Adult onset Type 2 Diabetes
Adult onset Diabetes is a serious disorder. It is a metabolic disorder caused by high levels of sugar in the blood. It is a progressive disease that affects every organ of the body from the heart to the eyes. Diabetes affects both men and women, but there has been an increase in woman in the past few years. More women are affected by the complications diabetes can cause.
More children today are being diagnosed with this disorder, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disorder. You may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.
Most people tend to ignore the symptoms of Diabetes and by the time it is diagnosed, it usually is from a serious health problem. People do not die from diabetes, but from complications associated with the disease. It is important to get tested for diabetes as early diagnosis will help you get proper treatment.The three main symptoms of diabetes are: Polydipsia, Polyuria, and Polyphagia.
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Why this happens is unknown, though genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors.
How insulin works in the body
Insulin is a hormone that comes from the pancreas which is located behind and below the stomach.The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream The insulin circulates, which allows sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. So as the blood sugar !even drops, so does the insulin secretion from the pancreas.
Role of glucose
Glucose is a sugar in the body that is a main source of energy for the cells in the body that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: your liver and food you eat. Sugar is then absorbed into your bloodstream where it then enters the cells of the body with the help of insulin.The liver than stores and makes glucose. When glucose levels are low, for example when you haven't eaten in a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.
In type 2 diabetes, this process doesn't work well. Instead of moving into your cells, sugar builds up in the bloodstream. As blood sugar levels increase, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas release more insulin, and eventually these cells become impaired and cannot make enough insulin to meet the body's demands.
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas leaving the body with little to no insulin.
- Family history. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
- Age. Risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45. That's probably because people tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as they age.
- Weight. Being overweight is a main contributing risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you don't have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
- Fat distribution. If you store fat mostly in the abdomen, you have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere. Your risk of type 2 diabetes rises if you're a man with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman with a waist that's greater than 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).
- Race or ethnicity.Though unclear why, certain people — such as Black, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian American people — are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes.
- Inactivity. The less active you are, the greater your risk of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps to control your weight, uses glucose up as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome. also known as PCOS, women, having polycystic ovarian syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes. If a woman developed gestational diabetes when pregnant, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. If a woman gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), this is also puts her at risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Symptoms and Complications
- Polydipsia- is excessive thirst. This is one of the symptoms a person may notice first. People tend to ignore it thinking they are just thirsty more than usual. The more a person drinks the more they feel that they are not satisfied- they just need even more to drink.
- Polyuria- which is an increase in urination. The kidneys filter the blood to make urine. They reabsorb the glucose in the blood and then return it to the bloodstream. If the glucose is to high in the bloodstream, the kidneys ability to reabsorb it is lost and some glucose gets lost in the urine. The more glucose there is in the urine it then has the ability to induce more water. So since there is more glucose in the water then you have more urine- making Polyuria..
- Dry Mouth- caused by the increased thirst and urination which leads to dehydration
- Polyphagia- this is excessive appetite. This usually affects those people when they are just at the beginning of diabetes. With the increase of carbohydrates, which in turn will shoot the glucose up, as well as the insulin. The carbohydrates are being digested quick which tends to increase the hunger feeling and also the desire to eat more.
- Fatigue- people will notice that they are tired all the time and will complain of a lack of energy. This is due to insulin resistance which makes it difficult for glucose to get into the cells of your body to give you energy . Instead, the glucose is in flowing in the bloodstream, which is causing the fatigue all the time.
- Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis).
- Mental problems- such as depression, irritability, lethargy and confusion. Any of these symptoms will need attention immediately. This is thought to be caused by the the sugar in the body fluctuating and the body's struggle to maintain a normal level. Alzheimer's disease. seems to be increased by type 2 diabetes.the risk of Alzheimer's disease, though it's not clear why. The worse your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be.
- Blurred Vision: This a another common symptom of diabetes. When the blood glucose levels are high over an extended period of time, this can cause the lens in the eyes to swell and hence you will have vision changes. To help correct the vision you need to get your blood sugar under control. People with diabetes that is newly diagnosed should have their vision checked as soon as they can.
- Itching- can occur and mainly will affect the groin and vaginal areas. Dry and itching skin in diabetics occur from the high sugar level. To help compensate the body will pull moisture from the tissues of the body to help counteract the increase sugar levels, and this can let the skin itchy and also dry.
- Numbing and tingling in the fingers and toes. Too much sugar in your body damages the nerves in the bodies system. This causes Diabetic Neuropathy. As the neuropathy progresses one will have pain, burning of the feet and lower legs. There is no cure for it, but there is medication to help with symptoms. Talk to your doctor about this. Damage to the nerves that control digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be an issue.
- Kidney damage. Diabetes can occasionally lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Eye damage. Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.
- Slow healing.If left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage might require toe, foot or leg amputation.I
- Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes
- Sleep apnea.Obstructive sleep apnea is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions. Treating sleep apnea may lower your blood pressure and make you feel more rested, but it's not clear whether it helps improve blood sugar control.
- Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 diabetes seems to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, though it's not clear why. The worse your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be.
Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes, and that's true even if you have diabetes in your family. If you've already received a diagnosis of diabetes, you can use healthy lifestyle choices to help prevent complications. If you have prediabetes, lifestyle changes can slow or stop the progression to diabetes.
A healthy lifestyle includes:
- Eating healthy foods. Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
- Getting active. Aim for a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate physical activity — or 15 to 30 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity — on most days. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride a bike. Swim laps. If you can't fit in a long workout, spread your activity throughout the day.
- Losing weight. If you're overweight, losing 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.
- Avoiding being sedentary for long periods. Sitting still for long periods can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and move around for at least a few minutes.
Sometimes medication is an option as well. Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others), an oral diabetes medication, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. But even if you take medication, healthy lifestyle choices remain essential for preventing or managing diabetes.
|A1C||Fasting Plasma Glucose|
6.5 or above
200 or above
5.7 to 6.4
140 to 199
139 or below
How much do you know about diabetes?
For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.
- Which of these affect blood sugar the most?
- Diabetes is defined best as
- A metabolic disease characterized by low blood sugar levels
- A methabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels
- A family of blood infections.
- An estimated 6 million Americans have undiagnosed diabetes
- having diabetes increases the risk of heart problems
- People with type 2 diabetes should stay away from food with sugar in it
- What gland in the body is insulin secreted by
- A methabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels