Skip to main content

Ebola: Hemorrhagic Disease: The ThirdWorldization Of A Deadly Plague

  • Author:
  • Updated date:

Ebola Virus

Initial sequencing showed strong similarity to the Zaire strain, the most lethal of the five Ebola subtypes.

Initial sequencing showed strong similarity to the Zaire strain, the most lethal of the five Ebola subtypes.

Musings And Aphorisms On Health

There is evidence there will be a major epidemic this comng Fall. The indication is that we will see a return of the 1918 Flu virus that is the most virulent form of Flu. In 1918, a half a million people died. The projections are that this virus will Affect and Effect one million Americans in 1976[and beyond].

- F. David matthews, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Improvement in health is the likely to come, in the future as in the past, from the modification of the conditions which led to the disease, rather than from intervention into the mechanisms of disease after it has occurred.

- Thomas McKeonwn, 1976

The Microbe Is Nothing; The Terrain, Everything.

- Louis Pasteur

Men who never have had the experience of trying, in the midst of an epidemic, to remain calm and keep experimental conditions, do not realize in the security of the laboratotries what one has to contnend with.

- Dr. MartinArrowsmith, from Arrowsmith, Sinclair Lewis

The Ebola Disease Keeps On Coming Back

I have thus far written couple of articles here on HubPages regarding Health Issues in south Africa. I am not a doctor by training, but I do serious research if the topic does not only deal 'specifically' with health, but includes politics, economics, massive refugee migrations, Changing social environments, local and regional warfare; issues of unpurified water, improper use of antibiotics and syringes, and decrepit health-care conditions in the existing health facilities and lack of protocol in their being run by local or foreign health-givers.

As a researcher, most of the issues I have listed and mentioned above, gives me the authority to address what is a scourge, then deemed to be emerging in the earlier decades, but today, is a scourge and threat to the rest of humanity, no matter where we are on the Planet earth. Migration and refugees feeling they wars in their countries enable and spread. So that, to date, we now are aware from various researches that the past 100 years has seen conditions such as I have listed above giving rise to the spread to and recurrent outbreaks of very rare and strange diseases, epidemics, and those that have mutated and are no longer curable.

One note I would like to make about the source of my Hub is Laurie Garrett whose work I will cite from heavily to demonstrate what I call the ThirdWorldization of the Emerging and present-day Plagues. She is a New Yorker and writer on health and science. I will defer to her later on in the Hub because, according to Mullan, she, Garrett, has contributed to our awareness of human ecology and the fragility of the relative biological well-being that many of us enjoy. For now, that well--being in the US, has caused a euphoria and fear in the US, that people from Africa are now sidelined and stigmatized, because on one Liberian patient who came to the States, was not treated well, and died as a result... Mullan adds:

"Garrett has mastered an extraordinary amount of detail about the pathology, epidemiology, and human events surrounding dozens of complex diseases… She writes engagingly, carrying her theses as eel as the readers interests from outbreak to outbreak." I am citing her because as the present media fuss and environment in the US has made this sun a big issue, which caught them unprepared, made me come to the conclusion that many shenanigans that the US and its allies have been involved in through i=out its outbreak has been characterized by negligence, and the fact that it is them that(meaning Africans) that are being affected, and not Us(The US and its partners that are not affected and effected).

Garrett writes:

"The Great Ebola drama went almost unnoticed in the United States in 1976, even in the hallways of the Centers for Disease Control. The nation was preoccupied. And Africa was, in the american consciousness, far away."

Garrett further states that:

"We(The US) ant to believe that history happened only to 'them, in the past" and that we are somehow outside history, rather than enmeshed within it. Many aspects of history are unanticipated and unforeseen, predictable only in retrospect… Yet, in one vital area, the emergence and spread of new infectious diseases, we can already predict the future-and it is threatening and dangerous for us all."

According to Garrett, "The world has brome more vulnerable to the eruption and, most critically, to the widespread and even global spread of both new and old infectious diseases. This new and heightened vulnerability is not mysterious. The dramatic incases in worldwide movement of people, goods, and ideas is the driving force behind globalization of disease. For not only do people travel increasingly, but they travel much more rapidly, and go to many places than ever before.

"A person harboring a life-threatening microbe can easily board a jet plane and be on another continent when the symptoms of illness strike. The Jet plane itself, and its cargo, can carry insects bringing infectious agents into new ecologic settings. Few habitats on the globe remain truly isolated or untouched, as tourists and other travelers penetrate into the most remote and previously inaccessible ares in the search for new vistas, business, or recreation."

So that, Garrett has "provided us with a history full of real people, sweat and grit, of the discoveries which have led us to realize that infectious diseases have not been vanquished-quite the contrary. It was in these places, Bolivia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zaire(Liberia, Nigeria, etc), that a group of highly trained, dedicated, and courageous people met the plague) on its own ground. Facing the unknown, at the frontiers of science, they struggled and wrested from nature an insight, that, diseases will remain a threat, that disease and human activity are inextricable, and that nature has many hidden places and surprises still in store(Mann)

Scroll to Continue

For all intense purposes, I should state that this was written when the book was published in 1994… Now that we are in the year 2014… the plague has flared-up again, this time in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the neighboring, and the observation and words plus researches of Garrett are even more relevant today as they were when she wrote about the "The Coming Plagues".. So far, all these places we have seen since then, affected people all over the world; all these plagues are the hot topic today in the present-day social media and old media.

The government of the US was caught unprepared, and it is now that they are trying to catch-up, because they had 'one' infected person coming through a plane and died here in the US, because theory hospital staff were ill-prepared and not trained to handle the scourge, because, like I have said and cited above… It is only affecting"them", and that Africa is far away… well, Two or more people in the US have been affected, and there is a lot of blame, scurrying around, and as usual, the CDC was not even ready nor prepared, neither trained the health givers in the States training to deal with the scourge of Ebola… And this is only from one person.

It is at this juncture that I will have to trace the story and history of the countries that are affected and infected with the Ebola plague. This is important for me to try and give a historical brief about the countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and so forth so that the reader can have a sense and a general idea what is going or has been going on in this beleaguered countries, that they should in the end be the bearers of such a deadly plague.

These diseases did not just happen to be there today, as we are all now reading about and paying, some attention to. There are many issues that have given rise to such a condition, and it is important that we begin to look at these countries, albeit briefly, in order to have a better understanding as to why and what it is that makes such a plague get a devastating and deadly grip on its populace.

These countries are not just happening to be around in the world scene and affairs… There has been a gradual evolution that has given this opportunistic disease a fertile ground to spread. Before I deal with the emergence of Ebola in Zaire, according to the way Garrett saw and wrote about it, I want to first of all give a brief synopsis about these countries and their historical internal situations below.

President Samuel Doe

ebola-lassa-hemorrhagic-fevers-marburg-swine-flu-legionaires-diseases-the-thirdworldization-of-the-plagues

President Tolbert Of Liberia

ebola-lassa-hemorrhagic-fevers-marburg-swine-flu-legionaires-diseases-the-thirdworldization-of-the-plagues
President Ghankay Taylor Of Liberia

President Ghankay Taylor Of Liberia

A Shortened History Of Liberia

July 23, 1971: President Tubman dies, and Vice President Tolbert takes office.
In office for 27 years, Tubman headed a regime that went from democratic to dictatorial. He is succeeded by his vice president of 19 years, William R. Tolbert, Jr.

1972: Tolbert adopts a more nonaligned stance in the Cold War.
Liberia establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, Poland, and several other Eastern bloc countries, and takes on a more nonaligned posture, thus breaking away from the Cold War agenda followed by President Tubman.

1973: Liberia severs diplomatic ties with Israel.
Following the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, which pits Israel against Egypt and Syria, Liberia becomes one of 29 African countries to sever diplomatic ties with Israel.

May 28, 1975: ECOWAS is established.
Liberia, under Tolbert's presidency, is a signatory to the treaty which establishes the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in order to create a common market in West Africa and promote regional economic integration and stability in 15 West African countries, with the intention that it would mirror the success of the European Common Market (now the EU). In 1990, ECOWAS member states will establish the ECOWAS Monitoring Group, or ECOMOG, as a multinational peacekeeping/peace enforcement group responsible for the restoration of peace in Liberia. ECOMOG is the first armed force to be established by a regional organization.

September 21, 1976: During the United States' bicentennial celebration, President Tolbert addresses the joint session of the U.S. Congress.


1978: U.S. president Jimmy Carter conducts the first official U.S. presidential visit to Liberia.
During the same year, President Tolbert encourages young student and opposition leaders living in the U.S. to return home to Liberia to participate in the political process.

April 14, 1979: The "rice riots"
A proposed increase in the price of imported rice, suggested in order to stimulate local growth, results in riots which lead to many deaths and enormous infrastructural damage to the capital city of Monrovia. The leaders of the demonstration are the same student leaders whom Tolbert had invited home to Liberia some months before.

April 12, 1980: Samuel K. Doe, a master sergeant of Krahn descent in the Liberian army, overthrows the government in a bloody coup.
President Tolbert is assassinated, 13 Cabinet ministers are executed, and dozens of other government officials are imprisoned.

1985: Samuel Kanyon Doe becomes Liberia's 20th president.
Doe claims victory in a presidential election under a cloud of controversy and charges of vote-rigging. Despite the allegations, the United States accepts the results of the election and offers support to the new president.

November 1985: Thomas Quiwonkpa, Doe's former second-in-command, is killed after his failed attempt to depose Doe's government.
The coup attempt leads to government-led violence against the Gio and Mano people of Quiwonkpa's native Nimba County.

December 24, 1989: The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) enters Liberia.
Civil war breaks out, and Charles Taylor becomes the first of several Liberian warlords.

1990: Taylor's troops capture most of the country.
The brutal civil war, which will last another seven years, pits tribe against tribe and leads to the death of more than 200,000 Liberians, the displacement of hundreds of thousands of others, and the destruction of the country's infrastructure.

