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Ask Carb Diva: Questions & Answers About Food, Recipes, & Cooking, #142

Linda explores food facts, folklore, and fabulous recipes one ingredient at a time.


Change Your Headline

I wish that I could take credit for this next paragraph, but no I can't. I don't know the original author, but a friend posted in on Facebook today, and it's important, especially now.

Sometimes I just want it to stop. We talk of Covid, protests, looting, brutality, and lose our way. We become convinced that this "new normal" is real life.

But then, I met an 87-year old who talks of living through polio, diptheria, Vietnam, protests, and yet is still enchanted with life. He seemed surprised when I said that 2020 must be especially challenging for him. "No," he said, slowly looking me straight in the eyes. "I learned a long time ago to not see the world through the printed headlines; I see the world through the people that surround me. I see the world with the realization that we love big. Therefore, I just choose to write my own headlines. 'Husband loves wife today.' 'Family drops everything to come to Grandma's bedside."

He patted my hand. "Old man makes a new friend." His words collide with my worries, freeing them from the tether I had been holding tight. They float away. I am left with a renewed spirit.

My headline now reads "Woman overwhelmed by the spirit of kindness and the reminder that our capacity to love is never-ending."

With that, I'm ready to begin. Let's get started with today's mailbox. If you're an old friend, you already know how this works. But, if this is your first visit, let me introduce you to my kitchen.

Each week I receive questions about food ingredients, cooking or baking terms or methods, requests for recipes, and queries about nutrition. Just about anything food-related has been covered here.

I'm sharing this past week's questions and my responses; it happens every Monday. Want to join in the fun? You can leave your question in the comments below, and next week the answer will be right here. It's that easy.

Glass Pans vs. Metal Pans

"Linda, I thought the flapjack lesson from last week was quite interesting. I wonder how they came to be called flapjacks? They're nothing like pancakes. With regard to your alternate recipe, I'm curious as to why you recommend a metal baking pan over glass. Do tell!"

Shauna, I love this part of my "job." There's actually a science to cooking and baking and the budget analyst in me (what I used to do for actual money) needs/wants precision. Here's why I recommended a metal pan instead of glass.

  • Glass is not the best conductor of heat, but once it gets hot, it holds onto that heat. That's why we use glass/ceramic for casseroles, lasagne, etc. (things that we want to stay hot).
  • On the other hand, metal, especially aluminum, is great at conducting heat. It heats up quickly. The inverse is also true—it releases heat faster than glass or ceramic.

So why does that matter with the recipe I shared for bar cookies? They are quite thin, mostly sugar (oh yum!) and if baked in glass would continue to bake and bake and bake after you remove them from the oven. The interior might survive, but the edges corners would be rendered tooth-breakingly hard. I hope that helps.

Source: The Kitchn

Recipe for a Bakewell Tart

And, I received another question about last week's article on British flapjacks (which are a bar cookie, not an American pancake).

"Back to your lovely Hub. I like flapjacks, but they are too sweet. The old sugar problem, although I have had them done with honey, I believe. Pret a Manger do a Bakewell Tart, which is about the same size and shape but really nice! Can you make a Bakewell Tart?"

Manatita, when I first read "Bakewell tart" I was absolutely clueless. So I did a Google search and my first hit was a recipe by King Arthur Flour (an American supplier of flours, baking ingredients and mixes, cookbooks, and baked goods). They offered an almond/jam tart. That sounded very like a recipe I had shared on Hub Pages several years ago, but with apricots instead of jam.

That was my mistake. When I wrote back to Manatita, I called it a mere "jam tart", and that is not what King Arthur shared on their website. King Arthur's recipe has a buttery shortbread crust, and yes, it has jam, but in between the two is a frangipane (almond cream). So, my dear friend, check out this link from King Arthur, and also my recipe. I'd love to hear back from you.

How/Why Did Agave Syrup Improve My Bread?

agave syrup

agave syrup

"I've been making my own whole wheat bread for some time now (3 or 4 years) and was disappointed at how fast it goes dry and crumbly. I'm vegan so I don't use egg in the recipe but I do use flax seed. I tried double bagging it, freezing it, buttering the top after baking... nothing helped until I stumbled on it last week. Instead of using sugar, I used agave nectar, a couple of tablespoons, and left all the other ingredients the same. The difference has been amazing. It stays soft and spongy for a week or so which is a great improvement over the next day dry loaf I hated before. Can you tell me why that happened? I wouldn't have thought sugar would have been a drying factor. I'm happy but stumped."

Denise, this is another fun one—there are different types of sugars.

Scroll to Continue

First, a glossary and a little bit of science:

  • Sugar is hygroscopic—what does that mean? It seeks out water molecules and, when it finds them, it holds onto them.
  • Monosaccharide is a simple (single) sugar
  • Disaccharide is a complex (double) sugar
  • Sucrose is the scientific name for table sugar. Table sugar is a disaccharide, made up of the simple sugars glucose and fructose.
  • Glucose is most often found in the pantry as corn syrup. It inhibits the formation of crystals and so is often used in making candy, in sweetening homemade ice cream, or in any other product that needs a non-grainy texture.
  • Fructose is fruit sugar found in many fruits, honey, and agave syrup. It is very sweet, and it attracts moisture even more than sucrose.

So how does all of this relate to Denise’s soft, moist, tender bread? The old recipe contained brown sugar (part glucose and part fructose). When she replaced the brown sugar with agave syrup, she had 100 percent fructose which holds onto moisture even more than table sugar.

Which Salt To Use In Canning (and Why)

"Another great edition and we all appreciate you putting these together. I also have a question pertinent for later toward the canning season: if I’m using 1 cup of salt for a recipe, does it matter if it’s table salt or canning salt or pickling salt? If yes, why? If not, then what’s the difference? It seems some recipes are very specific about salt type but I never understood why."

Greg, I'm glad you asked about salt. Just as with sugar, not all salts are created equal. You asked about table, canning, and pickling salts. Here's the scoop on each one of them (and a few more that you didn't ask about just for fun):

Table salt: This is the standard recipe salt. It’s fine-grained and contains anti-caking agents and (often) iodine. Use it in cooking and baking, where precise measurements and consistent grain and strength are required.

Canning salt and pickling salt (synonymous): This is 100 percent pure salt without anti-caking additives or iodine. Those additives (which you will find in table salt) will make your brine cloudy or murky (not a pretty look). It has fine grains and so dissolves quickly. That is also why canning/pickling salt should not be used in a recipe that recommends table salt. Size matters. We’ll cover that in detail under the segment for Kosher salt, OK?

Rock salt: The huge crystals of this salt make it unsuitable for cooking or baking (they won’t fully dissolve). But that is exactly why rock salt is used for making ice cream or de-icing sidewalks. Note (and this is really important) that industrial-grade rock salt sold at hardware stores (for de-icing) is not food grade.

Crystalline sea salt: This one is a by-product of evaporating seawater, available in fine and coarse grains, prized for its pure flavor. Use in baking (fine grain) or cooking (coarse grain).

Grey Salt: Most comes from Brittany where the clay soil lends a grey tinge. The trace minerals give it a complex flavor. Use as a finishing salt.

Fleur de Sel: Expensive and worth the cost. These crystals, like snowflakes, form on the top of salt flats and achieve a delicate texture from the breezes that blow across them. Use by sprinkling on your finest foods (such as aged steak, heirloom tomatoes, or a salad of baby greens with artisanal oil and aged balsamic vinegar) just before serving. The instant they touch your tongue they explode with flavor--think of them as Nature's pop-rocks.

Kosher Salt: The go-to salt for chefs who appreciate the lack of additives and the coarse grain (to get a “pinch”). Use it to season anything cooked in a saucepan or sauté pan. You won’t need to use as much as table salt. But oh, the controversy!

In the United States, there are two major manufacturers of Kosher salt, Morton and Diamond Crystal. They are not interchangeable, nor can they be used 1:1 in place of table salt. As explained by

"A cup of Morton is nearly twice as salty as Diamond Crystal. Its thin crystals, made by pressing salt granules in high-pressurized rollers, are much denser than those of Diamond Crystal, which uses a patented pan-evaporation process, called the Alberger method, that results in pyramidal crystals. While different brands of fine sea salts and table salts generally have around the same weight by volume, kosher salts do not. “And it’s not only the weight,” says Lalli Music. “Morton is a coarser salt. It takes a little longer to dissolve.” So even at the same weight, it actually performs differently. It’s easier to add too much of the slow-dissolving Morton salt because it may not have fully liquefied when you’ve tasted something."

My friend Kenji of Serious Eats analyzed the various types of salt and weighed them carefully. Here's a table of his findings.

Type of SaltWeight/CupWeight/Tablespoon

Table Salt

10 ounces, 280 g

2/3 ounce, 18 g

Morton Kosher Salt

8 ounces, 225 g

1/2 ounce, 14 g

Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt

5 ounces, 140 g

1/3 ounce, 9 g

Maldon Sea Salt

4 ounces, 115 g

1/4 ounce, 7 g

Fleur de Sel

8 ounces, 225 g

1/2 ounce, 14 g

What does this mean? For example, if you have a recipe that calls for Morton Kosher salt, and all that you have on hand is table salt, you will need to use half of the amount of salt prescribed. If you use a standard 1:1 substitution your dish will be much too salty!

