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Facts About Diabetes

Dr Kulsum Mehmood is an Eye Consultant in a job. She is a single mother who faced and is facing many lifetime challenges with great courage.

Facts About Diabetes .....


A. The Facts

Before Diabetes…

The body changes food into a type of sugar called glucose and sends it into blood.

Insulin moves the glucose out of the blood and into the cells. The cells burn the glucose to make energy. This activity goes on in our bodies all the time.

It’s what keeps us alive.

Before Diabetes, our own insulin worked fine. It carried glucose to the cells, but it also left a little behind in the blood as a back-up supply. Glucose left in the blood is called “Blood Sugar”. We can measure the Blood Sugar Level with a blood test.

Before Diabetes, our blood sugar level stayed in a “Safe Range” because the insulin kept it there.

Limit your Sugar intake


Check Your Blood Sugar .....


B. The Problems .....

We do not know why people get Diabetes. Sometimes it runs in families, but sometimes it doesn’t.

There are two Types of Diabetes. Both Types cause problems with Insulin and Blood Sugar.

Insulin Problems


Type 1 diabetes is manifested from childhood. It is irreversible. Before diabetes… we make plenty of insulin

With TYPE I diabetes… we have stopped making our own insulin


Type II diabetes manifests in adulthood. Before Diabetes… our insulin worked well

With TYPE II Diabetes… our insulin doesn’t work like it should

Scroll to Continue

Blood Sugar Problems

When insulin doesn’t work right, too much glucose stays in the blood. This gives us High Blood Sugar. With Diabetes, our Blood Sugar will always want to go High because our insulin is not working like it should.

High Blood Sugar means trouble. Here’s what happens:


The body changes food into glucose and sends it into the blood. But… our body is not making insulin anymore. The Cells “starve” for sugar to burn. They can’t make energy.


The body changes food into glucose and sends it into the blood. But…our insulin isn’t working right. The cells get some Sugar, but not enough.Both TYPES of Diabetes make the Blood Sugar go Too High

High Blood Sugar can .....Make us Tired, Thirsty, Hungry, all the time. If Blood Sugar stays High for a L-O-N-G- T-I-M-E, it can cause serious problems to our health.


Blurred vision

Numbness in feet & hands & legs

Clogged blood vessels

Heart problems

Wounds that won’t heal

Kidney problems

Weight gain ( TYPE II )

Doctor please Stop Diabetes


C. Doctor's Part

About Blood Sugar Levels .....

Our doctor will decide what Treatment we need. Both types of Diabetes are treated with Food and Exercise.

Let us discuss about Food and Exercise :


What to eat ... When to eat How much to eat each time


What kind will be best for us When to do it How long to exercise each time

If we need INSULIN ( or Diabetes pills ) the Doctor will decide

What kind we should take ... When to take it ... How much to take And if we need to lose weight, the Doctor will help us set the best GOAL.The Doctor will also check our progress with tests and check-ups from time to time.

Raised Blood Sugar ... Inj. Insulin / Pills


Things that make our blood sugar go Up

  1. Food
  2. Stress
  3. Being Sick
  4. Also… not taking enough insulin ( or Diabetes Pills )

Some of these things are easier to control than others, like the Food we eat.

  1. Food : As our body changes food into glucose, the Blood Sugar level goes up. Some foods like sweet, sugary things change very quickly. If the Blood Sugar goes up too High or too Fast, the insulin may have trouble getting enough glucose to the Cells in time. Other foods like bread, vegetables and fruits change to glucose more slowly. It’s better for Blood Sugar to go up gradually so that Insulin has time to do its work. High Protein diet is recommended for Diabetics.
  2. Stress : Anger, Worry, Fear, Growth Spurts, Rapid Weight Loss, Too Little Sleep

It takes extra energy to handle Stress.To get this extra energy the body makes extra glucose. That’s how Stress makes the Blood Sugar level go Up.