August 24, 1990: Three thousand ECOMOG forces arrive in Liberia.
During the same month, ECOWAS holds a meeting in Banjul, Gambia, where Dr. Amos Sawyer is appointed as president of an Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU). Sawyer's Monrovia-based IGNU is not recognized by rebel leader Charles Taylor, who is based outside Monrovia and controls the rest of the country. The country is divided, with two effective seats of government and two effective currencies.

September 9, 1990: Samuel K. Doe is executed.
President Doe is captured and killed by a rebel faction led by Prince Johnson. In spite of his execution, civil war continues to rage.

October 30, 1991: The Yamoussoukro IV Accord
ECOWAS brokers the Yamoussoukro IV Accord in the Ivory Coast. It is the first major accord and outlines steps to implement a peace plan that includes the encampment and disarmament of warring factions under the supervision of an expanded ECOMOG, as well as the establishment of transitional institutions to bring about democratic elections.

July 25, 1993: The Cotonou Peace Agreement
The Cotonou Peace Agreement, which calls for the establishment of a government of inclusion and a UN-sponsored cease-fire, is signed in Cotonou, Benin, by the IGNU and the two warring factions -- the United Liberation Movement for Democracy in Liberia (ULIMO) and the NPFL -- following peace talks in Geneva, Switzerland.

March 7, 1994: The first Liberian National Transitional Government, the LNTG, is installed.
Liberian attorney David Kpomakpor is appointed head of the LNTG.

September 12, 1994: The Akosombo Peace Agreement
Signed in Akosombo, Ghana, the agreement supplements and amends the Cotonou Peace Agreement and is signed by the NPFL, ULIMO, and the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL). The agreement meets with widespread disapproval from civil society groups and church leaders because it effectively partitions Liberia, and does not include all Liberian factions.

1995: The 16-member ECOWAS brokers a peace treaty between Liberia's warring factions.
This treaty comes after several attempts at peace fail. An interim state council establishes a tentative timetable for elections.

August 19, 1995: The first Abuja Accord is signed.
The Abuja Accord is signed in Abuja, Nigeria, and includes installation of an interim Council of State -- a national ruling body composed of various faction warlords and headed by a neutral chairman (this represents the second Liberian National Transitional Government, LNTG II) -- and a cease-fire, which is intended to come into effect one week later, on August 26.

April 6, 1996: The Siege of Monrovia
An estimated 3,000 people are killed when five factions converge in an intense battle in Monrovia, in what comes to be known as the Siege of Monrovia. The crisis begins when the Council of State attempts to arrest Roosevelt Johnson, an ethnic Krahn and leader of ULIMO-J (ULIMO-Johnson branch), on murder charges. Johnson takes refuge in the military barracks of the former AFL. ULIMO-J, Liberian Peace Council (LPC), and remnants of the AFL, all largely consisting of ethnic Krahn fighters, rally at the barracks and engage the combined forces of NPFL and ULIMO-K (ULIMO-Kromah branch).

August 17, 1996: Abuja Accord Supplement
Further signatories to the agreement usher in a new Council of State, the third Liberian National Transitional Government (LNTG III), with former senator Ruth Sando Perry appointed head. The accord provides for an immediate cease-fire, disarmament of all combatants by the end of January 1997, reintegration, and nationwide elections scheduled for May 1997, with an elected government to be installed by June 15, 1997. The accord also provides for sanctions for any faction which does not comply with the terms of the peace accord; sanctions include travel restrictions, exclusion from the electoral process, and the establishment of a war crimes tribunal. This is the last accord which finally leads to elections.

July 19, 1997: After seven years of mayhem, Charles Taylor is elected president of Liberia.
The election is monitored by ECOWAS and other international observers, including former U.S. president Jimmy Carter, and is declared fair.

September 1998: Liberian government forces fire into the U.S. Embassy in Liberia when opposition leader Roosevelt Johnson seeks refuge in it.
Johnson is ultimately airlifted out of the country. The violence prompts the U.S. to close the embassy. Two months later, Liberia offers an apology for the incident, and the Embassy is reopened.

February 2000: Liberia is accused of supporting Sierra Leone's rebel movement against the government by trading arms and other resources for diamonds.
President Taylor denies the charge, which is levied against him by the United States and other countries. Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has by this time destabilized Sierra Leone and begun to undermine the government in neighboring Guinea; Taylor is implicated by the international community in both actions.

July 2000: The United Nations bans diamond exports from Liberia and reinforces its ban on arms exports to Liberia.

President Charles Taylor

ebola-lassa-hemorrhagic-fevers-marburg-swine-flu-legionaires-diseases-the-thirdworldization-of-the-plagues

Liberia: America's Stepchild

This African State became independent on July 1847. For more than a century Liberia just existed along, on a seemingly highroad to nowhere. But now there is a hustle and bustle for progress in their land. As recently as 19954 it could be said that Liberia was still one the most backward countries of the West African countries. It had no railroads and very few roads worthy of the name. By the end of the 1960s, the picture was quite different. An authority on this subject wrote:

"Liberia should be regarded as a rather special case among African nations, if economic expansion and political stability are valid indices. .. Thirteen years ago, there was one bank in Liberia. There are seven now. Twenty years ago, there were no roads, no railways, no airports and no industry; now the road, rail and air networks are serving a growing industry. With its economy booming, Liberia enjoys a rare privilege; that of having a substantial surplus. ... An improvement in living standards, the development of hygiene and the systematic elimination of illiteracy are part of Liberia's daily life efforts."

Liberia was one of the founders of the OAU(organization Of African Unity), and an initiator of a free exchange zone founded in August 1964 with Sierra Leone, Guinea and Ivory coast.(This partly gives the reader why Ebola has spread along the later regions mentioned above. Their present in 1968 was one of the most determined adversaries of Portuguese (and had declared a total embargo against them, as well as Apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia's Smith's regime, Now called Zimbabwe).

Liberia's exports are rubber and iron ore, which together account for 90% of the nation's exports. Its iron ore production is exceeded only by the outputs of Canada and Sweden. There were further plans to establish an iron industry complex in the port city of Buchanan and for the construction of an oil refinery in Monrovia.

Diamond and gold mines were now being worked in the mid-sixties. In 1965, 244,000 carats of diamond were produced, and in 1966 the total number of carats row to 555,000. Gold production in 1965 was 116 pounds, which in 1967 rose to 297 pounds. Liberia had nearly 14,000 square miles of forests, which might , maybe have proven, if events didn't change, to be of great wealth to them(and their chief trading partner in all this was America).

Liberia is the Oldest "Republic" in Africa, the only country on the continent never to have been a colony or part of an empire, and a "Step-child of the Americans" who had serious vested interests in the minerals as just noted-that these were manifest with strong cultural and financial ties with the Americans. The rest of Africa has often regarded Liberia as a peculiar place and very different from the rest of the African countries… the Americans and the early rulers of Liberia thought of it as sophisticated and would never be overthrown-and it's leaders were totally schooled in the American ways. There was also this false notion that it was an outpost, for Americans,

Its American-style institutions and the familiar idiom in which the country conducted its business was ready-made fro Americans to have their interests entranced and lacking the crises endemic in amy other African countries, But this did not help nor stop the explosions that took place. For 133 years, An African-Settler elite, which was five percent of Liberia's population, monopolized all political and controlled access to the country's natural resources-also, this grow or class of around forty-thousand people, were members of the Americo-Liberian families, made decisions for and controlled the lives of one and a half millions indigenous African Liberians. Those who were admitted into this clique, was through marriage or patronage by this African settler community of returned African slaves from America.

This class subjugated the local Africans of Liberia and they humiliated them badly, and this put Liberia of the 1980s on a revolutionary edge, evolving soldiers brutally murdered Tolbert, their president, in his luxury mansion, and they disemboweled him, stuck a bay one through his head, and displayed his dead body in the John F, Kennedy Hospital, and was buried in a mass grave with 27 others((Unger)

Unger adds: "These rogue soldiers, in 1980, arrested the wealthy Americo-Liberian officials, marched them naked through the streets of Liberia past jeering crowds, tied them at the post of the Barclay Training center and executed them at point-blank range. A crowd of thousand revelers gathered at the beach to watch and cheer as the officials-some whimpering and collapsing, others fairly smiling-were cut down with rifle shots and they limp bodies sprayed with machine-gun fire. By all accounts, there was jubilation throughout the country, literally dancing in the streets.

"The executions took place within sight of Master Sergeant Doe's new home. These run-down hovel without running water barracks became a symbol of Liberia's revolution, and Doe and his friends liked to show-off to visitors. Many of these soldiers, who lived in these decrepit donation, made themselves into a self-styled elite and moved into the homes of the Americo-Liberians who had fled the slaughter-they also confiscated the Mercedes Benzes of their former abusers, harassed businessmen and merchant-they also were freely brandishing their weapons, and they went on an unorganized reign off terror and brought the country to the brink of paralysis."

Alexander Crumwell further informs us that:

"The love of liberty brought us here." That was the motto of the early African Settlers of Liberia, who believed they were not only leaving behind the bonds of slavery in America, but also undertaking a civilizing mission by returning to the continent of their origins and imparting western knowledge. Liberia was a creation of the American Colonization society, a quaint institution founded in 1816. The society sought to emulate sierra Leone, just to the west of Liberia, which was developing as a haven for freed British slaves(including Africans who fought on the British side during the American Revolution and later retreated to ova Scotia)… Some members of the Colonization society were motivated by humanitarianism, but others were simply practical; America slave owners wanter former slavers out of sight, lest they provoke discontent on the remaining plantations. The civilizing mission was taken very seriously by successive waves of African Slave emigrants to Liberia."

This is one history which needs to be told at length, but for now, will pause it here. But a fact that needs to be pointed out here that Liberia was a satellite of America in more ways than one, rather than being African inspired and symbolized.