How Can I Jazz Up My Yogurt?

"I recently read an article about making yogurt at home. Do you have any suggestions to jazz it up with either toppings or flavorings? I don't always want to eat just plain yogurt."

Plain yogurt waiting for an amazing topping

Plain yogurt waiting for an amazing topping

Mary, this is such a fun topic. My husband eats yogurt almost every morning for breakfast. He likes to put a hefty portion of honey-almond granola on top. That's an easy fix, of course, but I'm guessing you are looking for something with fewer calories. I put on my thinking cap and came up with a sampling of sweet and savory options (or am I the only person in the world who doesn't want sweets?)

Sweet Toppings or Swirl-Ins

bananas and maple syrup

honey and walnuts


cornflakes and fresh berries

mango puree

berry jam

lemon curd

honey, orange juice and zest, pistachios, crystallized ginger

honey, chopped almonds, apricots

blueberries, sugar, lemon zest

bananas, cinnamon, chopped peanuts


Savory Toppings or Swirl-ins

Pine nuts and sundried tomatoes (oil packed)

Basil pesto and Parmesan

Bacon bits and tomato

Black olives and diced avocado

Diced cucumber and fresh dill weed

herbs, sea salt, and fruity olive oil

We're Organized

Did you know that there is a Table of Contents for this series? I have created an article that provides a detailed listing of each question I've received. It's broken down by category, and within each category, the questions are listed alphabetically. Each question is actually a hotlink back to the original post.

Here's a link to that Table of Contents.

I have also cataloged all of my personal recipes that I have shared with you in this weekly Q&A series and in all of my other articles as well. The link to that Index is here. There are hotlinks to each recipe and this will be updated as new recipes are shared.


Let's do this again next week. If you have questions about foods, cooking techniques, or nutrition you can ask them here. If you are in search of an old recipe or need ideas on how to improve an existing one I can help you. If you want to learn more, let's do it together. Present your questions, your ideas, your comments below. Or, you can write to me personally at this email address:

And, I promise that there will always be at least one photo of a kitty in every Monday post.

© 2020 Linda Lum


Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 30, 2020:

Greg, I'm so glad that I was able to help. I have a new Q&A each Monday, and 100's of articles on just about anything else related to food. At the end of this article, under "We're Organized" you can find a link to a Table of Contents for all of my articles and for my recipes.

greg cain from Moscow, Idaho, USA on June 30, 2020:

Linda - outstanding! Thanks also for answering my question about salt. I do believe that clarifies the trouble I had once with canning/smoking some fish. I used the same amount of table salt as called for in a recipe that told me to use kosher salt. It was, of course, too salty. Anyway, great work on that piece, and the rest of it, too. Thanks much, and keep up the great work! Very helpful.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 29, 2020:

Shauna, I'm working on it right now, in fact. See ya next Monday.

Shauna L Bowling from Central Florida on June 27, 2020:

Linda, I look forward to your answer to Wesman's question. I and several of us at work have pink Himalayan salt lamps in our offices. The pink Himalayan salt is purported to purify the air. Is it true? What is the science behind the claim?

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 26, 2020:

Thanks Wesman. You've made my day (not my week, but certainly the better part of this day thusfar).

So, stay tuned (and hey, next week's Q&A, even if it doesn't include your amazing question, might be worth checking into).

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on June 26, 2020:

Of course. I'm really not worthy of much of your time. You just doing you provides me a LOT of interesting stuff to think about.

I'm often emailing my mother your pages because my mother is the person I most ask about cooking.

In other words, my mom knows who you are. Heh. I'm just a late bloomer. I never cooked anything but eggs and maybe some pork chops until I was over 30 years old.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 26, 2020:

Wesman, my column for next week is already pretty lengthy, and it’s already Friday. I’m tired, so can I set this question aside for the next installment (#144)? I’d like to give it (and you) the attention deserved.

Good question. Thanks for that. Without people like you, this Q&A would disappear.

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on June 26, 2020:

Well what is this pink Himalayan salt stuff people keep giving me shakers of? Does it have anything special about it, or is it just another big goofy trend?

I recently was given a great big grinder of these pink salty things, and a couple years ago, I was given a lamp which is supposed to do something to my breathing air, which is made from the exact same stuff, it seems.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 26, 2020:

Thank you, Denise. You're my go-to gal for encouragement.

Blessings to you as well, my friend. Stay safe.

Denise McGill from Fresno CA on June 26, 2020:

Wow, what a load of research you had this week. Sugar and salt. I'm glad for the info. Thanks for all the work you put into this. You are my go-to gal for food info!



Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 23, 2020:

Hi Shauna. "Ose" is just the naming of any sugar. Lactose is milk sugar, for example. I believe that some bakeries use fructose in their cookies--it makes them more moist.

Shauna L Bowling from Central Florida on June 23, 2020:

Linda, thanks for answering my question. Your explanation of glass vs metal makes perfect sense.

I was also interested to learn about the different sugars. A while back I'd bought a bottle of agave but gave it away once I learned it is pure fructose. Until this article, I was under the impression anything ending in "ose" is bad for you. Now I know better!

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Yes, Manatita I do posess feet of clay. I have made a mistake or two (hahaha). Oh, to be a cat on this beautiful sunny afternoon. My kitty looks like he has melted

manatita44 from london on June 22, 2020:

If I didn't know better, I'd say that this intro came directly from you. (Smile). It's beautiful and meaningful and it is where we ought to be. Guruji has always said that nothing is new. In fact ... wait for it ... we are actually progressing ... seriously!

That's a very interesting observation on glass vs metal. Now I hold you in reverential awe in the culinary world.

So my dear culinary maestro/a is prone to mistakes? Wow! (Chuckle) No! jam tart is not my Bakewell. Delicioso!

I don't want sweets either. Love to the cat. Until, - Manatita

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

MizB, that's an outstanding question. You're not alone in the world of people who abstain from cow's milk. I'll check my usual sources and see what I can find out for you. Be sure to check back next Monday (and by the way, those "flapjacks" are not pancakes. They are what the Brits call a bar cookie flavored with golden syrup).

Doris James MizBejabbers from Beautiful South on June 22, 2020:

Linda, somehow last week was busy and I missed your article on flapjacks. Now I'm going to have to go back and read it. I have a small electric yogurt maker that makes the most wonderful yogurt, but unfortunately, I'm dairy challenged, and when I eat our home made yogurt, my body hurts all over. I wonder if we might successfully use almond milk (or some other vegetable milk) in it. I don't like the flavor of coconut milk or I would try it. What do you think? Thank you, my friend.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Good morning, Mary. I agree wholeheartedly with you about work in the kitchen and science. I tried to instill that in my daughters when they were little. Unfortunately in U.S. schools, I don't think Home Economics is taught anymore. Everyone needs to have basic life skills--how to sew on a button, boil an egg, or roast a chicken. (Learning how to balance a checkbook and change a flat tire would be good too).

Mary Wickison from USA on June 22, 2020:

Hi Linda,

Yes, your opening text is what the world needs now. We all need to look for the good in our world and our lives and be grateful.

Today's Q &A is how I think cooking and the sciences should be combined in schools. Women are underrepresented in the field of science and yet, it's used every time we walk into the kitchen.

Thank you for your yogurt ideas. You surprised me with the savory ones. I have a sweet tooth and don't worry about calories.

It's been ages since I've had a bakewell tart. Yum.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Eric, look at you going all research-y on me. Hey, wanna join my team?

Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on June 22, 2020:

So cool Linda, I looked up the word "bar" and added things like "cooking" "cookie" and just plain old bar. What a word!

This can even refer to a sandwich of sorts. Fun.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Bill, that's a good question and I'll try to tackle it next week. Reminds me of 20 years ago when we went on a tour of England with a high school group. Our tour guide (from London) carried an American-to-English booklet with him to help him understand what we were saying.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Flourish, it's a confusing world, isn't it?

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on June 22, 2020:

I'm just curious: how did we get from biscuit in England to cookie in the U.S.? That seems like such a language leap, you know? What genius in the U.S. decided to completely change the name of such a staple?

Other than that, get ready for the heat. I'm already dreading tomorrow. :)

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Pamela, I enjoyed writing this one. I'm glad that you found it to be helpful.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 22, 2020:

Eric, bar cookies or granola bars? I'll take the former over the latter any day.

FlourishAnyway from USA on June 22, 2020:

A pan isn’t just a pan and Kosher salt isn’t just kosher salt? That does actually explain some things. I like that headline philosophy.

Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on June 22, 2020:

You gave us a wealth of interesting information today, Linda. The quote in the beginning of the article sure gives us something to think about. I particularly liked the information about salt also.

Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on June 21, 2020:

How cool. I never thought about glass frying pans before. But it explains some stuff my mom did and my wife does. Today my headline reads "just another super duper day and tomorrow will even be more of the better".

You have got me wondering. I will study these things called "bars".

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 21, 2020:

Thank you, John. I hope you had a good Father's day.

John Hansen from Gondwana Land on June 21, 2020:

Linda, I love that quote of the conversation you used at the start of the article. We could all learn a lot from that. Thank you for the info on the difference between glass and metal baking pans And the differences in the types of salt was interesting. Have a great week.

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