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Parenting Styles and Their Effects on Children

A Doctor and a Researcher who loves parenting , and loves to write about these topics.


Parenting Styles and Their Effects on Children

Fatherhood and Motherhood

The first years of an individual’s life are considered one of the most important periods of development. Children at that stage become like a sponge, absorbing everything from their parents. They are their kiss and the only point of contact. Thus, parenting style and the way fathers interact with their children have a huge impact on their children. This effect may be long-term or short-term; It affects all aspects of children, from the way they think to the way they dress.


Diana Baumrind’s theory

In 1983, Diana Baumrind’s theory, which developed three main parenting styles, was expanded into four by Maccoby and Martin.

1.What are the four basic styles of education?

2.what is the result of adopting each style in education?

3.What is the optimal pattern?

4.How do you determine the appropriate parenting style for your children?

What is Parenting?

Parenting is defined as a constellation of attitudes or patterns of parental authority towards a child that is transferred to the child, creating the emotional context for expressing parental behavior. It is believed to provide the emotional climate for interaction between parents and children, and has a significant impact on the family’s quality of life.


The Importance of Parenting in Education:

Parents have a job that can be described as the most difficult of all. They are entrusted with raising and supporting children, and a person goes through severe circumstances. Parents must try development, including biological, emotional, cognitive and social changes. It is essential that parents try to strike a balance in all aspects. This will only be possible by knowing the most important behavioral influences as well as the breeding environment.

The style of education is also affected by the arrangement of the child, so the style of parenting towards the second child, for example, is affected by the experience that the parents went through while raising the first child, and so on.

Sometimes all of this may conflict with other biological or environmental factors, so achieving this balance can become a struggle for parents.


Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles:

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In the 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind created four different styles of parenting. Based on observation and analysis, they are:

1.authoritative parenting style

2. Authoritarian parenting style

3. Permissive Parenting Style

4. Irresponsible parenting style

These methods have been categorized based on two main aspects of parental behavior: parental control and parental warmth. Let's quickly describe what the two terms imply:

1. Parental control refers to the degree to which parents manage the behavior of their children. From extreme control to indolence, as well as setting rules and meeting demands.

2. Parental warmth refers to the degree to which parents accept and respond to the behavior of their children.


1- Authoritative Parenting Style

Trusted parents are firm with their children, but at the same time they are good givers of warmth. The reliable method depends on setting certain rules for the children, while providing them with the opportunity for discussion and reasoning. It is a two-way communication.

They always have high expectations of their children, encouraging them to be independent while pointing out their limits. These parents also use reward systems to recognize good work and motivate their children.

Observations show that when parents adopt this method of parenting, the child is better able to negotiate and have discussions. That’s because he used to express himself during discussions with parents. As his opinions and ideas are always taken seriously at home.

It is children who know that their opinions matter and are taken into account. Be more socially aware and responsible; This enhances children’s confidence in themselves, their abilities and skills.


2- Authoritarian Parenting Style

Parents who adopt this style find that they exercise extreme control over their children, and do not give enough warmth. They develop a system of punishments in order to correct any undesirable behaviour. They often see their treatment of their children as hard love. This style of parenting is restricted and decisions are often made only by the parents without consulting with the children. No discussions and no exchange of opinions. Little children are encouraged to be independent. Observations showed that children with this pattern either tended to be submissive and dependent on their parents, or to be rebellious and show aggressive tendencies.

2- Permissive Parenting Style

Permissive parents are very warm and passive. Such parents do not demand much from their children, they find it difficult to say no to their children; out of fear of their displeasure. Parents are not active in the decision-making aspects of their children’s lives; Consequently, children make many important decisions on their own. They only give advice to their children, but the final decision is ultimately made by the child himself. Children of that style of education do not understand the concept of consequences. Nor are they accustomed to deprivation, which leads to problems with self-control. Their relationship with other peers is affected as well; Because they tend to develop ego issues and appear selfish.


