Finn this is the easiest & quickest option besides benefitting in other ways. of course opting for raw vegetables and fruits is another way to raise alkalinity of the body.

Thanks for stopping by.

Fin from Barstow on November 26, 2017:

informative article. I'll try the lemon and lime option right now to help raise the alkaline content of my water.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on March 28, 2016:

You are welcome, Audrey.

Audrey Hunt from Pahrump NV on March 27, 2016:

Thanks rajan!

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on March 27, 2016:

Though it is believed that plastic and other water packaging material is safe (the FDA also regulates these food packaging materials with respect to ensuring the safety of these materials vis-a-vis food/water packing), I personally would like to keep the water bottles away from direct sunlight, and the freezer too.

Electrolytes in excess may harm rather than benefit us.

Thanks for reading, pinning and sharing this hub Audrey.

Audrey Hunt from Pahrump NV on March 24, 2016:

I'm a big fan of Alkaline water, pH 9.5. The bottled water I buy also has electrolytes. Is this an added bonus?

Should plastic water bottles be kept out of the sun as well as the freezer?

Thank you my friend for this informative hub. Pinning and sharing.

Harsha Vardhana R from Bangalore on June 25, 2015:

Rajan, what is the effect of keeping water in silver vessels overnight?

I have read that when Alexander tried to invade India, his forces got a lot disorders due to water infections. But higher rank army men were fit! Later they found that top folks had silver and lower ranks with some low-cast alloys. So Alexander failed! I don't know how true it is but indicates the effects of water containers!

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on June 25, 2015:

@AshleyChatman thank you.

Strawberry Girl, copper kills the bacteria in the water. Ayurveda recommends a early morning drink of water kept in a copper vessel overnight. Some copper tends to dissolve in the water & this provides several health benefits.

Ashley Chatman from New York City on June 23, 2015:

Wonderful writing very factual and indepth. I am on a mission to purchase ionizers to poor families. Please donate and share my link. Thank you.

Strawberry Girl on May 10, 2015:

Rajan Jolly, thank you for the very informative article. I'm also wondering about drinking water stored in a pure copper jug . I've read that alkalizes it. Do you think that's an efficient way to get alkalized water daily?

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on February 07, 2013:

Peggy, our bodies have become too acidic because of the many processed foods that we put in and consequently we suffer from a lot of ailments. Trying to make it more alkaline will benefit our health in the long run.

I'm glad you appreciate the info in this hub.

Thanks for being here. It is such a pleasure to see you.

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on February 07, 2013:

Hi Rajan,

Living where we do when most of the year is warm it is not hard to remember to drink water throughout the day. I have been reading more and more about the health benefits of using more lemons in water and this hub of yours about the benefits of alkaline water confirms it. Can't wait for my lemon tree just planted this year to start producing! It has a bunch of tiny lemons being formed. Thanks for another health related hub. You are the master! Up, useful, interesting and will share.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on October 15, 2012:

fpherj, thanks for the compliments. I just reached for my glass of water right now after reading your comment. It's winter here so I need to remind myself to drink it often. Thank you for being here.

Suzie from Carson City on October 14, 2012:

rajan... I just love your hubs. You are so knowledgeable and informative on very crucial issues to our health. As much as I know about the importance of water.....and as much effort as I extend to consume a proper amount daily...I know I basically fail most of the time.

However, hubs like yours refresh my resolve and help to remind us of the importance.....I think today I will hang signs all over my home...."Drink Water!".....I also want to research various ionizers. Thanks rajan!! You keep me on my toes!........UP+++

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

@ Harsha - that's nice to know. Thanks for reading.

@ My2GreenBeans - Thanks. appreciate your stopping by to read.

@ Gypsy - Great to have your feedback. Thanks for visiting.

Gypsy Rose Lee from Daytona Beach, Florida on August 20, 2012:

Thanks for this very interesting and informative hub. We love drinking water with fresh lemon. Thanks for sharing and passing this on.

My2GreenBeans from Tennessee on August 20, 2012:

Thanks. I am recommending to a friend with cysteine stone disease. Part of the treatment includes drinking tons of water and increasing alkalinity of the body to decrease the formation of this specific type of kidney stone formation. I am hoping that an intake of alkaline water, which I had never heard of before, may help.

Harsha Vardhana R from Bangalore on August 20, 2012:

Lemonised water as the first intake of the day - I practice quite regularly and have experiences better stomach health and energy levels


Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

healthylife, lemon water is a great way to start drinking alkaline water. Thanks for the read and appreciation.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

@ DDE - drinking enough water is the basic criteria to ensure removal of toxins and keeping the body well hydrated. Thanks for stopping by.

@ hawaiian odysseus - I'm glad you appreciate my health articles. Thanks for such kind words and I hope you benefit from my articles.

Thank you for the visit and wonderful support.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

@ Cris - To generalize PH drops are an effective way to keep alkalizing one's drinking water when travelling. They are costly though. Regarding the specific brand you want to know about, its not possible for me to know as I have no idea about it.

