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What Are the 4 Parenting Styles; Pro and Cons, Effects, Characteristics, and Examples with Research Works

What Are the 4 Parenting Styles; Pro and Cons, Effects, Characteristics, and Examples with Research Works

The journey of being a parent has always been nostalgic, sometimes pressurizing, and adventurous. As a mother when you get the feel of your baby’s first kick, from listening to the heartbeat to the deadly delivery cramps, getting soaked with massive blood gives you the vibe of happiness in the form of angle beside you crying loudly. When the doctor handles the baby, that specific movement helps you forget the 12 to 19 hours of labor pain. The overwhelming emotion of dad drives him warm and quite fuzzy at the beginning. Father who always supports his child and acts as a protective cover throughout his entire life makes him the real hero of the baby. From the best feel of getting parents, you also find some permanent responsibilities and you also acquire the amazing parenting skills which will make you the best parents of all time. Initially, every parent needs information on parenting and early child development from their family and friends but doesn’t get sufficient information. In this case, you don’t have to worry, this article will guide you about the best parenting skills of the modern era, enable you to get the required history of parenting, and four types of parenting that will make you the best parents with influential parenting styles.

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Authoritarian Parenting

This type of parenting results in more obedient children from the early childhood parents set rules and regulations more obvious to their children along with the defined limits that they are not supposed to cross. This creates a mindset that at any cost they do have to rely on their parent’s decisions because they are way more mature than them. So, parents will always make the right decision.

Pro and Cons of Authoritarian parenting


  • Enhance the behavior of children concerning their societal norms


Authoritarian parenting has inspired people because under this parenting children behaved well mannered. When a parent introduces certain disciplinary rules their children try to implement them to make their parents happy. This results in children with a good attitude and tends them to remain in a societal circle.


  • Goal-oriented


Admiral McRaven said that, if you want to change the world, start by making your bed because this will help you achieve small accomplishments which will have an optimistic impact on your personality. Setting small goals and persistently achieving them will make children a goal-oriented people. So, authoritarian parenting teaches children to respect the rules and the boundaries. There are renewed business personalities who prefer authoritarian parenting

Cons of authoritarian parenting

  • Children who nurture under the Authoritarian parenting go through Depression and Anxiety

When parents act like, do as I say, children will not be able to express their feelings and every time they will try to suppress their emotions as a result, they will get depressed.

Killing the creative aspect of personality According to Elizabeth O'Shea, Self-independence in children enables them to unleash their creative and imaginative side.Parents with strict nature who always try to impose rules destroy the imaginative part of children.

  • Children with low self-esteem

Children under this parenting are emotionally withdrawn because they don't feel confident; to put forward their point of view. Parents fear make children more anxious about discipline and obedience. In result, children will never express their emotions.

  • Rebellious attitude

Authoritarian parents always try to handle all the matters of their children. They will show more dominance over their children's lives, as a result, at some point children will start feeling deprived of their life, and the feeling will lead them to be rebellious against their parents.

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Examples of Authoritarian Parenting

  • The disciplinarian parenting type where parents are very demanding with less responsiveness expects a lot from their children. When it comes to choosing a career, authoritarian parents tend to impose their point of view. Let us take some examples of renowned people around the globe; Michelangelo Di Lodovico, a famous Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the high renaissance, was discouraged by his father, Lodovico Buonarroti Because his father believed that pursuing a career as an artist is aginst his family's rules and regulations. His father didn't think of Michelangelo's interest instead he set some strict rules.
  • Choosing a career and having the independence to make your decision is a crucial part of one's life. A child can do so when parents realize the concept of independence and self-respect. Examples like Merinda's mother, Queen Elinor, Brave movie was acting as an authoritarian parent: making all the decisions in her daughter's life. Moreover, Franz Kafka, a prominent figure in twentieth-century literature, was also a victim of strict boundaries and high expectations. His father didn't support him in pursuing his desired career, but he did so after a lot of struggle.
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Authoritative Parenting

Authoritative parenting is the most convenient style of parenting because it is characterized by responsiveness and reasonable and consistent expectations. Parents genuinely celebrate the independence of their children yet set some limits.

Pros of Authoritative Parenting

  • Children under the Authoritative parenting style tend to eat a healthy diet.

Authoritative parenting is considered to be the best style among three other types. This dimension is characterized by the promotion of parental rules which sets rules regarding the children's dietary behavior. According to ( Lytle et al, 2003), the children under authoritative parenting intake more fruits and vegetables as compared to non-authoritative parenting and permissive parenting ( Berge wall, Loth & Neumark Sztainer, Zolo). This behavior reduces the risk of obesity among 4-12-year-old children ( Shloim N, Edelson LR, Martin N, & Hetherington MM, 2015a).

  • Children in Authoritative parenting aren't exposed to crime victimization.

8Studies have shown that around 70% of adolescents are involved in any one type of victimization, for example, consumption of alcohol, drugs, etc. Authoritative parenting emphasizes the rules like the ban on drugs making children aware of the side effects, and don't allowing them to get addicted to any such type of crime.