Ahmadu Ahidjo

Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo, Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, freedom fighter and the first President of Cameroon.  He was one of the youngest Presidents of a newly independnent African State

Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo, Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, freedom fighter and the first President of Cameroon. He was one of the youngest Presidents of a newly independnent African State

Cameroon: A Fallen African Star

Cameroon

A country of 10 million people, it has evolved with strong-armed leaders who didi not want to plan for the future, and it is a country that is strategically located at the hinge of Africa. Ahmadou Ahidjo was leader since 1960, even before independence from France, and he consolidated virtually all political forces within his ruling Party. Over time he has spoken about 'resting,' but he never stepped down, because there was no adequate procedure to make him do so.

He was 20 years younger than Houphouet-Boigny, who when he visited Guinea, gave the pragmatic rule of Ahijo his blessings. But in NOvember 1982, citing ill-health, Uhiddjo suprprised his country by resigning as President. Like Senghor, he turned power over to a long time prime minister, 49 year-old Paul Biya, who was little known outside the country, but had a reputation for honesty and competency…

When Ahidjo left power, this was not well broadcast, because there was a Coup d' etat in Upper Volta.While the world was watching, Cameroon enjoyed considerable success as a young nation. It nits first twenty years of independence, it nearly doubled its per capita gross national product. Like Ivory Coast, Cameroon first concentrated on agricultural developments, then moved on to basic industry, and finally had the good fortune of off-shore oil finds/fields.(Unger)

According to Unger, Cameroon is in many respects a microcosm of the African continent, a country compost of at least two hundred separate ethnic groups, watch with own language, none large enough to dominate the country's affair(But, I contend that they have many similarities than differences). The land is also as varied a s the people who live on it, ranging from coastal swamps and tropical rainforests through Savannah's to desert areas.The different groups have been separated by the legacy they have to contend with of two different colonial heritages.

We also learn from Unger that Cameroon was originally a German protectorate, and then the country was split between France and Britain after World War I, and the two parts developed individually. Most of what had been British Cameroon voted to join a federation with French Cameroon (rather than Nigeria) just after Independence, but there were still tensions.

"Officially the country conducts affairs in English and French (the only other language spoken by enough people to be considered a national language is Cameroonian "pidgin"), but 20 percent anglophone minority is chronically discontent, much in the manner of the French-speaking minority in Canada. Very little English is actually used in the languid capital city of Yaounde, where most of the political power is concentrated, or in Douala, where most of the country's financial business is transacted.

The nature of the roads, the uniforms of the police, the music, even mannerisms of the people change once one has crossed the undermacated cultural and linguistic frontier. Political discussions take place on one side at sidewalk cafes, on the other in the pus. Here and there, a German built castle can be seen in the hills, a remnant of an earlier era and yet another set of political and cultural traditions. (There are other reminders: hotelkeepers in some remote areas still speak only German and Goethe Institute does a booming business in Yaounde among people who want to learn the language so they can better understand the country's past), [and be Fluent in German].

Five years before independence, the Cameroonian government fought a withering insurgency, based not so much on linguistic or 'tribal' complaints as ideological differences. The rebels, who wanted to establish a Marxist system in Cameroon, were openly aided by China, and it was only with French assistance that Ahidjo finally prevailed in 1972. He not only neutralized much of the domestic opposition that remain by coopting it into the government, but also turned the Chinese into friends.

"By the late 1970s, Cameroonian shops were full if inexpensive Chinese consumer goods (whose Western equivalents would have been much costly in terms of hard currency outlays), and China was building a palace of culture on a hill int e center of Yaounde. The Chinese also constructed a dam in the north, and Ahidjo was able to play well enough on international rivalries to attract other substantial development aid from the United States, the soviet Union, Saudi Arabia, Canada , and members of the European community,

"Although one of the two central banks of the French African Community is located in Yaounde, Ahidjo managed to downplay Cameroon's French connection, and over the objection of French Bank Interests, he encouraged the Chase Manhattan Bank to open a branch in Douala. The First National Bank of Boston and Bank of America followed suit. Cameroon's ties with France remained very close, but the president cast himself as an individualist, staying from the periodic summits of former French African colonies, for example, on the grounds that their symbolism was inappropriate.

"Cameroon for years seemed the essence of stability compared to some of its close neighbors. Equatorial Guinea, where the regime of Nguema Masie Biyoto ruled by terror and reintroduced forced labor; Nigeria, where military coups and civil war had the country in disorder for year; the Central African Republic, where a despotic ruler crowned himself emperor and slaughtered schoolchildren; and Chad, where the ostensibly insoluble civil war was stoked by Libya and dragged on for decades.

But Cameroon could not always keep as much distance as it wanted from these crises. Various parts of the country endured crosscurrents of refugees and Ahidjo had to worry constantly that outspoken exile leaders from neighboring states who sough asylum in Cameroon would end up dragging his government into disputes. (The recurrent trouble along Cameroon's border with Nigeria was enough of a problem, aggravated as it was by the Cameroonian's' envy of the Nigerians' wealth and influence in Africa-[I think there's more to the story than this one-liner.)

"Ahidjo did not turn the refugees away, and although he had his own political prisoners, but he had made material improvements for his people, and he removed urban slums and instituted renewal programs. His international policy, he was regarded as pro-western, but in reality, Ahidjo was more interested in building and encouraging Pan Africans in Cameroon. He provided sufficient funds to build a school of journalism in Yaounde, and it welcomed students from throughout Africa.

Ahidjo made Cameroon the Capital and arena of exchange of ideas and the development of a new generation of African leaders and intellectuals. But it also made it a logical crossroads for the intelligence agents from various countries. Yaounde became one of those places in the Third World where various competing powers watched each other watching each other.

"But in 1983, Biya, the new president fired some members of his cabinet, including his prime minister, because he said that there was a plot "against the security of the Republic." And he came to logger-heads with the retired Ahidjo. Ahidjo claimed that Biya had turned Cameroon into a "police states" where telephones were tapped and arbitrary interrogations carried out.

"The former president also contended that he was tricked into stepping down through a false doctor prognosis and report. Biya denied Ahidjo from transferring his money out of Cameroon. Moslem ethnic groups from the Northern part of the country, the home of Ahidjo, represented the growing power of the Christian southerners like Biya.

"The situation deteriorated quickly. A Cameroonian court sentenced Ahidjo to death, in absentia, and then Biya, hoping to appear conciliatory, pardoned him. But in April 1984, units of the presidential guard, an elite unit, had been formed by Ahidjo, rebelled against Biya's order that they be transferred. The army quelled the mutiny by mostly northern soldiers only after three days of fighting in the streets of Yaounde.

"Ahidjo insisted he had nothing to do with the revolt, in which as many as a thousand people were estimated to have died, but the country seemed perilously divided. This time Biya showed little generosity; hundreds of guard members and civilian sympathizers were tried in secret by military tribunals and executed. Within a spate of a few months, Cameroon was taken off the list of stable African countries where development was on track and investments would be safe.

Sekou Toure

ebola-lassa-hemorrhagic-fevers-marburg-swine-flu-legionaires-diseases-the-thirdworldization-of-the-plagues

Guinea: Sekou Toure-Dr. Jackyl And Mr. Hyde Of Africa

I would like to give a historical and short background on Guinea, and to do this, I will cull heavily from Unger in order to give the read a better sense of the country which, too, was afflicted by Ebola, along with Liberia and Cameroon, for the purpose of discussion in this Hub.

This is what Unger has to tell us about the Country of Guinea:

"Guinea was regarded as a potential model of independent, Black(African) ruled African; achieving independence early, as a kind of Francophone counterpart to Ghana, it was led by Sekou Toure, a young, charismatic trade unionist, who was said to understand the need to meld the best parts of the French heritage with nationalistic impulses, in order to create a successful modern state.

"But in 1958, in the name of nationalism, Toure voted against joining the political and economic community envisioned for France's colonies under the new constitution prescribed by Charles de Gaulle for the Fifth French Republic. Toure said would choose "poverty in freedom" over "riches in slavery." He might or might not have realized how accurate the first part of his statement was-he was living the second part.

"The French were furious with Guinea since it was the only African country to resist the new arrangement, and the reprisals were immediate and thorough… All of the French representatives in the capital city with Conakry, government officials and business men alike, pulled immediately, taking with them everything from colonial archives and government plans to light bulbs and the dishes in the governors' palace.

"They emptied out pharmacies and burned medications, rather than leave them behind. De Gaulle offended and vengeful, persuaded other Western governments to take his side in the dispute, but and so, overnight, Guinea found itself not only poor and backward, but also totally isolated in Africa and the rest of the world. Toure appealed for outside help, and the Soviet Union, sensing a rare opportunity, was alone in responding.

"What appears to have happened, however, is that in accepting Soviet largesse, Toure also adopted all the least efficient and most repressive aspect of the Soviet economic and political system. Despite an extraordinary natural wealth in bauxite, iron ore, uranium, gold, copper, cobalt, manganese, diamonds and hydroelectric power, guinea went from poor to poorer. Almost no element of the new nation's economy functioned smoothly, and even the traditional network of market women was gradually restricted in favor of stage-managed trading companies.

"Every bit of Soviet aid came with strings tatted, and Guineans often found some of their own precious food resources being canned and shipped out in order to help pay off the country's debt to Moscow, while other food was being imported at premium prices. The government still must had to pay the soviets Union, at that time, $25 million a year, and some observers accused the Russians of having smuggled out vast quantities of diamonds over the years.

Meanwhile, Cornarky became notorious as a headquarters for KGB activity in Aric, and the Soviets used Guinea as a base for reconnaissance aircraft. Cornarky's airport was useful to the Soviets during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, and later for shuttling Cuban troops to Angola…

"What Toure did for Democracy in his country, on paper, it looked like the world's purest Democratic system. He divided the country into minute administrative units through which the citizens would theoretically be consulted constantly on every imaginable issue of national policy.

"In reality, the people of Guinea suffered an insidious, uncompromising repression, managed by Toure's immediate relatives and members of his clan. Toure relentlessly pursued his opponents and detractors establishing detention camps whose population was carefully concealed; some of the inmates were tortured , others simply starved to death.

