Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally (Bray et al., 2018). Overall, cancer incidence has increased, with nearly 1,665,540 individuals who have cancer alone in the United States and 585,720 deaths related to cancer by two among them (WHO, n.d.). Cancer is, therefore, a significant health issue for all human communities. Unfortunately, it is a disorder of tissue diversity, and this variation is an essential obstacle to the accurate detection and efficacy of drugs (Esplin et al., 2014). Men are most commonly isolated in the prostate, kidney, bronchus, colon and rectum, and urinary bladder (Moon et al., 2006). The incidence of cancer in women is higher in the womb, lung and bronchus, colon and rectum, uterine corpus, and thyroid glands (Tarver, 2012). These data show that prostate and breast cancer are a significant component of male and female cancer.
In infants, blood cancer and the brain and lymph nodes are the most common forms of cancer (Kazak & Baxt, 2007). Cancer is caused by a sequence of successive gene mutations that alter these cell function (Migliore & Coppedè, 2002). The role of chemical compounds in the development of gene mutations and cancer cells is evident. Smoking often contains many carcinogenic chemicals that contribute to lung cancer (Hecht, 1999). Interestingly, carcinogenic environmental contaminants have an active or implicit effect on cytoplasm and cell nucleus and contribute to hereditary defects and gene mutations 8e (Wogan et al., 2004). Some of the causes of carcinogenesis, such as about 7% of all tumors, include pathogens, microbes, and radiation (Perera et al., 2016). In addition, cancer interferes with cell relations and causes significant gene disruption (Jhappan et al., 1992). This disruption of the cell cycle is useful and contributes to uneven development.
While screening and therapy are increasingly successful in reducing the mortality rate of some cancers, restrictions on the availability of therapeutic interventions and access to and use of current technology strongly restrict the treatment impact on population patterns of cancer mortality in developing countries (Hanna & Kangolle, 2010). As such, lifestyle and environmental prevention can be the best choice to reduce the enormous and growing burden of cancer worldwide (Franceschi & Wild, 2013). The strategies and initiatives for implementing such measures focus on accurate and similar population-level analyzes of the impact of cancer risk factors (Corbould et al., 2018).
Causes of Cancer
Genes are chromosome segments of DNA that can mutate into cancer over time (Christoph et al., 1998). These mutations may be caused by various factors, including food, lifestyle choices, and sensitivity to some environmental influences (Kushi et al., 2006). In general, about 5 to 10% of all cancers are GM-inherited, and these are early cancers (Bennett et al., 2015). Lynch syndrome is a hereditary genetic disease correlated with an increased risk of cancer, which prevents cells from restoring their DNA if damage occurs (Boland et al., 2008; Peltomäki, 2005). This may contribute to early colon and uterine cancers (Lu et al., 2007). Another genetic element of this type is the BRCA gene cluster, which has many types of breast cancer and ovarian cancer (Rebbeck et al., 2015).
Many behavioral influences can contribute to genetic defects and, therefore, contribute to cancer growth. Some forms of cancer have also been associated with a few eating habits, including red meat and alcohol. At the same time, obesity is also associated with a higher incidence of cancer (De Pergola & Silvestris, 2013). The diet will also influence bacteria in our intestines, identified as intestinal microbiota, and recent research by scientists, including Cynthia Sears, M.d. Johns Hopkins University, has found that these bacteria will affect the chances of developing colorectal cancer and of responding to immunotherapy (Sears & Garrett, 2014).
Cancer can also be caused by exposure to environmental causes such as toxic compounds such as asbestos and benzene, and talcum powder, as well as multiple forms of radiation (Sankpal et al., 2012). These compounds that can damage DNA and cause cancer are classified as carcinogenic. Apart from other causes of age and senescence, older adults are more likely to be subject to environmental risk considerations and are more often diagnosed with cancer than young people (Bleyer, 2002). New immunotherapy methods for children with cancer offer the possibility of treating them more efficiently and without any of the harmful side effects that typical therapies may have (D.N. et al., 2016).
For 100 years, theories on bacterial causes of cancer have been reported by Dr. William B. Coley, Pioneer of Cancer Immunotherapy (McCarthy, 2006). The behavior and climate of the individual will lead to established bacteria and viruses that cause cancer (Parsa, 2012). Hepatitis virus exposure to B and C strains can contribute to hepatitis cancer (Shlomai et al., 2014). The sexual transmission of specific human papillomavirus strains (HPV) can contribute to cervical, anal and penile cancers and other head and neck cancers (Palefsky, 2010). The safe vaccination of the hepatitis B virus has been effective since 1982 and has been the first prevention of cancer vaccination (Chang & Chen, 2015). The Cancer Research Institute researches both prevention and therapeutic cancer vaccination, including a groundbreaking study by Dr. Ian Frazer on Gardasil’s creation, the first preventive cervical cancer vaccine (Ghaebi & Meshkat, 2012; Trimble & Frazer, 2009).
Bacteria and viruses may even be designed to fight cancer on our behalf. Oncolytic virus therapy uses engineered viruses to infect tumor cells and to produce chemicals that signal immune system hazards before auto-destruction (Marelli et al., 2018; Prestwich et al., 2008). Antibodies that attack cancer antigens can be designed using a phage show mechanism that can be used to produce new proteins through bacteriophages (Drulis-Kawa et al., 2015).
Cancer is always talked about as if it was one thing. However, although the common denominator is unregulated, cancer can develop in various ways due to several factors. Some of us inherit, and some of us are subject to residency. It can be classified into hundreds of different cell-based diseases. Moreover, no two instances are the same if each condition’s genetic history is taken into account. Therefore, in order to save more lives from cancer, this complexity would have to be addressed. We will improve our knowledge of how cancer grows and how it communicates with the immune system through basic cancer biology and immunology studies. In this way, we will explore new, more successful cancer management methods.
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This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2020 Michael