  • Psychologically well-being children with a positive attitude toward the societal values.

The research on mental health and life satisfaction among urban Indonesian adolescents elaborated that paternal and maternal authoritativeness was positively endorsed with children's psychological well-being.

  • The authoritative Parenting dimension helps children in stimulating academic achievement.

The balance between demanding and responsiveness of the authoritative parenting style makes it the best of all other parenting styles. This parenting style encourages children to excel academically with the required care and support.

Examples of Authoritative Parenting

  • If a child gets a low grade in his class, come home and hand over his result cart. As an authoritative parent, you will not react emotionally rather you will first listen to him what is his stance on this situation then accordingly you would encourage him to change his reading strategies. You will try to convince him by offering some incentives for his performance in the next exam.
  • There will be a lot of situations out there where children commit mistakes to do some immoral things like taking drugs and etc. in every situation an authoritative parent act wisely he will set rules regulations and don’t enforce them but create a good bond with their child so that he will implement the rules.

"My daughter was doing this thing lately where she was asking me for a cup of milk and not drinking it. So I told her that every time she'd ask me for a cup of milk and not drink it, I would take a quarter out of her piggy bank. Someone has to pay for that milk," Sarah Michelle Gellar once said. This example reflects the authoritative parenting style, that how Gellar was responsive toward her daughter

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Neglectful Parenting

It’s the prime duty of a parent and caregiver to protect, and provide appropriate care and support to their children purposefully. The parenting dimension has made people more conscious about their style of parenting; they try to reach out for good guidance and tactics to follow. With emerging awareness and the vastness of the technical era, the privacy and interaction of parents and children are becoming narrow. Everyone is busy with their career trying to accomplish the nadir of their goal. In this race, most parents ignore their children. They do take care of the financial aspects, but emotionally and physically they are uninvolved.

Pro and cons of Neglectful Parenting

I don't particularly see any positive side of this parenting as far as parenting never get pressurize because of their children's behavior. Uninvolved parents never expect from their children and that characteristic makes them independent.

Cons of Neglectful parenting

  • Maccoby and Martin added neglectful parenting to the Diana Baumrind, research work. This type of parenting is characterized by no rules regulations or no expectations. Uninvolved parenting is a huge cause of depression in youngsters. According to a Metaanylitical review from a clinical psychology review, disengagement from children causes depression in adolescents.
  • Antisocial and drug addiction

Tyler Perry once confessed on Oprah Winfrey's show that he was a victim of sexual and verbal abuse. He was molested by three different men and women at the age of 10. Examples like Mackenzie Phillips, Charlize Theron, Supermodel Janice Dickinson, and many more examples have been victims of uninvolved parenting. Parents are the best protective cover for their children; with the help of rules and regulations, children feel enough protective in the surroundings they live. If parents neglect their children, they will probably take drugs and do unethical things which will temporarily give them relief for a short period of time.

Examples of Neglectful Parenting

  • As a parent, if your kid has his birthday, you send him many birthday presents, everything a kid always dreams of. Because of your busy schedule, you are unable to attain your birthday. This is an example of neglectful parenting it is not important that materialistic things make your child happy rather, it is your presence and support that will make him more excited and jovial.
  • For a child, the most crucial and challenging phase is when he or she hits puberty age. Children need attention and care in their teenage because suddenly a child faces changing both physically and mentally. It is the utmost responsibility of parents to make their children more confident in this specific period of time. Unfortunately, parents under this category ignore their children.
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Permissive Parenting

Pro and Cons of Permissive Parenting

  • Elizabeth O'Shea, parenting expert, and director describes the lenient and indulgent type of parenting in a certain way that this part serves as the best way to make children more creative and independent.
  • A permissive parenting style encourages more friendly relationships between parents and their children.
  • Teenagers suffer a lot from mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. So, to deal with the problems mentioned above, every child has to be very confident to speak out bravely in front of their parents. The dimension of permissive parenting helps adolescents to be vocal about their feelings.
  • The indulgent parenting style boosts confidence and helps the youngsters to unleash their imaginative side.

Cons of Permissive Parenting

  • Jeff Natin an award-winning licensed clinical psychologist says that self-respect and respecting the people around you is the characteristic that develops when parents teach their children about the norms of society and allows them to experience the rules and regulations. That's why permissive parenting can adversely affect children's social behavior.
  • Laissez-faire or permissive parenting makes children more rebellious when parents don't meet the demands
  • Characterized by poor social skills and lack of self-discipline. That results in performing antisocial behavior.

Examples of Permissive Parenting


  • You are making an important presentation, and it is your last date to submit the official document. Then suddenly child comes to you and snatches the laptop to play the video games. You can't resist and hand over it.
  • You have arranged a family gathering. Everyone is so excited about it, but suddenly you find that your kid is being very rude towards your elder cousins, and when they ask you about his behavior, you ignore it, saying he is a kid.

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