Lemonizing water is good but to get the full effects of the antioxidant s in water it has to be ionized by using a water ionizer.

Thanks for sparing time to read and share.

@ Vellur - Thanks for reading. Glad you found it informative.

@ snowdrops - Thanks for reading and appreciating.

healthylife2 on August 20, 2012:

Very well researched article on water. I think I will add a little lemon to my water to make it more alkaline.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Thanks Sandra for letting me know that the hub helped you understand this subject better. Thanks for the votes and sharing.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

DF, thanks for reading. I'm sorry I'm not aware of the circumstances of Sang Whang's death.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Aurelio, thanks for the read and votes. Good to know you consume enough of this life sustaining liquid.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Urmila, thanks for reading and commenting. Appreciate your visit and sharing.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

ehealer, this is the requirement per day. In hotter conditions if need be one can consume more if you need.

Thanks for stopping by.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Thanks for being as supportive as ever Bill. Have a good day.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Thanks for appreciating the work, dwachira. Thanks for reading and commenting.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Real housewife, you can link to this hub anytime you need to. It's an honor.

Thanks for your input and votes.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Nice question, Carol! When water consumption is calculated it is calculated for the water consumed as such excluding what is in the food.

I'm glad to be able to share some valuable info about water. Thanks for sharing.

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 20, 2012:

Thanks, sweetie. Glad this hub helped you understand PH better.

Hawaiian Odysseus from Southeast Washington state on August 20, 2012:

I love your health articles, rajan jolly! I just copied and will be pasting an excerpt from your hub for my wife to read. Thank you for working hard in your research and writing.

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on August 19, 2012:

Vote up!!! I drink the required amount of water daily you have have taught me lots about water

Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on August 19, 2012:

thumbi, tap water, in fact non ionized water is antioxidant free for all practical purposes. Only ionised alkaline water has antioxidant properties.

Thanks for reading and glad you liked.

JR Krishna from India on August 19, 2012:

Very interesting information

Many a times we skip drinking water when we are busy with other work.

Do you think boiling the water for drinking can reduce its antioxidant property?

snowdrops from The Second Star to the Right on August 19, 2012:

Wow very interesting facts. Wonderful and well written. Glad to know something in here.

Nithya Venkat from Dubai on August 19, 2012:

There is so much to the properties of water that affect our health. Thanks for sharing, learned a lot. Voted up.

CrisSp from Sky Is The Limit Adventure on August 19, 2012:

Very interesting. I wonder, can you shed some lights on this Travel Water Drops please. I once have posted a question about it on HP but it seems that not too many hubbers are aware of it. I'm quite skeptic about it but fellow FA is selling it at $50 each 30ml bottle. How effective is this and is it worth my $$?

For now, I am sticking to my daily ritual of plain water with lemon. I call it "lemonized water". (:-

Thanks for this very informative and useful hub. Voted Up and sharing.

Sandra Busby from Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA on August 19, 2012:

Great hub on water, Rajan. Thank you for taking the time to explain what for me has always been a complicated subject. Voted up and shared.

DFiduccia from Las Vegas on August 19, 2012:

This was an interesting hub, and I enjoyed the video of Sang Whang's presentation. It's curious that he died at age 79. Do you know anything about the circumstances of his passing?

Aurelio Locsin from Orange County, CA on August 19, 2012:

I do drink a lot of water everyday, but just because I knew it was always a good thing to do. Now you've pointed out the many reasons why it's good. Thanks. Voting this Up and Useful.

Urmila from Rancho Cucamonga,CA, USA on August 19, 2012:

Wow! so educational. I love how you explained Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions in water and benefit of drinking alkaline water.

Very well written, useful, voted up and shared!

Deborah from Las Vegas on August 19, 2012:

Rajan, I don't think I'm drinking enough water. I live in Las Vegas, and it gets over 105 degrees here daily. I am active outdoors (okay, usually in the pool). How much water do I need to add to the 3-4 liters to compensate for living in the heat?

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on August 19, 2012:

You are the master of these health hubs! Many try to write about these things but none are better than you my friend. Great job once again.

Wishing you peace and happiness, today and all days.


Danson Wachira from Nairobi, Kenya on August 19, 2012:

Experts recommends 12 glasses of water or more daily, there must be a reason for that, you have done well here rajan highlighting the many benefits of water. Voted up.

Kelly Umphenour from St. Louis, MO on August 19, 2012:

Pretty cool Rajan! I may seek permission to link this from you later - I'm working on something it could tie in beautifully to:).

My daughter did a science experiment about water quality a couple years ago - she got a First place ribbon and it went to Regional!

No one really thinks enough about water! We take it for granted!

Way up++++

carol stanley from Arizona on August 19, 2012:

Interesting. We all know we should drink water, but often find it difficult to comsume so much. What about fruits and veggies as they have high water content--does that count? I know the value of keeping our bodies at a larger percentage alkali. Thanks for sharing this very interesting and indepth hub. Voted UP and will share.

sweetie1 from India on August 19, 2012:

A very useful hubs. I always thought before that water with Ph of 7 is best. Now you have changed my thought process about water.

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