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Compendium of Diseases: Mango

Manilyn is a part time writer and a part time farmer. She is very much interested in topics like Farming and Food Marketing.

Mango Diseases

1. Anthrachnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.)

Leaf Symptoms

Leaf symptoms start as a tiny, necrotic spots which later enlarge into separate, roundish, or angular spots. Under wet conditions, these spots coalesce to form larger, irregular shaped patches, with light brown to grayish center and dark brown margins.

Fruit Symptoms

Fruit infection takes place in early fruit setting until the fruits are more than half grown. The disease remains latent in immature green fruits, thus, an infected fruit usually appears healthy at harvest but develops symptoms during storage. Upon fruit ripening, the circular, brown to black spots start to appear on the fruit surface. Later, various black pustules with pinkish stuff appear on the lesions. The pustules are fruiting bodies of the fungus. The pulp beneath the spot becomes soft and decays.

Management of Disease

  • Apply fungicides to prevent or reduce yield loss due to flower and fruit infections. Chemicals such as maneb, propineb, zineb, chlorothalonil, captan, benomyl, and copper fungicides are effective when used singly, in combination, or in sequential spray. Spray during blooming and then monthly until harvest.
  • Incorporate liquid fertilizer into fungicidal mixture. It is advantageous since it allows rapid nutrient absorption and utilization, corrects deficiency symptoms, and improves the tree vigor.
  • Dip the fruits for three to five minutes in hot water (52-55 C) to which 500-1000 ppm benomyl has been added. This will minimize post harvest infections.
  • Control weeds and other undergrowth beneath the tree to reduce humidity, increase ventilation and discourage the growth of the fungus.
  • Use resistant varieties such as "Haden", "Irwin", and Indo-Chinese/Philippine mango.
Infected leaves and fruits

Infected leaves and fruits

2. Leaf blight (Pestalotia sp.)

Symptoms

Infection usually begins at the leaf margins with lesions that are either circular or elongate, sunken and dark brown. The tissues around the lesions turn light yellow then later turn dark brown until entire leaves are infected.

Management of Disease


leaf blight

leaf blight

3. Shoot die back (Pestalotia sp.)

Symptoms

The first symptom on plants is the grayish appearance of one or more branches. These branches then begin to wilt during sunny days. As the disease progresses, succulent growing tips turn dark brown, collapse, and become dry and brittle.

Management of Disease

Shoots infected with Pestalotia sp.

Shoots infected with Pestalotia sp.

4. Leaf Spot (Sordaria sp.)

Symptoms

Leaf lesions start as a small, round spots which later enlarge into roundish to angular spots with light brown centers and dark brown margins. When the environmental is favorable, the spots coalesce to form larger irregularly-shaped patches.

Management of Disease

Infected leaves with Sordaria sp.

Infected leaves with Sordaria sp.

5. Black leaf spot (Coreyneum sp)

Symptoms

Infected leaves show small, black and irregular spots scattered on the leaf surfaces.

Management of Disease

Black leaf spot on leaves

Black leaf spot on leaves

6. Sooty mold (Capnodium mangiferae Cooks and Broom)

Symptoms

the casual organism is not pathogenic because it feeds on the tissue surface and does not enter the host. The fungus gets its nourishment from honey dew, the excreta of hoppers, mealy bugs, scales, and other sucking insects

Symptoms appear on the leaves and stems as a superficial black growth of mycelium forming a film or crust on the plant parts. No direct damage is done. However, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf is adversely affected due to extensive growth of the fungus over the leaf area. The normal flowering of the tree is also affected.

Management of Disease

  • Spray insecticides to control the insects followed by the application of Bordeaux mixture spray.
  • Wash and brush harvested fruits with water and soap.
  • Bag the fruits.
  • Prune and promptly destroy the affected branches to prevent the spread of the disease.
  • Spray with 2% starch.
Sooty mold on leaves, stems, and fruits

Sooty mold on leaves, stems, and fruits

7. Stem-end rot (Diplodia natalensis)

Symptoms

Stem-end rot is prevalent during transport and storage. The initial symptom is a violet lesion on infected fruits which then becomes light brown and finally turns black. Usually, the most affected is the base of the fruit where the pedicel is attached. At the advanced stage of disease development, the affected area softens, becomes watery, and produces unpleasant odor. The fruit rots completely within three to four days.

Management of Disease

  • Remove and burn the primary sources of inoculum such as dead twigs, pedicels, and leaves.
  • Retain about 0.5 cm pedicel at harvest since higher incidence of the disease occurs on fruits without pedicel.
  • Apply a post harvest treatment with hot water to reduce disease incidence.
  • Promptly apply fungicidal paste to the cut stem of harvested fruits.
  • Avoid harvesting immature fruit.
  • Wash fruits with copper fungicide suspension.
  • Avoid use of banana leaves as packing materials. These often harbor the inoculum which spreads easily to the fruit.
Fruits infected with stem-end rot

Fruits infected with stem-end rot

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

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