4- Neglected Parenting Style

Parents of that style are not warm and have no demands on their children. They are not involved in their children’s affairs and do not interact with them – unless necessary – they are indifferent to their feelings or even where their children are. They tend to be preoccupied with their own lives or focus only on oneself. These parents do not take into account the ideas and opinions of their children. This style of parenting is usually the result of parents giving up, frustration or fatigue. Children of this type exhibit behaviors such as that of children of permissive parents.

Some factors that influence the parenting style of the family:

How compatible the parenting style is in the home, if the parents have different parenting styles – for example: the mother can be permissive and the father authoritarian. It is necessary for the parents to find a way to work together and compromise the unsuccessful manner in certain situations; In order to get a positive result. Failure of both parents to openly consent while making decisions about the child may lead to conflict that the child can benefit from. For example: If the father says that a child is not allowed to go somewhere, but his mother says yes! The child will continue to go where the father forbade going. Although he warns the child of this, the child knows that the mother will ensure that no punishment is inflicted.

The child’s own behavior may govern the parenting style, the child’s behavior also influences the parenting style. For example, a rebellious and defiant child may cause the parents to exercise extreme control (authoritarian style) in order to correct the child, or neglect the child (irresponsible style) simply because the parents have given up and ate. On the other hand, a child who is self-motivated and cooperative, would push his parents to use a more reliable parenting style and build a good relationship with their child. There are some other factors that may affect parenting style such as lack of sleep, stress, parents’ mood, job responsibilities, financial constraints, stress, anxiety, ..etc.


How can the optimal parenting style be determined?

While there is no single Tri-style style that can be described as optimal or most appropriate – based on research and analysis – psychologists believe that authoritative parenting style is the most beneficial, they claim that it is the most flexible and strikes the right balance between supervision and parental warmth. Children who undergo the Trusted Parenting method show a healthy relationship with their parents even after they become adults. However, it is important to understand that there are many factors that play a role in child-rearing, chief among them being cultural differences.


What is the importance of cultural background in determining an appropriate patriarchal style?

It is necessary to take into account the cultural influences in the family. Trusted parenting techniques may not be best suited to raising children from different ethnic, social, and economic backgrounds. Research indicates that reliable methods work best for children in all classes. While it may not be the most appropriate option for young children with certain social and economic constraints. It has been found that when a child lives in a safe environment, allowing them some degree of freedom and flexibility bodes well for the child and positive results will follow. However, this may not be the case for a child living in a high-risk environment. A child living in such an environment would need a higher degree of control – for example: for a child who grew up in a family of three in the most upmarket suburb of Los Angeles, California. Trusted parenting will bring positive outcomes for the child, here the child has the privilege of being free from racial or gender bias and living in a safe place. Since his parents are clearly economically stable to live in this place, there are no social nor economic pressures on the family.

Take another example, on the other hand, a young Asian girl growing up in a middle class family without a father, subject to racial and gender bias. Her mother struggles financially, working two jobs to provide for a meal at the table. Trusted parenting will not work here, instead a combination of other parenting styles will be needed to succeed.

Authoritarian parenting techniques are often used by parents who belong to ethnic minorities. Although this parenting method is associated with low positive outcomes, when it is applied by minority groups such as Asian and African families, they tend to achieve positive outcomes. Setting certain strict goals works best for these families, and it can be seen in terms of academic success as well – something Asians value very much – and a very large segment of ethnic minority families live in dangerous neighborhoods with many threats to their safety and security. This requires parents to set strict rules such as restricting being outside the group or home, although children resist them, this is the safest option.



Choosing the right parenting style is critical to ensuring the positive development of children. Parenting is a very complex topic that is influenced by various factors, one should not blindly adopt the style of parenting just because one’s peers follow it, and not seek to follow the latest trends. When it comes to parenting, a good parent will consider the needs of the child and family while making decisions. There is no perfect parenting technique that can be applied equally to all situations and circumstances, nor is there a sure formula for success. Parents must adapt to the changing needs of the child based on the situation. While a single parenting style can work perfectly for one family, a mix of parenting styles may be required for another


This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.

© 2022 Muzammil Hussain

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