Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.
Rice And Brown Rice - The Difference
Rice is obtained from the plant Oryza sativa.
Rice is native to China and is a staple food in Asia and has been cultivated for about 9000 years by primitive man. It is the most widely consumed staple food in the world.
There are 8000 varieties of rice but all rice is categorized into 3 main types based on the grain length :
- Long grain
- Medium grain
- Short grain
Short grain rice is the stickiest as it contains the highest starch content while long-grain rice remains separate and has the lowest starch content.
Another type of classification of rice is based on the degree of milling of the grain. Thus on this basis. there are 2 types of rice :
- Brown rice
- White rice
Brown rice is nothing but rice which has only the husk removed. Quite simply, It is unpolished rice. Since brown rice has the bran layer retained it takes longer to cook. Because the bran brown rice has a nutty flavour and is of firmer texture than white rice.
Since brown rice has only the husk removed, it is considered a whole grain as it has the bran and the germ intact. It retains all of its nutrients and is much healthier than white rice. The only drawback is that it has a shorter shelf life since it can go rancid quicker due to the fatty acids in the bran.
White rice is made from brown rice. However, converting brown rice to white rice reduces its nutritional content and value. It destroys 67% of niacin, 80% of thiamine(B1), 90% of pyridoxine(B6), 50% of manganese, 50% of phosphorus, 60% of iron, all dietary fibre and essential fatty acids.
However in the United States, by law, white rice needs to be enriched with Vitamins B1, B6 and iron. The forms of the nutrients that are enriched are different from the form the unprocessed rice has. Moreover, at least 11 of the nutrients so lost by processing are not added back at all, even after enrichment.
It is an irony that brown rice in spite of being healthier is counted as inferior and a poor man's food as it does not have the look of sophistication which people are looking for.
Parts Of A Rice Grain
Nutrients In Brown Rice
1 cup or 195 grams of brown rice provides the following major nutrients:
- 216 Calories, which is about 12% of the daily requirement.
- 88% of the daily value of Manganese.
- 27% of the daily requirement of Selenium.
- 20.9% of the Magnesium requirement.
- 16% of Phosphorus needs.
- 9.5% of the daily Copper requirement.
- 8% of the Zinc daily value.
- 14% of the daily dietary fibre requirement.
- Over 12.5% of the Vitamin B1 daily needs.
- 14.9% of the Niacin requirement.
- 5.6% of the Pantothenic acid value.
- 4.5% of the Iron required daily.
Nutritional Benefits Of Brown Rice
Some of the nutritional benefits of brown rice are :
- Zero cholesterol.
- Presence of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
- Also present are a number of amino acids which include lysine, methionine and tryptophan.
- Many powerful phytonutrients like phenolics etc.
- Brown rice has a lower Glycemic Load than white rice.
Apart from these, there are many other nutrients that along with the ones listed here make brown rice a superfood to contend with both in nutrient content and health benefits.
How to Cook Brown Rice Perfectly
Health Benefits Of Brown Rice
- Reduces Risk Of Diabetes
According to a study, the risk of diabetes rises by 11% for each serving of white rice eaten per day.
Also, brown rice reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. Brown rice is rich in magnesium and magnesium is a co-factor in enzymes that regulate our body's use of glucose as well as for insulin secretion.
It has been found that regularly eating whole grains like brown rice reduces risk of type 2 diabetes by helping to better regulate blood sugar levels.
- Controls Weight
Brown rice is low energy, high-density food. It fills one up but is low in calories. Its starch is a Resistant starch which is a type of carbohydrate that boosts metabolism and burns fat.
Scientists at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center for Human Nutrition in Denver along with a team of international researchers found that the right carbs (read Resistant starch) will make one slimmer and stay slim since these carbs,
Improve fat loss especially from the belly by shrinking the fat cells, raise the muscle mass, controls hunger by keeping the tummy full longer, control blood sugar and also lower the triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
Brown rice is rich in dietary fibre as well and in a study, it has been found that intake of whole-grain foods like brown rice prevented weight gain and those who ate more of these foods weighed less than those who ate less of such fibre rich foods.
- Protects And Reduces Risk Of Cancers
A study has found that fibre from whole grains like brown rice protects and reduces the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. This is directly proportional to the amount of fibre consumed so it makes sense to eat more brown rice.
