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Female Hormones: All Important Facts

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Female hormones all important facts

Female hormones all important facts

All important facts on a Female hormones

"All about female hormones and modern contraception" was the topic of the last MINI MED evening of the winter semester 2018/2019 in the Van Swieten Hall of MedUni Vienna.

Hormones, hormonal disorders, and contraception were the main topics of the lecture by Prof. Priv.-Doz. Dr. Katharina Walch, professor at the clinical department for gynecological endocrinology and reproductive medicine at MedUniVienna. Pleasingly, several gentlemen accepted the invitation.

"Knowledge of female hormones is essential to correctly diagnose and treat cycle disorders and gynecological-endocrinological dysfunctions," says Katharina Walch. In Central Europe, the age of the menarche - i.e., the beginning of the first menstrual period - is 12 years. On average, the menopause begins in the mid-50s.

Overview


1) Oestrogen

2) "resting hormone" progesterone

3) Hormonal disorders

4) Individual contraception

5) After the menopause

Oestrogen


An "influential" female hormone is estrogen. At birth, a girl's estrogen level is still very high and decreases during the first weeks of life. The ovaries produce estrogen, and to a lesser extent by the adrenal glands and, during pregnancy, by the placenta. In the first half of the cycle, the estrogen level rises, especially significantly shortly before ovulation. As a result, the luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation, also increases. In the second half of the cycle, the "corpus luteum hormone" progesterone dominates, which creates optimal conditions for the implantation of a fertilized egg. If the corpus luteum hormone is released, this is also reflected in the body temperature. It increases by about half a degree Celcius. Progesterone continues to be released if a fertilized egg implants until it is taken over by the placenta. If no egg is implanted, progesterone production is reduced again, and menstruation begins.

The female hormone estrogen also has a significant influence on the development of the primary sexual organs, on the appearance of the skin, the mood, or the female fat distribution. It also ensures that the cervical mucus becomes more fluid during the ovulation phase and that male sperm advance to fertilize an egg. During menopause, it influences bone growth, and the deficiency that occurs can lead to osteoporosis. The specialist: "An estrogen deficiency can lead to cycle disorders, hot flushes, dry mucous membranes, sleep disorders, osteoporosis, itching in the urogenital tract or infections. Or - especially during the menopause - depressive mood, cardiac arrhythmia, muscle or joint pain, concentration problems, nervousness, increased blood lipids, dry eyes, and hair".

"resting hormone" progesterone


The antagonist of estrogen is progesterone. It is released after ovulation and is essential for maintaining and preparing for pregnancy. "It initiates a 'resting phase' of the uterus. During this phase, the body temperature can also be slightly elevated," says Katharina Walch. Around one million eggs are already in place at birth. "A marker for the egg cell reserve is the anti-Müller hormone (AMH). It correlates with the follicles and decreases from the age of 30 onwards. This means that the egg reserves are also decreasing. A progesterone deficiency often results in cycle disorders, mastodynia, or a lack of vitality, or causes heavy sweating, sleep disorders, and emotional imbalance.

Hormonal disorders


Many young women suffer from various cycle disorders. Doctors distinguish between tempo anomaly and type anomaly. A tempo anomaly is when bleeding does not occur at all, the intervals are too long or too short, or the bleeding is too long or too short. A type of anomaly describes the intensity of bleeding. This often occurs at the beginning of puberty, either in the form of bleeding that is too heavy or too irregular.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder of sexual maturation. It is characterized by a lack of gonadotropin (Gn) and low levels of sex hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Hormone replacement therapy is used for treatment.

The POF syndrome ("premature ovarian failure") refers to the premature termination of female egg cell maturation and menopause, which becomes clinically apparent before the age of 40. The causes of this disease can be genetic factors, but also chemotherapy, autoimmune or metabolic disorders. This disease is treated with hormone replacement therapy, and egg donation should be considered if you wish to have children.

Hyperprolactinemia is an excess of the hormone prolactin in the blood. This hormone ensures the growth of the breast during pregnancy and also plays a role in the production of milk during breastfeeding. Such hyperprolactinemia can have various causes. In women, it often leads to cycle disorders, the absence of periods, and milk-like secretion from the breast.

In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS for short), an enlargement of the ovaries occurs due to cyst formation. Characteristics of PCOS are cycle disorders, increased hormone levels, and ovarian cysts. Treatment aims to relieve symptoms.

Individual contraception


For contraception, on the other hand, a wide range of hormonal and mechanical methods are available today. "In addition to safety, the focus is also on the good tolerability of a contraceptive," says Katharina Walch. Hormonal contraceptives are often accompanied by "desired side effects." For example, modern methods can relieve menstrual pain, improve the appearance of the skin, and much more.

After the menopause


However, hormones often cause problems after menopause, such as when a lack of estrogen impairs the quality of life. In this case, the physician advises individual consultation, because the hormone replacement therapy, which has been well known up to now, has been further developed and gentler, lighter methods, such as gels, are also available. Hormone replacement therapy should always be administered in low doses and should not be used in breast cancer.

© 2020 Rana Moneeb

Comments

Muqit from Lahore, Pakistan on July 05, 2020:

increases my Knowledge, It good work about hormones. it important to know the Doctors how the hormones work in ladies or girls body.