"He wrecked the independent trade union movement, his own former power base, and he broke the influence of Moslem, Christian, and traditional African religious leaders. Guinean exiles-perhaps a fifth of the population fled-told stories of purges and disappearances, but the president rejected appeals for objective, outside inspection with cries of self-righteous indignation. The persecution and executions often extended to members of the ruling circle.

"Those who fell out of favor, including at least two former Guinean ambassadors to the United States, and Diallo Telli, the first secretary general of the OAU. The main precept of Guinea's system became the worship of the paranoid Toure, who was known as the "Supreme Guide of The Revolution." Guinea, nonetheless, retained a circle of admirers and Toure-worshipers in the West, who paid attention to his theories and ignored his record.

"Toure's Guinea per capita income was around $230 per annual, and her people were the poorest in the world. In his own way of decision-making, Toure began to reconsider his economic decisions during the late 1970s, but it would take more than a change of heart to affect the national fortunes. Much of the country's resources were beyond the reach of investors, because the logistical transport infrastructure(roads and bridges) and train, etc., had never been built or arranged; to construct them later was more difficult and expensive, because of inflation and world-wide recession.

"Almost no one was being educated, and there was a chronic shortage of food. The country's agricultural development was set back by sheer neglect(Guinea produced 100,000 tons of bananas in 1960, but only 162 tons in 1982). They also damaged the forest by cutting forests for firewood, creating environmental mayhem and disasters. The failure to replant trees led to severe erosion of the soil and may have reduced the flow of rivers in the region, on which many countries depended on for their basic livelihood.

"Toure made one of the Third World's most remarkable and awkward about-faces. He embraced Islam more fervently than before and still claiming to be true to his original principles of socialism and nonalignment-offering himself as a political and philosophical successor of Yugoslavia's Tito - Toure opened his arms (and his country) to western business and diplomacy. He reestablished relations with France in 1975 and welcomed French President Valery Giscard d' Estain for a visit in 1978… He also travelled to France in 24 years. His frequented the United States, and flirted with American business, and Guinea was placed into hands of Chase Manhattan Bank, which sponsored seminars for American businessmen to negotiate personally with Toure.

"All of this culminated in a news conference that Toure gave at the Guinean embassy in Washington after a meeting with President Reagan, in the summer of 1982. He fancied and dressed himself up with his usual flowing white robes, and extolled the virtues of 'his dear friend David Rockefeller, former chairman of Chase, who had just been his host in New York.

"Sekou Toure played his role very well... Still hooked to the Soviet Union, Toure resumed diplomatic relations with some of the more conservative African States, including Senegal and Ivory Coast, he came out of his self-imposed isolated to play a greater role in such multilateral organizations like the OAU and ECOWAS. He even took a bold sep opposing the Polisario guerrillas in their war with Morocco over Western Sahara.

"Internal economic liberalization was also an obvious need. The country resumed a more normal commercial life, complete with market stalls, kiosks, and other small entrepreneurial businesses. As a result, the World Bank took a new interest in Guinea and began to encourage greater Western aid and private investment. This eventually caused turbulence in Guinea's political life, and those who believed in his doctrines were being asked to trade one orthodoxy for anotherSome in his inner-circles wanted him to remain to his original principles. Others pressed for faster change, and not only were outsiders wary and cautious of his fickleness, but he had credibility problems at home.

"With 90 percent illiteracy and an average life expectancy of only forty-one years, Toure's people were still far from the fulfillment they had been promised at independence. The best they could hope for in the short run was some relief from their hunger and despair. The decline continued even during the period of economic opening, with government revenues falling by 30 percent between 1982 and 1983; Toure was ill and increasingly out of touch, and even the narrow Guinean elite and favored units within the military became restless.

"Toure resisted being taken out of the country for medical treatment, but finally in March 1984, he permitted Saudi Arabia to fly him to Cleveland Clinic in Ohio for heart surgery. He died there on the operating table.

Postscript

Unger sums this whole saga this way:

"During several days of national mourning, Guinea remained calm and, on the surface, respectful of Toure's 26 years in power. Dignitaries from all over the world, including the U,S. Vice President, George Bush, attended hi funeral. But a week after Toure's death, anticipating aa power struggle, within the Toure family and party's politburo, a group of military officers bloodlessly took charge.

"The opened the doors of the prisons and detention camps, and only then did some horrors perpetrated by Toure in the name of "revolution" become widely known. In death, the man, the man who portrayed himself as a 'god' was revealed to be a genuine villain. The new military regime promised the cities true economic liberalization,u under a free enterprise system, as well as free speech and liberty to travel inside the country and abroad. The firsts signs were encouraging; but with hospitals thad had no medications and other public facilities completely broken down, the soldiers had a daunting task ahead of them.

Ebola Drones

The US Department of Defense (DoD) is funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekm

The US Department of Defense (DoD) is funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekm

Ebola And the Poor Africans

A humanitarian aidworker assists in controlling Ebola in the West African nation of Guinea

A humanitarian aidworker assists in controlling Ebola in the West African nation of Guinea

Ebola Environ

Thomas Dempsey Academic Chair for Security Studies at the Africa Center For Strategic Studies (ACSS) writes:

The most recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa is different—and the difference matters not just to the afflicted nations but to all of us. The outbreak is a manifestation of a public health threat to the vital national interests of the entire international community. Even as it is in the midst of a truly heroic response to the outbreak, that community—and the NGOs and humanitarian assistance actors that collaborate with it—must learn the right lessons from the current outbreak, and must do so quickly. Developing better disease monitoring, better early warning systems, more rapid public health response mechanisms, and more robust local public health infrastructure and institutions in at-risk areas throughout Africa are all essential takeaways from the ongoing spate of Ebola cases that continue to multiply across broad areas of West Africa. An additional and important lesson of this outbreak may be that public health stakeholders will themselves require substantial support, primarily of a military nature, in order to access many of the areas in which the outbreak is occurring and to undertake the sustained medical relief effort necessary to contain it. The speed with which this support can be marshaled and deployed may have just as critical an impact on controlling the outbreak as the activities of health professionals combating the disease on the front lines.

This outbreak differs from previous Ebola epidemics in terms of the extent of the afflicted area, how rapidly and how widely the disease has spread, and the degree to which it has frustrated attempts at containment. Many of the reasons for these differences have less to do with the medical characteristics of the disease than with the chronic underdevelopment, lack of adequate health services, poor governance, insecurity, and endemic poverty native to the areas in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea to which the recent outbreaks have been localized. These same features also characterize the areas in Central and East Africa where previous Ebola flare-ups have occurred, however. Cataloguing and responding to what has changed since past incidences may prove key to containing this one.

In the past, the remote villages most susceptible to Ebola were isolated from each other and from larger surrounding communities, both geographically and in terms of communication. Past outbreaks thus remained largely localized to the villages in which they occurred. Today, Africa is a smaller place, with accelerating migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants to cities from rural areas are concentrated in equally underdeveloped urban peripheries, which have grown so quickly that they have overwhelmed the capacity of African municipalities to provide basic services. As a result, the conditions of chronic underdevelopment, poor health, inadequate services, and insecurity of rural and remote areas have migrated to major urban centers.

Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus environ (from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Public Health Image Library, made available on Flickr Commons by Global Panorama)
Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus environ (from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Public Health Image Library, made available on Flickr Commons by Global Panorama)

At the same time, the increased use of cell phones on the continent has enabled news of Ebola cases and local outbreaks to spread rapidly, widely disseminating horrific accounts of the disease’s symptoms and high mortality rate. The combination of a continuous stream of firsthand accounts describing the accelerating outbreak and the inability of national and local administrations to respond effectively has generated widespread fear and uncertainty. Local mistrust of deeply corrupt and ineffective state institutions—particularly related to security, but also health services and even a decreased faith in modern medicine itself—have contributed to a “flight” response among communities in which cases of Ebola have appeared.

The movement of what might be termed “health refugees” out of outbreak areas appears to be contributing significantly to the persistence of the most recent Ebola flare-up. Some refugees are no doubt fleeing deeper into the West African bush, using remote paths and tracks that straddle border areas throughout the Mano River region, knowledge of which is ubiquitous due to their use as highways for the fighters and weapons that have accompanied past armed conflicts. Because these pulses of health refugees are remote from seaports and international airports, their movements do not threaten to spread the disease beyond the Mano River region in the immediate future. Unfortunately, they carry a significant—and far more difficult to counter—longer-term risk of spreading the disease more gradually across West Africa, into regions that will be extremely difficult for health workers to gain access to and in which it will be extremely difficult for them to operate effectively.

On the other hand, the mass migration of African citizens to the urban sprawl that surrounds the cities of Monrovia, Freetown, and Conakry is moving the epicenter of the affected region to areas with immediate access to global transportation networks. The international community, national public health organizations, and international health bodies were slow to recognize this risk. (Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia has recently called for a more urgent and effective response.) Even now, that recognition is largely limited to restricting sea —, air— and ground-travel across international borders. The humanitarian assistance and disaster response (HADR) community confronts major challenges in combating the outbreak in the dangerous, difficult to access, and poorly served shantytowns that surround national capitols and major cities in the outbreak areas. Population concentrations in these areas are far higher than in their rural counterparts; sanitation problems are correspondingly greater, and options for flight more limited. A major risk given this situation is the potential for a second or even tertiary Ebola outbreak to gestate in these poorly governed and insecure urban areas and gather renewed momentum.

The answer to the question of why the most recent Ebola outbreak should galvanize the international community into action is neither self-evident nor simply humanitarian in nature. It is a question the major actors on the world stage—those nations with the resources, institutions, and capacity to generate the necessary response quickly—must examine and answer critically. After all, as horrific as Ebola is, the number of infected individuals is still fairly limited, and the impact on the developed world—including the nations of Europe and North America, as well as global economic powerhouses like China—has been minimal. On a straightforward yet universally sobering level, however, the international community should move to address the latest outbreak because the same conditions that fostered the rapid spread and persistence of Ebola are likely to have a similar effect on other diseases, which may be far more communicable and pose a much greater threat. Imagine if the disease in question had been similar to the SARS or MERS virus, or even as mundane as a new and particularly virulent strain of influenza. The Spanish Flu infected some 500 million worldwide in 1918, ultimately killing between 50 and 100 million of those afflicted. Were such an outbreak to occur under similar conditions to those of the recent spate of West African Ebola, especially absent early recognition of the extent of the outbreak and timely measures to limit it, a global pandemic could result. In addition to the terrible suffering and loss of life within West African nations, the ongoing epidemic delivers a dire warning about how much worse things could get.

