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An Introduction to Mushroom Farming

Tamara Wilhite is a technical writer, industrial engineer, mother of two, and published sci-fi and horror author.


Mushroom farming is a new industry for the urban farming and food co-op. However, it is ripe for development by urban farms and hobbyists. Mushrooms have a low cost entry point. Production is centered in Pennsylvania, so most of the country cannot state that their mushrooms are locally produced.

Why Is Mushroom Farming Considered to Have a Low Cost Entry Point?

Mushroom farming is fed by food waste that is cheaply and easily acquired from restaurants, schools and food processors. Starbucks is giving used coffee grounds to many small mushroom farms, while wood mill shavings and straw from small farms are available to others. Animal manure is another major source of compost. The soil in which mushrooms grow can be shared or recycled with earthworm producers. However, human manure should never be used to grow mushrooms.

Mushroom farmers can choose from a number of varieties to meet local demand.

Mushroom farms do not need industrial grow lights or heat in the winter in most climates. While mushrooms need to be kept moist, they do not demand the same amount of water required for hydroponics.

Mushroom farming is versatile. It has been done in basements and caves for centuries, and mushrooms can be grown in dimly lit warehouses and storefronts today. Mushrooms are even grown under the dark space under raised vegetable beds and shelves in greenhouses. Unlike hydroponics operations that have to locate in rural areas or warehouses, mushroom farming has far more locations in which it can comfortably operate. For example, mushroom farming could take root in unused, underground parking garages, large basements or otherwise unused warehouses. These areas are low rent because there are so few tenants interested in them.

Mushrooms don't care if they are raised in dark buildings in need of repair.

Mushrooms don't care if they are raised in dark buildings in need of repair.

What Do Small Mushroom Farmers Raise?

High end shiitake mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, button mushrooms or common table mushrooms can be raised side by side. Mushroom based teas and grow-your-own mushroom kits are other products mushroom farmers can offer to their clientele.

While truffles are sometimes raised on small farms, they only grow on trees. This precludes them from most small scale mushroom farms and urban gardens.

How Many Mushrooms Can I Grow?

Mushrooms start out as spores and develop to full size in a matter of weeks. Mushroom farms can turn out five or more crops per column per year. Fifteen pounds per year per hundred square feet is not an unreasonable yield to expect, if temperature, humidity and growth media are properly managed and supplied.

What Is the Market for My Mushrooms?

Small mushroom farmers should reach out to local restaurants and grocers to promote locally produced mushrooms to tap into the locavore or local food movement, so that buyers do not have to ship in their mushrooms from Kennett Square, Pennsylvania where about half of America’s mushrooms are raised.

Locally produced mushrooms by various small companies can sell their mushrooms in farmer's markets, grocery store chains willing to work with small providers and restaurants.

Mushroom farmers who raise their products with environmental and bacterial controls are more reputable than someone who says they picked up mushrooms from the forest, some of which may be toxic wild species.

Is Mushroom Farming Year-Round?

Mushroom farms can produce a constant stream of product for a small area, especially when raised indoors. Mushroom crops are staggered by planting groups of trays each week. Harvesting and “planting” then take place each week at a constant pace instead of struggling to harvest a huge crop in the fall. Unlike other crops, mushrooms can be produced and sold at the peak of summer or deep in the winter, yielding farmers year-round cash flow.

While fungus gnats can be a problem, these can be managed with UV lights and regular full irrigation of the mushroom beds. Mushrooms do not require the pesticides, nor will organic mushrooms need the careful screening and removal of insects by hand.

Mushroom farmers may have highs and lows in their production due to limits on the supply of growing media. Fresh cut logs are best for Shiitake mushrooms, and mushroom farmers who are relying on low cost logs from wood clearing and stump removal operations. Those who use sterilized manure will have a year-round supply of growth media. Straw is a steady, low cost growth medium. Those who grow Shiitake traditionally use fresh logs, but some growers are experimenting with pieces of nude furniture.


Tamara Wilhite (author) from Fort Worth, Texas on February 04, 2019:

RGBowman Online sources say 50-70°F. Temperatures over 100°F will kill them.

RGBowman on February 04, 2019:

I have some pecan trees that sprouted by seed that are too close to each other, so plans are to grow shiitake mushrooms in them. My problem is no money for a good shack to grow them, so I will try growing them under the umbrella of a huge mulberry tree. This means I will be watering the logs when they look like they are getting dry and also, one concern is the temperatures these mushrooms will grow and then survive in. What temperatures will they produce in and what temperatures will possibly kill them off? Do you know?

Tamara Wilhite (author) from Fort Worth, Texas on October 19, 2017:

Ghaelach I understand the concern, given how many mushrooms are toxic and the fact that only trained experts can tell the difference.

Ghaelach on May 11, 2013:

Hi Tamara.

Great hub.

The idea isn't new but keeps coming to the fore every few years or so. I had a friend back in the 80's that grew mushrooms in a 10 meter by 3 meter cabin in which he had a lot of success.

An old man told me that you can eat all types of mushrooms but some of them only once!!!

LOL Ghaelach

Tamara Wilhite (author) from Fort Worth, Texas on May 01, 2013:

Never assume that wild mushrooms can be eaten. Many species are toxic.

peachy from Home Sweet Home on May 01, 2013:

i had seen white mushroom sprouting the dismantled planks in my backyard. Can't be eaten right?

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