  1. Being Sick : Injury, Nausea & Vomiting, Infection, Sick in Bed, Fever and Chills

Sickness is another kind of Stress for the body. It also makes the Blood Sugar go Up.If we are sick, and we have TYPE I Diabetes we need to check for Ketones regularly. Mild presence of Ketones in urine indicates that fat is being broken down for energy with a weight loss in the patient.

The condition develops when our body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for our muscles and other tissues — enter our cells. Without enough insulin, our body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic keto - acidosis. It can be triggered by infection or other illness. This is Critical, needs emergency care.

Take High Protein Diet .....


About Food .....

What to Eat .....

It’s best if each Meal and Snack has a variety of foods.

We need proteins each time we eat

Low carbohydrates diet is to be taken each time we eat.

Cut down on Carbohydrates


About Food

Stay away from these Foods :-

SUGAR – It makes Blood Sugar go too High too Fast

FAT – It clogs our blood vessels It makes us gain weight

Cut down on CARBOHYDRATES like Bread. It makes our blood sugar go Up.

2. When to Eat .....

Space Meals evenly – about 4-6 hours apart. If we go longer between Meals, eat a Snack.

-Common Snack times :

-Late afternoon -Before bed

Snack suggestions : Carbohydrates and Proteins

Eat Meals on time

– Cells need glucose on a regular basis – Our daily insulin doses are timed to “peak” after Meals. – Don’t Skip Meals – we can’t afford to run out of glucose

3. How much to Eat .....

Our Doctor or Dietitian will help us with how many servings to have at each meal. We will eat enough to control our weight and still have a good glucose supply for the Cells.

4. Cooking Tips .....

Don’t Fry the food. The extra Fat is not good for us.

Use these cooking methods instead :


Boil -

Add some taste if you like :

Lemon juice, Mustard, All spices and herbs, Garlic, Onions, Vinegar, Hot pepper sauce, Artificial sweeteners

If recipe calls for “Oil” … use Corn Oil

Low Blood Sugar ... Eat Something Sugary ...


About Low Blood Sugar

Low Blood Sugar can happen anytime, especially at first when the Doctor is working out doses for our insulin ( or Diabetes Pills).

The Problem :

Blood Sugar levels can drop very quickly, sometimes without warning.

This can happen if…

  1. We don’t eat enough – did we skip a meal? Do we need a snack?
  2. If we took too much insulin ( or too high a dose of Diabetes Pills )
  3. Or, if we exercised a lot and forgot to eat a snack.

What to do : We should eat or drink something with Sugar in it right away.

  1. Our Blood Sugar will go Up again.
  2. We will start to feel better.

About Low Blood Sugar

What it’s like :

Anyone who takes medicine to lower blood sugar gets Low Blood Sugar sometimes. No one likes it.

Watch for these Signs of Low Blood Sugar

Sweaty, dizzy, confused, hungry, bad mood, nervous, shaky.

It can get worse very FAST. And if we don’t treat it in time, we could… pass out.

  1. How to Fix it :
  1. Eat or drink something Sugary – fast. We want your Blood Sugar to go Up – fast.
  2. Wait 15 minutes…
  3. Check Blood Sugar If it is still Low Eat a snack – a carbohydrate with a protein.
  4. Take it easy until you feel better.
  5. In 30 minutes … check Blood Sugar again.

We should be Prepared ::

  1. Always carry something Sugary with you.
  2. Have a “snack-pack” with you.

Regular Exercise lowers Blood Sugar


About Exercise

Exercise is an important part of our treatment.

What Exercise does for us :

-Improves our strength and muscle tone

-Helps insulin work better

-Helps keep Blood Sugar levels more stable

-Helps us lose weight along with careful eating

-Gives us more energy

-Helps lower cholesterol

Reduces Stress

Exercise and wisely planned diet can be the key to successful diabetes treatment.

References :

1. Practical Management of Diabetes by Dr Sharad Pendsey.

2. Text book of Medicine by Price

3. Google search engine.

© 2008 Dr Kulsum Mehmood


Rodney Fagan from Johannesberg South Africa, The Gold Mine City on February 23, 2009:

Thanks for the info. Greatly appreciated as I am borderline diabtetes II and control tyhis with a low GI diet.

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