International Aid workers enter a West African village to combat Ebola

International Aid workers enter a West African village in Guinea to combat Ebola (© European Commission DG ECHO/EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection/Jean-Louis-Mosser, Flickr Commons)

On a level that should be encouraging to the international community, however, the current outbreak also offers an opportunity to develop a better understanding of how pandemic diseases manifest in the dynamic world of the 21st century. As international actors marshal the resources to support the courageous doctors, nurses, and local health workers who are laboring selflessly—and at great personal risk—to contain this outbreak, they must quickly learn how to distribute those human resources more swiftly to the affected areas of greatest need. The world must more rapidly furnish and deploy the equipment, personnel, security, communications, and logistics necessary to enable the effort to contain the outbreak. In the hardest hit areas of West Africa, this will probably require military support: rotary winged aviation, heavy air lift, trucks, fuel, power generation, and shelters, all of the resources necessary to enable an effective public health response. The world can and must learn from this opportunity, as it learned from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, to collaboratively build more effective mechanisms to quickly identify major outbreaks with pandemic potential and efficiently respond to contain those outbreaks.

A cautionary note must be sounded with respect to deploying military forces in support of the containment effort, however. The use of military forces should be undertaken to support health workers combat the outbreak, not in an attempt to isolate entire affected communities. Unfortunately, the latter appears to have been the initial response of both the Sierra Leonean and Liberian governments. Isolating these communities with military or police forces is likely to further increase the fear and suspicion with which local populations in the area already regard state security services. Moreover, it is unlikely to prevent the continued flight of refugees from affected areas, and may in fact exacerbate them if local residents perceive the state to have abandoned their villages and communities. Instead, both national and international military forces can and should play critical roles in helping health workers reach vulnerable communities. Police officers and military personnel can also collaborate with health workers to better inform the public of common-sense measures to increase infected family and community members’ chances of survival while minimizing the likelihood of immediate caregivers, family, or community members themselves contracting the disease. The cell phones that are ubiquitous in even the most remote villages could become an important tool in this effort.

In the longer term, the states most at risk of serious outbreaks must effectively reduce their vulnerabilities to such diseases. Improving governance, particularly at the local level and in the area of public service delivery, will be essential to realizing this goal. Public health capacity, infrastructure, and surveillance must all improve as well. Security sector reform, focused not just on traditional physical security (including police, justice, and military forces) but on human security for the most at-risk communities, will be a key enabler of more immediate local response efforts. While addressing these issues is the primary responsibility of the states most at risk of a pandemic outbreak, every nation has a vital interest in assisting those states—and the communities within them—to reduce the risk of outbreak and increase regional and global resilience should an outbreak occur. When one’s neighbor’s house is on fire, it is a foolish homeowner who does not run to help put out the flames. And in today’s globalized world, everyone is our neighbor.


Ebola, The Facts, Not Hype

Everywhere you look, Ebola is on the news. Scary images of dying, bleeding West Africans are overplayed alongside scenes of medical personnel in space suit-looking isolation gear.  Movies like “Outbreak”, “28 Days Later”, and “Contagion” heighten our

Everywhere you look, Ebola is on the news. Scary images of dying, bleeding West Africans are overplayed alongside scenes of medical personnel in space suit-looking isolation gear. Movies like “Outbreak”, “28 Days Later”, and “Contagion” heighten our

Health Care Workers in Sierra Leon

A healthcare worker in protective gear sprays disinfectant around the house of a person suspected to have Ebola virus in Port Loko Community, situated on the outskirts of Freetown, Sierra Leone, Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2014

A healthcare worker in protective gear sprays disinfectant around the house of a person suspected to have Ebola virus in Port Loko Community, situated on the outskirts of Freetown, Sierra Leone, Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2014

Who Survives Ebola? Analysis Of First Cases In Sierra Leone Reveals Insights

Julie Steenhuysen writes

An analysis of the first Ebola cases in Sierra Leone helps draw a clearer picture of why some people survive the disease, while others do not, including their age and the pace at which the virus replicates within their body.

The study published Wednesday is based on data gathered from 106 patients diagnosed with Ebola at the Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone from May 25 to July 18. Some of the data on this group was incinerated because of fears that the nurses’ station where the records were kept became contaminated.

But the team managed to analyze detailed clinical records from a total of 44 Ebola patients, the biggest trove yet from the outbreak in West Africa that has killed nearly 5,000 people.

“This is the first time anybody has had this much data collected on any Ebola patients,” said Dr. John Schieffelin of Tulane University in New Orleans, an author of the study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

He said the findings help confirm some of the observations seen by doctors treating patients with Ebola.

It shows, for example, that 57 percent of people under age 21 who were treated for Ebola died from their infections, compared with 94 percent of those over the age of 45.

In the cases studied, the virus took six to 12 days to incubate before patients developed symptoms, and 74 percent of the patients in the study died, similar to what has been seen in prior outbreaks.

Fever was the most common symptom, occurring in 89 percent of patients, followed by headache (80 percent), weakness (66 percent), dizziness (60 percent) diarrhea (51 percent), abdominal pain (40 percent) and vomiting (34 percent).

However, there were some big differences in how individual patients responded to the virus, Schieffelin said.

“There were people who had very mild cases, and there are people who have very severe cases and they go downhill quickly,” he said.

One surprise was the significant difference in the amount of virus present in patients when they came in for treatment, a factor that affected whether or not they survived.

For example, 33 percent of patients with less than 100,000 copies of the virus per milliliter of blood at diagnosis ultimately died, compared with 94 percent mortality in those whose had more than 10 million copies per milliliter.

Among the various symptoms in this outbreak, Schieffelin said diarrhea is a “really big feature of it,” suggesting that doctors treating Ebola patients need to be very aggressive in administering intravenous fluids.

Bleeding, a key feature of Ebola in prior outbreaks, was rare among this population, with only 1 patient having this symptom, the study found.

Some researchers have questioned the value of spending resources on studying Ebola during the outbreak rather than using those funds to help curb the epidemic directly. Schieffelin said the analysis offers important insights for healthcare workers fighting the current outbreak, including data that can be used to determine new treatment and diagnostic approaches.

President Of Guinea Asks For Help to fight Ebola

President of Guinea Alpha Conde, center, listens as the heads of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank discuss the Ebola outbreak at the World Bank in Washington, Oct. 9, 2014.

President of Guinea Alpha Conde, center, listens as the heads of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank discuss the Ebola outbreak at the World Bank in Washington, Oct. 9, 2014.

President of Guinea Call for doctors To Come And Help With Ebola

Karim Camara informs us that:

The world’s response to Ebola is its own sort of tragedy

Two facts make the point clear:

After nearly getting Ebola under control in August, Guinea’s outbreak is worsening – as new cases in previously virus-free areas are being reported daily.

Guinean President Alpha Conde has called on the nation’s retired doctors to serve in the fight against Ebola. Conde said the collective experience is needed to educate health workers – who are at risk or spreading the risk to others.

Efforts to spread awareness of how Ebola is spread continues to be met with resistance by many Guineans, who either don’t believe Ebola is real or are fearful that medical personnel are actually spreading the deadly disease.

Lack of health care workers

Another major issue in Guinea is a lack of health care workers. And many of those in the field do not have the experience or training to contain the outbreak.

There have been numerous cases reported where doctors are refusing to put on medical gloves or take other precautions.

Ebola is spread by contact with body fluids from a sick person or the bodies of those who died from the virus.

Speaking in Conakry Tuesday, the president tapped into patriotism to inspire Guinea to tackle Ebola like Nigeria, which has been declared free of the virus.

Conde said Guinea is at war with Ebola and during a time of war, no one retires. He is calling on retired health care workers to think of themselves as soldiers.

In case his appeal to a sense of duty to the country isn’t enough, Conde said he is prepared to make it compulsory.

He said, “I am recalling you and most of you are heeding that call. But for those of you who resist, you will be forced to join the Ebola fight.”

Many willing to help

Many retired medical personnel expressed their willingness to join in the fight and those, like Professor Amara Sesay, said this move will save lives.

Sesay said the method in the fight against Ebola must be systematic and this is an opportunity to achieve that by improving our health sector.

Conde this week also has met with a cross section of medical students to recruit their skills.

Guinea has recorded more than 1,500 cases of Ebola, with more than 860 deaths.

The outbreak began in Guinea in December has spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria and Senegal.

However, both Nigeria and Senegal have been declared Ebola-free this month – raising hopes the outbreak can be contained and stopped.


Ebola Copy

ebola-lassa-hemorrhagic-fevers-marburg-swine-flu-legionaires-diseases-the-thirdworldization-of-the-plagues

Victims Of Ebola Shown Less Empathy

Ebola survivors prepare to leave a Doctors Without Borders treatment center after recovering from the virus in Paynesville, Liberia, on October 12.

Ebola survivors prepare to leave a Doctors Without Borders treatment center after recovering from the virus in Paynesville, Liberia, on October 12.

Bill Gates The Cybegeniscist On Health

TABU: Because the CDC owns the patent to Ebola and all strains within 70% of the original pathogen, they will make money on all treatment of Ebola through royalties because treatment would constitute a violation of their intellectual property rights

TABU: Because the CDC owns the patent to Ebola and all strains within 70% of the original pathogen, they will make money on all treatment of Ebola through royalties because treatment would constitute a violation of their intellectual property rights

The nurses have threatened to strike on several occasions during this outbreak over the lack of protective gear and the danger pay that has been promised but never delivered. Each time, they are slowly brought back to work, through conciliatory gestu

The nurses have threatened to strike on several occasions during this outbreak over the lack of protective gear and the danger pay that has been promised but never delivered. Each time, they are slowly brought back to work, through conciliatory gestu

Ebola Scurge In West Africa

Ebola Billboards in Abidjan: EBOLA Outbreak in West Africa The Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of its geographical scope and numbers, making it a major global concern. Unless action is urgently and massively increased, the Ebo

Ebola Billboards in Abidjan: EBOLA Outbreak in West Africa The Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of its geographical scope and numbers, making it a major global concern. Unless action is urgently and massively increased, the Ebo

Facts: Ebola Virus Treatment

The important information about Ebola virus disease which include the history of Ebola virus, signs and symptoms, transmission, risk and exposure, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, new research on the virus, latest news etc.

The important information about Ebola virus disease which include the history of Ebola virus, signs and symptoms, transmission, risk and exposure, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, new research on the virus, latest news etc.

Ebola Virus Notifications

The latest Ebola outbreak has exposed rotten governments and a parlous state of health care in many African countries. But the media seem more interested in profiteering out of the dread factors of the dis

The latest Ebola outbreak has exposed rotten governments and a parlous state of health care in many African countries. But the media seem more interested in profiteering out of the dread factors of the dis

Ebola Politically

On 21 August, South Africa banned travellers from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from entering the country, except for South Africans and they would be specially screened.

Since Ebola once again resurfaced in Africa, there has followed an outbreak of dozens of media reports of suspected cases across the world. Individuals are quarantined off and news networks wait feverishly for the results. But time and again the result is negative. Governments keen to show that they are doing something and taking the potential risks seriously are happy to collaborate in the media circus. This kind of non-event reporting is unhelpful and even holds dangers for public health.

The world would be better off if media outlets only reported to the public if and when they did find a confirmed case. Instead, reporters, talk show anchors, columnists and journalists have idiotically drawn sensational analogies to the 1995 movie Outbreak with Dustin Hoffman and the 2011 film Contagionwith Jude Law.

Unlike screen fantasies that involve fast mutating viruses that spread in the air like flu, Ebola has neither of these characteristics. People with Ebola also don’t die with blood spurting out of their eyes. And the only thing airborne about Ebola is possibly fruit bats and the eventuality of a person infected getting on an aeroplane.

Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism

One does not wish to be dismissive of risk, but the chances of getting infected by sitting next to someone on an airliner infected with Ebola are low. To contract the disease, you need to be in contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids – blood, shit, semen and vomit

"Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged With Racism"

Ebola has a staggering mortality rate ranking it (lower but still) in the class of such diseases as anthrax, smallpox, rabies and untreated HIV.

But Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism. It has an African-sounding name that gives North Americans shivers, and it has emerged from the remote forest malignly clouded in Western imaginations by Joseph Conrad’s novel, The Heart of Darkness.

The potential overreaction cannot be discounted. Recall that not that long ago, every homosexual who lost weight was suspected of having AIDS and communities in the U.S. wanted dead gays buried in cement blocks.

Ebola was actually first isolated in the USA in 1989 when it arrived with a shipment of infected monkeys from the Philippines. There were no human casualties. Monkeys do not harbour the virus; they die just like untreated infected humans.

A poll released by the Harvard School of Public Health on 21 August showed that 68% of people surveyed believed Ebola spread “easily”, that four in ten adults in the U.S. are concerned that there will be a large outbreak in the U.S., and a quarter are concerned that they or someone in their immediate family may get sick with Ebola over the next year. The poll also found the lower the education level of people the more likely they were to be concerned about an outbreak.

The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East.

The media should be casting its spotlight firmly on the politicians who are frankly the biggest vectors helping spread disease to the world. The first point of attention has to be the sorry state of health care caused by decades of government neglect. The politicians themselves are of course well cared for in their public funded but publicly inaccessible VIP facilities. Mugabe and many other African leaders fly themselves around the world to the best clinics and doctors on the planet to receive medical care costing the state millions.

A quarantine officer checks the body temperature of a passenger as a precaution against the Ebola virus at the Incheon International Airport in South Korea. The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East. South Korea has stepped up monitoring of citizens returning from West Africa. Photo: Choe Jae-koo / Associated Press

Recall to, that when the HIV epidemic was spiralling out of control in South Africa, members of parliament were taking hellishly expensive ARV courses even as the official line was that HIV didn’t cause AIDS and ARVs were a money-making conspiracy of big pharma.

As the politicians whiz about in their blue-light brigades living their lives effectively in luxurious quarantine from the rest of us, public health facilities are hopelessly inadequate, thanks to a cocktail of neglect, carelessness, lack of accountability and corruption. The dangers and fatal consequences of having an unprepared and under-resourced health care system are now becoming tragically obvious.

T

On 21 August, South Africa banned travellers from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from entering the country, except for South Africans and they would be specially screened.

Since Ebola once again resurfaced in Africa, there has followed an outbreak of dozens of media reports of suspected cases across the world. Individuals are quarantined off and news networks wait feverishly for the results. But time and again the result is negative. Governments keen to show that they are doing something and taking the potential risks seriously are happy to collaborate in the media circus. This kind of non-event reporting is unhelpful and even holds dangers for public health.

The world would be better off if media outlets only reported to the public if and when they did find a confirmed case. Instead, reporters, talk show anchors, columnists and journalists have idiotically drawn sensational analogies to the 1995 movie Outbreak with Dustin Hoffman and the 2011 film Contagionwith Jude Law.

Unlike screen fantasies that involve fast mutating viruses that spread in the air like flu, Ebola has neither of these characteristics. People with Ebola also don’t die with blood spurting out of their eyes. And the only thing airborne about Ebola is possibly fruit bats and the eventuality of a person infected getting on an aeroplane.

Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism

One does not wish to be dismissive of risk, but the chances of getting infected by sitting next to someone on an airliner infected with Ebola are low. To contract the disease, you need to be in contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids – blood, shit, semen and vomit.

Ebola has a staggering mortality rate ranking it (lower but still) in the class of such diseases as anthrax, smallpox, rabies and untreated HIV.

But Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism. It has an African-sounding name that gives North Americans shivers, and it has emerged from the remote forest malignly clouded in Western imaginations by Joseph Conrad’s novel, The Heart of Darkness.

The potential overreaction cannot be discounted. Recall that not that long ago, every homosexual who lost weight was suspected of having AIDS and communities in the U.S. wanted dead gays buried in cement blocks.

Ebola was actually first isolated in the USA in 1989 when it arrived with a shipment of infected monkeys from the Philippines. There were no human casualties. Monkeys do not harbour the virus; they die just like untreated infected humans.

A poll released by the Harvard School of Public Health on 21 August showed that 68% of people surveyed believed Ebola spread “easily”, that four in ten adults in the U.S. are concerned that there will be a large outbreak in the U.S., and a quarter are concerned that they or someone in their immediate family may get sick with Ebola over the next year. The poll also found the lower the education level of people the more likely they were to be concerned about an outbreak.

The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East.

The media should be casting its spotlight firmly on the politicians who are frankly the biggest vectors helping spread disease to the world. The first point of attention has to be the sorry state of health care caused by decades of government neglect. The politicians themselves are of course well cared for in their public funded but publicly inaccessible VIP facilities. Mugabe and many other African leaders fly themselves around the world to the best clinics and doctors on the planet to receive medical care costing the state millions.

A quarantine officer checks the body temperature of a passenger as a precaution against the Ebola virus at the Incheon International Airport in South Korea. The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East. South Korea has stepped up monitoring of citizens returning from West Africa. Photo: Choe Jae-koo / Associated Press

Recall to, that when the HIV epidemic was spiralling out of control in South Africa, members of parliament were taking hellishly expensive ARV courses even as the official line was that HIV didn’t cause AIDS and ARVs were a money-making conspiracy of big pharma.

As the politicians whiz about in their blue-light brigades living their lives effectively in luxurious quarantine from the rest of us, public health facilities are hopelessly inadequate, thanks to a cocktail of neglect, carelessness, lack of accountability and corruption. The dangers and fatal consequences of having an unprepared and under-resourced health care system are now becoming tragically obvious.

It ranges from lacking the laboratory facilities to even test for the disease to not even having basic medical equipment such as an IV drip bag. The fact that malaria is still common more than a century after mosquitoes were identified as the culprit, means that people contracting Ebola are often misdiagnosed as simply suffering from endemic malaria.

The Nigerian government’s lackadaisical response to the outbreak has allowed the disease to penetrate its borders.

The media should be casting its spotlight on the politicians, the biggest vectors helping to spread disease

In Sierra Leone, an Ebola ward filled with patients and not 30 kilometres from the Liberian border was found almost abandoned. There was no proper sanitation service; underpaid nurses had given up and gone home, several of them sick with the disease themselves. There weren’t even clean needles. (Tentative mortality statistics suggest that infection by needle has a 100% mortality rate, while there is some chance of survival if infected by other means).

In Guinea, rumours and fears spread that it was the white international health workers themselves spreading the disease. Doctors and health teams have been blockaded from entering villages.

In Liberia, a lack of trust between the people and the government which rules over them has many questioning whether there is such a thing as Ebola and led to youths attacking a quarantine facility because Ebola patients from outside were being brought to the facility without informing the locals. The government then sent in heavily armed security forces to brutally lockdown West Point slum in a badly orchestrated manner, making it look like war on the poor.

The vacuum caused by distant, uncaring and dishonest authorities has allowed certain religious, traditional and faith leaders to prescribe quack treatments with deadly results. In rural areas, families have been hiding bodies of victims to prevent them ending up in plastic bags instead of being buried in the honourable customary manner (which involves contact with the body fluids when cleaning the corpse).

These last examples are pretty definitive proof that flying in international teams of medical experts every time there is a health emergency is a very poor substitute for building adequate capacity at a local level to deal with a crisis.

"One must add that where traditional chiefs have co-operated with health care workers containment has been greatly enhanced."

