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Evolution Of Ayurveda: Birth Of Most Ancient Medical Branch

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Introduction

A thousand-year back, a new science emerged that has health-related knowledge and talks about the other world, i.e. before birth and after death. Earlier, the knowledge was only verbal, but it got in scripting form for the first time. It was enriched with the knowledge of basic principles of life, disease, its possible treatment protocol that may include both drugs as well as Gods’ pray. Ayurveda is being neglected by the current generation of humans but it has a valid existence even though being destroyed by many causes in a different era of time.

Pre-Vedic Phase

Even before the existence of Vedas Ayurveda does have its evidence in the verbal form which runs among the heavenly gods and was being used by them to treat the divine life. The biggest instance we can see is related to the Replacing of Lord Ganesa's separated head with the head of the elephant which shows the level of surgery being performed at that time. Ayurveda includes such never-ending facts which are non-human creation and will be present until the universe collapse.

Vedic Phase

Although Ayurveda is majorly derived from Atharvaveda it is also being scattered in all four Vedas of Hindu mythology. Such as knowledge related to Fever, hemorrhage, gynecological disorders, description regarding the worship of God to treat diseases in Rigveda. Many herbal drugs and minerals are being indicated in Yajurveda and Sham Veda. Veda provides the basis to all the knowledge that exists today related to all the streams of the human.

Samhita Phase

Till this time Ayurveda has gained much popularity and dependency of human beings to be relived on this. This was the time when it got scripted for the first time on Tad Patra (paper made of Bhurja Patra Tree). It was majorly compiled in two Epic books with the dominance of medicinal knowledge in one and surgical in the other.

  1. Sushruta Samhita was the first to come into existence with the dominance of surgical knowledge related to all the diseases present at that time. Its principles are so realistic and scientific that this is even followed today and can’t be neglected in any way. At that time, it included all the information on surgical instruments, their sterilization, leech therapy, anatomical structures, gynecological and obstetrics knowledge, detailed description of anti-natal care, care of neo-natal, description of diseases with their causes, symptoms, conservative and surgical management wherever applicable. It also includes a separate place for toxicology and related poison conditions along with their management. It has a broad place for diseases associated with ENT and many conditions which are being originated secondarily to some other medical entity. It blessed the world with Rhinoplasty and Otoplasty and Sushruta being called as Father of surgery given this surgery-dominated gift to the world.
  2. Charak Samhita came into existence after that which was full of conservative treatment along with enriched with the basic knowledge of pharmacy and associated branches. it blessed mankind with the knowledge to live a healthy and happy life in the birth life and after death. It validated the Panchakarma therapy, rejuvenating therapy, and judgment of the person regarding the death in upcoming times. It is given the basic principles of management of all the diseases that coexist today. It is enriched with knowledge of single drugs as well as some combined drugs which can be directly used in prescribed diseases which indicates validation of principles in the current Medicine branch of modern science.

Sangrahna Phase

This phase of time includes the summarized form of both Charak and Sushruta Samhita in form of Ashtanga Hardyam and Ashtanga Sangrah and also included the addition of new knowledge that exists at that time. It provided new standards and quality to treat disease as it brings the best of Ayurveda to mankind. This phase has given some more realistic science to humans.

Then comes the era Sarnagadhar Samhita (Book of Pharmaceutical preparation), Madhav Nidan (Book on Pathology), Bhav Prakash (Book related to plant properties). These are regarded as the minor trilogy of Ayurveda and created a new basis for practicing Ayurveda.

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Summery

Ayurveda is continuously under revolution but basics are universal and they never change. But if it is practiced as it is mentioned it can provide a new boon to medical sciences with herbal basics and principles. Even though it is acting as the second pillar to fight Covid-19, it is also not given the place it deserved

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