The plant lignans protect against breast cancer and other hormone-related cancers and also heart disease. Eating brown rice raises the blood levels of this health-protecting lignan, the enterolactone, according to studies.
- Reduces Risk Of Colon Cancer
Brown rice has many powerful phytonutrients which are powerful antioxidants as well. For example, the phenolics include quercetin, ellagic acid, curcumin, catechins etc. These are mostly found in bound form in brown rice, unlike their free form which is found in most commonly eaten fruits and vegetables.
These phenolics are released by the intestinal bacteria only during digestion and because the normal testing procedures measure only the free phenolics, the antioxidant activity of brown rice was greatly underestimated initially as 99% of these phenolics are in bound form and not in the free form.
- Prevents Gallstones
A study shows the consumption of foods high in insoluble fibre like brown rice prevents the formation of gallstones. The higher the consumption the lower the risk.
The insoluble fibre in brown rice not only speeds up the movement of food in the intestine but also reduces the amounts of bile acids secreted. It is known that excess of bile acids are responsible for gallstone formation.
- Makes Bones Healthy
Brown rice is rich in magnesium and this mineral helps in making the bones strong. The importance of this mineral can be judged by the fact that 2/3 of the magnesium in our body is concentrated in our bones. and a major portion is stored over the surface of the bone for quick retrieval in times of need.
Brown rice is very useful as 1 cup provides 21% of the daily magnesium needs.
- Reduces Cholesterol, Prevents Atherosclerosis, Protects The Heart
Diets high in rice protein like in brown rice help to keep the levels of nitric oxide in blood high. Nitric oxide improves blood vessel dilation and also prevents the oxidation of cholesterol by free radicals thus preventing deposition of plaques in the arteries. This has been found in a study.
Brown rice also lowers cholesterol levels because of the oil content as well as the unsaponifiable compounds that brown rice has in the bran. Rice bran oil has been found to lower LDL cholesterol as well as provide heart-protective benefits. All these benefits can be derived by eating brown rice. It also lowers blood pressure.
- Benefits Of Excellent Manganese Levels
Brown rice is extremely rich in manganese. 1 cup provides 88% of the daily requirement. This provides wonderful antioxidant protection against free radical damage and helps to keep the nervous system healthy, helps in the synthesis of fatty acids and also in energy production.
- Benefits Of High Selenium Levels
1 cup of brown rice provides about 28% of the daily value of this mineral which reduces the risk of colon cancer. Selenium also reduces the risk of heart disease and reduces inflammation thus reducing asthmatic symptoms and pain and inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Reduces Childhood Asthma
In studies, it was found that whole grains like brown rice and fish reduced wheezing and asthmatic symptoms.
However, wheat consumption should be avoided as it a common allergen for asthma, even though it is a whole grain.
Parboiled rice is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamine, from the bran to endosperm hence parboiled white rice is 80% nutritionally similar to brown rice. This rice takes less time to cook and is firmer and less sticky.
The information provided in this hub is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult your physician, or health care provider before taking any home remedies, supplements or starting a new health regime.
Easy Homemade Spanish Rice Made With Brown Rice
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
© 2013 Rajan Singh Jolly
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on December 10, 2014:
Brown rice takes a while longer to cook so soaking it will cut down the cooking time a bit. Soak it for about an hour to hour and half before cooking, Harsha.
Harsha Vardhana R from Bangalore on November 27, 2014:
Very recently I started cooking myself (I had been forbidden due to seizure issues and single living). I got a pack of organic brown rice and cooked in a rice-cooker.
It was good and I mixed with a paste of tamarind rice-dish (Puliyogere in Kannada). It was nice!
Do we need to soak the brown rice in water for a while before cooking?
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on November 27, 2014:
Why would you want to eat raw rice in the first instance?
saraswathi on November 27, 2014:
what happens if eaten without cooking. that is raw rice taken in
very often. is it bad for health. please let me know.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 22, 2013:
It takes about an hour or a bit more to cook them because they have bran intact. But they are so healthy that it's worth the extra time.
sweetie1 from India on April 22, 2013:
I brought brown rice of Dawat brand recently and I think i made mistake in making them as even after cooking for 40 minutes they were still not cooked.. BTW very useful info in this hub..