Apart from providing some ghoulish entertainment, the world didn’t care that much about a few Africans in a remote forest dying from some abominable disease. The disease had until recently affected too few people all of which were too poor to attract the attention of profit-driven companies. The most interested party was an arm of the US Department of Defense and the Canadian Public Health Authority. Without these government funds, there would not have been the experimental ZMapp drug today.

But making political capital out of bashing the West isn’t helpful either. ZMapp was first used experimentally on two US citizens (it would have been seen as racist had it been used in Africa and failed). The entire available world stock was shipped for free to Africa. But now, some African officials and politicians are claiming that the West had a cure but didn’t want to share it; nonsense that will surely be more grist to the media mill.

Viruses are more democratic than any government. They infect indiscriminately and they do not care for manmade national borders. The only way to deal with contagion in today’s globalised world is to build international solidarity together with local capacity and to arm the public with facts.


Why Is Africa Having Problems Dealing with The Ebola Pandemic

A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja.

A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja.

Ebola’s damning revelations

The Ebola outbreak has revealed the under-funding and inadequacies of many of our health systems. The VIP wing of the Nigerian president’s clinic gets more funds than two federal teaching hospitals combined. Why can’t more African countries follow Rwanda's lead?

A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. Photo: Reuters/Afolabi Sotunde

The recent Ebola outbreak that’s been plaguing West Africa has revealed to Africans and the rest of the world the unpreparedness of African leaders, as well as just how dangerous things can get when countries neglect their healthcare systems. When the first cases of Ebola were reported in Guinea, appropriate steps should have been taken by neighbouring countries to prevent it from spreading beyond Guinea’s borders. Instead, there was a collective ‘it’s not our problem’ attitude, which ultimately led to further outbreaks in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and most recently Nigeria.

Armed men stormed and raided a quarantine centre, no doubt unwittingly infecting themselves

In Nigeria’s case, there was plenty of time to take preventive measures against a possible Ebola outbreak after it had spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone, but nothing was done until it was too late. For starters, the Nigerian government should have suspended all flights to and from infected countries, especially with the knowledge that such an outbreak occurring in mega city like Lagos (which is a hub for all regional flights) may prove enormously difficult to contain. But judging by the Nigerian government’s track record of handling critical issues, their slow response wasn’t surprising.

The outbreak has also revealed just how toxic ignorance can be, especially when tainted with fear. Within days of the first reported case of Ebola in Nigeria, a ridiculous text message, advising people to bathe with salt water or drink a highly concentrated salt-water solution for protection against Ebola, had spread like wild fire. Needless to say, some hapless persons heeded the erroneous advice and ended up either dead or hospitalized.

Nigerians went scrambling for salt water after a call from the ruler of the Igala Kingdom, the Attah of Igala (pictured), prescribing salt solution as a magical vaccine against Ebola went viral. The salt solution bath remedy was reinforced after claims that a Catholic priest, Ejike Mbaka, also asked his followers to perform some religious rituals, which included drinking salt water. The Nigerian government had to issue a statement warning that bathing with salted water is not a cure for the virus. Four people have died from excessive consumption of salt.

Assuming salt water was the vaccine against Ebola, wouldn’t WHO have announced it eons ago? Moreover, anyone with some secondary school education or access to the internet should know that osmosis will occur when a cell is placed in a solution of differing concentration. It’s the logic behind why people adrift at sea don’t imbibe sea water, as it will only make them thirstier.

Ignorance also took the form of a well-known pastor based in Lagos. He made a proclamation urging Ebola stricken patients to visit his church for healing. Why would anyone attempt to endanger public safety by making such a comment? Fortunately, officials from the Lagos state government intervened and advised the pastor not to admit anyone with the disease. Meanwhile, somewhere in Liberia’s capital, Monrovia, armed men stormed and raided a quarantine centre. What they’ve achieved by committing such an inexplicable act remains to be seen, but there’s no doubt that some have unwittingly infected themselves.

Apparently, thinking has become such an arduous task that people no longer process information.

An inconvenient truth that’s been brought to the fore by this Ebola outbreak is that African governments generally do not invest in healthcare, and on the rare occasion when they do, it’s for the elite. Take for instance the 705 million naira ($4.3 million) that was earmarked in the 2014 budget for the addition of a VIP wing to the presidential clinic in Aso Rock (the official residential area and workplace of the Nigerian president). Is it logical to invest such funds in a clinic that’s only accessible to a few individuals, when teaching hospitals are in dire need of medical equipment and well-trained staff? Moreover, it’s common knowledge that the President will be flown abroad, on taxpayer’s money, for any ailment that’s more than a headache.

President Goodluck Jonathan and his colleagues in government are enjoying first class medical treatments while ordinary Nigerians make do with rundown hospitals with dilapidated facilities.

If Rwanda can achieve this feat, then other African countries have no excuse to not follow suit

Conversely, the Rwandan government mandated that any government official seeking medical attention abroad will be solely responsible for expenses incurred. Essentially, this approach would incentivize Rwandans, especially those in government, to invest in their healthcare infrastructure. Furthermore, the Rwandan government has been able to provide health insurance coverage for all Rwandans. If Rwanda can achieve this feat, then other African countries have no excuse to not follow suit.

Africans are slowly paying the price for their government’s negligence to healthcare. Not only are they dying from inadequate medical care, they have inadvertently become guinea pigs for drugs that have yet to undergo clinical trial. What’s more, the World Bank has offered $200 million to countries battling Ebola, which seems like a sweet, genuine gesture until pay back time comes around.

Consequently, there are three basic questions African governments ought to answer: Firstly, when will Africa stop playing Lois Lane to the West’s Superman? Secondly, when will they start investing heavily in pharmaceutical research and development, and adequately train and equip healthcare workers? And lastly, at what point will Africa take charge of her affairs, like Batman, and harness all the wealth, human resource and modern technology at her disposal for the betterment of Africans?

Yambuku in the Bomba Region/Town

The Bomba Region; As Piot and another doctor examined an infected couple in one small hamlet, the man died as they drew blood from his wife. Afraid that locals might think they were responsible, they departed quickly, leaving gloves and explaining th

The Bomba Region; As Piot and another doctor examined an infected couple in one small hamlet, the man died as they drew blood from his wife. Afraid that locals might think they were responsible, they departed quickly, leaving gloves and explaining th

Why don’t we tell that story in our capacity as African media and disseminate that information?

Canada and Australia, as at the time of writing this article, have placed a Travel ban on “West African countries in the grip of the Ebola outbreak.”

The Telegraph (UK) of 2nd October 2014 published an article with a speculative, panic-mongering headline titled, “Ebola ‘could become airborne’: United Nations warns of ‘Nightmare scenario’ as virus spreads” (a headline that thrives on small-minded speculation to catch the attention of the reader and subsequently creating a panic).

Why don’t we tell that story in our capacity as African media and disseminate that information?

In the article, it declares, “There is a nightmare chance that Ebola could become airborne if the epidemic is not brought under control fast enough”. After creating panic amongst their western audience, it makes sure to point fingers at exactly who is causing a disruption of their peace: “The longer it moves in the virulent melting pot that is West Africa, the more chances increase that it could mutate.’ After raising these unfounded speculations with the aid of a sensational vocabulary, shaming Africans and probably frightening the scores of people who would read only a headline and make their conclusions, the article dillydallies about the issues, then squeezes in the actual facts of the situation in the conclusion, that Ebola cannot be airborne after all, therefore, all worry should be dispensed.

The most infuriating thing about an article like this is that the writer was aware from the beginning that Ebola being airborne was a falsity, because she had done her research (evident in the article) but, instead, she chose a false headline to attract readers. Thus, in a bid to garner more views, in one swipe, in a very respectable news outlet like the Telegraph, she wrote without regard for the lives and reputations that would be destroyed by her misrepresentation. But then again, this is no news. For decades, Africa has been at the centre of debasement, creating the illusion and delusion of a cursed Africa in the minds of westerners who will not bother with proper research and (I suspect) feel more comfortable in believing a narrative that places them as the world’s saviours. No news at all.

It is time to take charge of our own narrative. We must destroy the single story. And through the most powerful mode of our time: The media.

BBC This World - Outbreak, The Truth About Ebola

Carricature of A village Afflicted With Ebola

Mobutu Sese Seko

Mobutu Sese Seko

Many of the tiniest villages had built barricades at their entrances, setting up a quarantine system — something village elders had learned to do when smallpox epidemics had torn through the region in the past.

Many of the tiniest villages had built barricades at their entrances, setting up a quarantine system — something village elders had learned to do when smallpox epidemics had torn through the region in the past.

The Ebola Virus Attacks and Destructs

Above, in this Hub, I have collated several articles on trying to update the outbreak of Ebola in Africa. But for now, in this part of the Hub, I would like to trce the origin and emergence of Ebola in the early 1970s ahd how it came about. In this narrative below, I would like to use as my authority, Laurie Garrett. For me, thus far, to be able to give my readers a heads-up about Ebola, I found her work very authentic and more relevant, because, I contend, it is not from the present, in the 21st century that we get to know about Ebola. Garrett has a different and more original and serious historical take and analysis of the the Ebola virus. We go back into the 20th century, and we will pick it up from the 1970s and work our synergy to the present.

Whenever one reads Garerett's works of the her book The Coming Plague, I chose the Chp\ater she Calls Yambuku in the Congo. The story will be cited and in some instances, paraphrased.

In the story, Garrett narrrates an accout of the first or price patient and she writes:

On August 28, 1976, a thirty-year old man came to the Ymbuku Mission Hospital complaining of terrible diarrhea. Though nobody at the mission recognized the msn, he told the Sisters that he came from the nearby village of Yandongi. His origins were no matter,; the Sisters treated any needy soul who crossed their threshold, sometimes 400 a day, manyof whom wlaked and hitched rides distances of fifty or sixty miles to reach the mission.

Most of the sick got injections of one kind of another, antibiotics, chloroquine, vitamins - whatever supplies might be on hand in the modestly funded remote Catholic hospital. And usually that was enough for the people, who would, in any event, supplement whatever the Belgiannurses gave them with potions, incantations, and injections from local sorcerers ad medicine men.

But the case of the man fom Yandongi was odd, and Sisters Beata Emdona and Myriam werent' quite sure what was the source of his illness. They put the man in one of the 120 beds in the hospital and, for two days, debted his diagnosis, finally wiring in his medical chart a vague "dysentry epistaxis."

After two days the man left the hospital against the Sister's wishes, his diarrhea and epistaxis, or severe nosebleed unresolved. He was never seen again, and the events after his disappearance would prompt dozens of investigators from all over the world to scour the villages throughout the Bumba Zone in search of this elsusive patient."

They covered region and countries thrughout Congo, Sudan and Cameroon. Accroding to Garrett, "Some 275,000 of fewer than 500 people. They earned their living growing crash crops for export to the Zairan capital, Kinsasha, and by hunting. The Bumba Zone lay in Zaire's northern frontier, spanning the savanna and dense rain forest lands between Ubangi and Zaire(formerly Congo) rivers.

The equatorial jungles and grasslands were rife with game that included such marketable delicacies, pelts, and riches such as green monkeys, chimpanzees, spotted-necked otters, mongooses, civets, elephants, hippoppotamuses, bush pigs, buffaloes, bongos, sitatunga antelopes, bushbucks, reedbucks, and oribi.

Since 1935, the major hospital and dispensary for some 60,000 villagers living in the central Bumba zone was that operated by Belgian Catholic missionaries in the Village of Ymabuke. A staff of seven "nurses" - so designated, though none of the Sister had attended a certified nursing school - and medical assistants tended to the health and needs of the community out of a rather modest set of cinder-block buildings.

On entering the front of hospital, administrative offices were in a roon on the right, followed by a pharmacym and a surgical block comprised of an operating theater, scrub room, and facilities for for "sterilizing" instruments: a thirty-liter autoclave and a Primus stove atop which watter boiled.

Outside the surgical block one entered a long alleyway. to one side of the alley ws a pavilion bisected by a hall, off of whichwere large hospital rooms: one common ward with eighteen beds men's wards, and three larger women's wards. As was common throughout Central Africa., the beds were flat metal ones made tolerably comfortable with thin mattress and ancient linen. Additional comforts and foods to supplement the basic rice or mealier-meal menu were provided by patients' relatives

There was no doctor in Yambuku, taptients were treated by the staff of four Belgian nuns who had received a modicum of training in nurse-midwifery, a priest, one Zairian female nurse, a nd seven Zairian men."

The situtaion in the hopsital was dangerously compromised by the operation porticos(if any) of the hospital, and the relatives were treated furthermore by their relatives. Patients like Antoine had returned to the hospital criticlly ill. He was vomiting and had acute diarrhea, leaving him so dehydrated that he had eyes surrounded by pale, parchmentlike skin, stretched tightly over pronounced facial bones. His chest hurt, he had a terrible headache, fevers contued, he ws deply agitsted and confused. And he was bleeding: his nose bled, his gums bled, and there was blood in his diarrhea and vomitis.(Garrett)

Thhis was not an isolted case, and some were fighting for their lives in their home after visiting the hospital. the children and relatives were becoming affected and begining to show ssymptons of fever and headaches having come in contact with those affected, as in the village of Yamasikolo. Those like Sebo who had been tending and taking care of her husband, began showing signs of being semi-delirious, vomiting blood and bleeding from his eyes, was her usband too.. Many of the patients were pumped with antibiotics, cholrquine, vitamins and intravenous fluids to offset their dyhydration, as we are being informed by Garrett.

This is how Garrett paints a peicture of death visited upon the the people of Yambuku in one family:

"Nothing worked, of all the medicine used above,. On Septe,ber 8, Antoine die. Unbenknownst tot eh Stisters, Yombe died the day before in her village home. On September 9, her little sister. Euza succumbed. That week Lozenge and her husband died. Ekombe die int eh hut in Yaekenga-and all this the Sisters did not know.

One of the early understanding as to the cacause of such maultiple deaths and the spread of the disease so far was the fact that "the tradition of readying for burial required evacuating all food and escreta, procedure that was generally performed by bare-haded women. As a result of this, In a matter of days,sAntoine's mtother, gizmo and sophie we suffering the same ghstly disease; Sophie and Gizi survived,but antoine's mother died on September 20, as did his mother-in-law, who had assisted in the preparations. Sophie wo was pregnant and survived those hellish days, her baby was still born - another hemorrhagic victim. In all, twenty-one of Antoine's friends and faily members got the disease; eighteen died. (Garrett)

We learn further from Garrett that:

"Soon the hospital was full of people suffering eith the new symptoms. Panic spread as village elders spoke of an illness, unlike anything ever seen before, that made people bleed to death. In Yambuku the Sisters were already close to the breakingg point, not knowing why, or how of the new disease.. The horror was magnified by the behavior fot eh many patients whose minds seemed to snap. Some tore off their cloting and ran out tot eh hospital, screaming incohrently. Others cried out to unseen visitors, or starred out fo gost eyes without recognizing thier wives, husbands, or children at their sides. Word, and the disease, spread quickly to villages throughout the Bumba Zone. In some, the huts of the infected were burnt down by hysterical neighbors.

"On September 12, Sisster Beata developed the sudden fever, muscle aches, nausea, diarrhea, and bleeding gums that she and her fellow nurses now recognized only too well. Sisters Myriam and Edmonda prayed for a miracle and radioed urgent pleas for assistance. Dr. Ngo medial director of the Bumbaa region, who could not help the ailing sister, with great clinical care, gathered information as much as possible, and on September wnet back to Bumbaa in order to cable his report to authrities in Kinsasha. This was his report:

Republique du Zaire - Region of the Equator - S/Region of Mongala - Bumba Zone - Bumba Medical Service

Inquiry into alarming cases in the community of Yandongi, Bumba Zone, 15-17 September 1976

I receved an urgent call from Yambuku on September 15 from the medical assistant Masangaya Alola Nzanzu of Yambuku Hospital becasue of alarming cases in community since September 5, 1976; I went to determine the reality of the satuation.

Findings:

"The affliction is characterized by a high temperature around 39 degrees Celsius; frequent vomiting of black digested blood, but of red blood in a few cases; drivel emission initially sprinkled with blood, with only red blood near death; epistaxis[nosebleeds] now and then; retrosternal and abdomial pain and a state of stupor, promotion with heaviness in the joints; rapid evolution toward death after a period of about three days, from a state of general health."

Gaarretts continues:

Ngoi's report described the frist case, that of Mabalo Lokela, and then listed twenty-six of the strange illness, giving the names of the patients, noting tht fourteen had died, ten were still sick, and four had fled the hospital in terror, their whereabouts are unknown. Eerily, Ngoi corrected his report just befroe sending it to Kinsasha to note that two individuals on his "ailing" list had died by the time he reached Bomba. He listed the treatments, without success, at Yambuku Hospital; aspirin. chloroquine, nivaquine, blood coolants, calcium, cardiac stimulants, caffeine, camphor. And he noted that the hospital had used up all its antibiotic supplies.

Nothing helpdul had been discovered in the Yambuku Hospital group's microscopic studies of blood, urinem, and stool samples, ngoi noted. And he tactfully added that protective measures by the hospital to isolate patients with the disease "are not strict." Warning that "there is already panic" in all the villagesNgoi requested and recommended assistance fromKinsasha authorities. He left Yambuku having recommended that the Sisters take three measures immediately" "(1) Hospitalize the cases. (2) Use Public cemeteries. (3) Boil potable water

"What Ngoi had written, though at that time he did not know it, was the firsst historic description of a new disease of the twentieth century. Federal authorities dispatched two professors from the National University of Zaire to Yambuku: microbiologist Myembe Lintak and epidemiologist Omombo. They reached the mission on 23, intending to conducta six-daystudy of the problem, but cut their visit short and beat a hasty retreat from Yambuku after just twenty-four hours.

"When they arrived at Yambuku Hospital, Muyembe and Owombo saw despair and horror everywhere they turned. Just hours before they arrived, twenty-six-yrear -old mission nurse. The problem for the professors ws that they did not take Dr. Ngoi's. The professor first fouced on a small child who was writhing in agony i a hospital crib. While they discussed wht might be done, the child died before their eyes. The academics were shaken from their intellectualizing, and immediately set to work on collecting blood and tissue samples from the patients and cadavers, interviewing ailing patients and reviewing their medical charts.

These acdemics did not pay attention to the report of Dr. Ngoyi, and they did not bring with them protective gloves, masks, or gowns for their use during procedures that put them in contact with the infected blood. Still, they worked around the clock, examining five blood samples for signs of malaria, parasites, or bactria. They found nothing. When they performed autospsies, Muyembe and Owombo were aghast at the extensive damage inflicted by the disease, and removed liver samples to sent to sphisticated laboratories for further analysis.

The professors ran away from Yambku, and on sept 30, Sister Myriam died in the kinsasha hospital.

While working through a handle of Kentucky bourbon one night, they looked at a poorly drawn map and saw the Ebola River — somewhat nearby, but not as close as they thought. But that’s the name they chose. They’d been calling the disease the Yambuku v

While working through a handle of Kentucky bourbon one night, they looked at a poorly drawn map and saw the Ebola River — somewhat nearby, but not as close as they thought. But that’s the name they chose. They’d been calling the disease the Yambuku v

Transporting The Ebola Infected Blood To The World Laboratories

The events that took palce in Yambuke,set a stage of cascading events that led the World's scientiist en route to the Congo region.The transportation of the accumulated biological material went through many twists and turns. The political sitution and operatives, government or otherwise, got exposed for the ineptness and lack of protocal discipline.

According to Garrette:

"Over the years [the world] has witnessed Mobutu's transformation from a sort of George Washington to a tyrannical and corrupt depot enamored of the works of Machiavelli and surrounded by family and associates who treated Zzire's National Bank as their pPersosnal Cash Register.

"Grown cynical, [those who observed Mabotu over time], Dr. Ngwete Kikhela, Zaire's Minister of Health, called his [associates] in Wyoming to notify the American authorities, requesting ass