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 18, 2013:
GTF, it does take sometime getting used to this type of rice but when one gets hooked on it, it's forever. Thanks for stopping by.
Claudia Mitchell on April 17, 2013:
I just have to figure out how to get my daughter to eat this kind of rice. There is something about the flavor and texture that she does not like. It really is so much healthier than white rice. Useful hub!
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 13, 2013:
@Peggy, good to know you are using more of the healthier brown rice. It takes longer to cook it but it is worthwhile to spend more time on making a healthier food. Thanks for the read.
@livingsta, yes this rice is the red colored variety. Thanks for stopping by.
@Kathryn, I agree it takes a while longer for the brown rice to cook but it's well worth the effort health wise. Thanks for visiting.
Kathryn from Windsor, Connecticut on April 13, 2013:
I have both brown and white rice, and like the flavor of both. The only downside to the brown rice is the time it takes to cook, but I need to start cooking supper earlier so that I can enjoy the extra nutrition boost of the brown variety. It seems like a waste to eat white rice.
Thank you for sharing this information with us.
livingsta from United Kingdom on April 13, 2013:
Thank you for this hub Rajan, a very detailed and useful one. I have not tasted brown rice. I have eaten a rice that has a reddish colour, must be the one with the Chuff removed but the bran intact.
Looking at the health benefits, it is good to eat brown rice and occasionally have the white one. Thank you.
Votes up, sharing and tweeting!
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on April 12, 2013:
We have both types of rice in our home but I am gradually using more of the brown rice. I do love the nuttier flavor and know that it is much healthier a food source than white rice. Gave this 5 stars, up votes and will share. Thanks for writing this informative hub.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 06, 2013:
Paul, brown rice takes a while to cook because of the bran in it. This is the only drawback if I may term it so. I'm glad you've decided to eat more of this healthy rice.
I appreciate your comments and visit and thanks for all the sharing.
Paul Richard Kuehn from Udorn City, Thailand on April 05, 2013:
Once again this is an awesome hub. I eat mostly white rice now, but I have eaten brown rice before. I didn't really know why it was more healthy for the body until I read your hub. For better health and to lose weight, I will start eating more brown rice. Your photos are excellent. Voted up and sharing and Pinning. Also Tweeting.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 01, 2013:
@ Suzette - it's good to know you are a lover of brown rice. Certainly a lot healthier than the white one. Thanks for the vote up and visit.
@ Rasma - thanks for the visit and sharing.
@ Nicole - that's very healthy as well. I have a hub on quinoa too. Thanks for stopping by.
Suzette Walker from Taos, NM on April 01, 2013:
Great hub and very informative. I enjoyed reading this. I have changed to eating brown rice because it is healthier. Your hub tells all the reasons why. Voted up
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on April 01, 2013:
@ Tricia - thank you.
@ Martie - thanks for the appreciation and I'm glad you like the info. I appreciate the visit and sharing.
@ Aurelio - thanks and good to know you prefer this over white rice.
@ beingwell - good to know you eat the brown variety of rice, Thanks for sharing the hub.
@ moonlake - Thanks for your input and also thee sharing of the hub.
@ Careermommy - Many thanks for sparing time to read and comment.
Nicole S Hanson from Minnesota on April 01, 2013:
I do use brown rice, but more often I use quinoa. Nice hub!
Gypsy Rose Lee from Daytona Beach, Florida on April 01, 2013:
Voted up and interesting. Thank you for sharing another informative hub and brown rice sounds great. Great videos. Passing this on.
Suzette Walker from Taos, NM on April 01, 2013:
Beautiful hub and so comprehensive. Very well written and laid out. I have switched over to brown rice and that is all I eat now - I order it in restaurants and eat it at home. It is so much healthier! Thank you so much for the recipes and I love the videos.
Tirralan Watkins from Los Angeles, CA on March 31, 2013:
rajan, this is an excellent hub. I love brown rice and always knew it was healthier, but had no idea about all the wonderful health benefits. Thank you for sharing such a great article.
moonlake from America on March 31, 2013:
We always eat brown rice because it is healthier than white. Very informative hub. Voted up and shared.
beingwell from Bangkok on March 31, 2013:
Amazing facts on brown rice. It's what we have at home. Sharing!!
Aurelio Locsin from Orange County, CA on March 31, 2013:
I prefer brown rice because of its flavor, texture and color. Good to know that it's healthier too. Voting this Up and Useful.
Martie Coetser from South Africa on March 31, 2013:
Rajan, this is surely the most interesting, informative and well-presented article I have ever read about rice. I am sharing this without a second thought. Thank you!
Tricia1000 from South Africa on March 31, 2013:
Very informative. I found the categorization and the list of nutrients very useful.
Rajan Singh Jolly (author) from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on March 30, 2013:
@ Devika - thanks. good to learn that you like the info.
@ smnj - thanks.
@ Tara - good to know you are on the road to healthy eating. I hope you try out the pie recipe. Thanks for the vote and sharing.
@ Carol - the bran has oil in it making it more vulnerable to oxidation than white rice. Appreciate the read and sharing.
@ Angelo - that's good to hear. Thanks fro reading and passing on this info.
@ Lisa - glad to know you found this hub informative. Thanks.
@ Joe -thanks for reading this and your votes are always appreciated.
@ Harsha - thanks.
@ Bill - I love this feedback. I hope you and Bev have a wonderful weekend as well.
@ Arun - I'm reminded of the saying"all that glitters is not gold". Thanks my friend, I do hope you shift on to the healthy rice.
@ Graham - good to see you again my friend. Thanks.
@ Audrey - thanks and it's always good to hear from you.
@ Bill - thanks for the read and sharing. Actually the rinsing is done to remove the excess starch which would otherwise cause the rice grains to clump together.
Bill De Giulio from Massachusetts on March 30, 2013:
Very interesting rajan. I knew that brown rice was healthier than white rice but I had no idea why. I am surprised at the significant difference between the two types. When using white rice my wife rinses it as she read somewhere that it is coated with something that I can't recall. Anyway, we do now use brown rice much more often than we used to. Thanks for the great tips and advice. Voted up, shared, etc...
Audrey Howitt from California on March 30, 2013:
I happen to love brown rice and I am so glad that it is good for you! Great post!
Graham Lee from Lancashire. England. on March 30, 2013:
Hi rajan. Another first class hub. I cannot keep up with you output! Your knowledge of your subject is greatly admired.
ARUN KANTI CHATTERJEE from KOLKATA on March 30, 2013:
Most of us choose white rice over brown rice because of the difference of appearance. White rice looks so much more delicious than brown rice but the latter is actually healthier. Thanks for such useful information. Let us only hope that majority of the health conscious people will now gradually plump for brown rice instead.
Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on March 30, 2013:
Bev has had us eating brown rice for years and I agree completely with you about the health benefits. We are living this hub. :)
Thank you my friend and have a wonderful weekend.
Harsha Vardhana R from Bangalore on March 30, 2013:
Thank you, Rajan! Very informative!
Is this brown rice different from Kerala red rice?
Hawaiian Odysseus from Southeast Washington state on March 30, 2013:
I love brown rice, Rajan, and so this was especially delightful and confirming to read. Thank you so much, as always, for sharing the fruits of your diligent research and writing with us. Have a wonderful day, my friend, and keep 'em coming!
Lisa Chronister from Florida on March 30, 2013:
This was very interesting! I eat a lot of rice and always kind of wondered about these differences. Thanks for posting, I voted up!
Angelo52 on March 30, 2013:
Excellent article, Rajan. It is good to know all the good nutrients available from using brown rice as I recently started buying brown rice in place of white. Voted up and shared.
carol stanley from Arizona on March 30, 2013:
I had no idea that brown rice can go bad. Think I will put it in the fridge. We have brown rice often..And it really takes me a long time to cook living in high altitude. I have not bought white rice of years. Thanks for the heads up on all the food value..Great hub..voting up and pinning.
Tara Carbery from Cheshire, UK on March 30, 2013:
As I read this I have a pan of Brown rice simmering on the hob! I always choose brown rice over white and use wholemeal pasta rather than white for the fibre.
A thorough hub with useful information and recipes. My mouth is watering at the spinach, feta and brown rice pie. I'm going to give that a go!
Voted up and shared!
Swapna from India on March 30, 2013:
Very informative. Thanks for sharing.
Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on March 30, 2013:
Interesting about the benefits of brown rice I have to start having more brown rice with such helpful benefits, and you always do such a great job on your titles and research.