Updated date:

Effect of Single Parenting on Academic Achievement of Students in Senior Secondary

Effect of Single Parenting on Academic Achievement of Students in Senior Secondary

effect-of-single-parenting-on-academic-achievement-of-students-in-senior-secondary

Effect of Single Parenting on Academic Achievement of Students in Senior Secondary

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

This research study was inspired by the current trends of baby mama’s and baby father’s and the incessant rate of parental dislocation such as divorce, separation, desertion, loss of a parents’ e.t.c. This prompted this researcher to study its effects on academic achievement of students’ in secondary schools. Students’ from single parent home are likely to suffer psychologically, sociologically, emotionally and deprivation, and denial of some rights and opportunities. They are more exposed to poor academic performance and anti social behaviours in the school settings.

In Nigeria, there are widespread cases of single parenthood across all regions and tribes which has become a major source of concern to the socio economic and socio cultural development. Single parenting can be defined as a situation in which one of the two individuals involved in the conception of the child is being responsible for the upbringing of the child (Henshin, 2015). This idea is relatively unknown before now in Nigeria but is fast growing family patterns both inside and outside the shores of the land (Nwachukwu, and Henshin, 2016). Children from single parent homes are likely to suffer deprivation, and denial of some rights and opportunities. They are more exposed to anti social behaviours and poor academic records.

Divorce and separation of various kinds or death of one spouse may leave a child with no option than to have a single parent. The benefits of intact parent is far outweighed that of a single parent family, as mothers play the traditional role of child care and home making while the father’s role is that of economic responsibilities and discipline of children. But in single parent families, double responsibilities are required of time, attention and money of the parent. Also there is every tendency of authoritative parenting, extremism and over pampering to curry the love of the child. Hence, less attention is given to the education of the student. Invariably the cost of receiving education today is high to be financed only by a single parent who may be financially handicapped. In the case of the few wealthy single parents in the locality of the research study the task is more with the nature of their job which affects adequate supervision of a child’s growth and development.

Teachers commonly describe children from single parents as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful, hyperactive and distractible than children from intact families (Nwachukwu, 2018). The school curriculum if well designed as the situation demands will become helpful in addressing the deficient students’ academic performance on the set objectives of secondary education as well as analyzing the factors that affect the performance. Although, there are no available statistics of single parent families in Nigeria, practical experiences and tabloid reports show that it is increasing on a daily basis. On the contrary, western countries have a geometric progression in the percentage of adults and children living in single parent households. The conditions are not palatable conducive for effective parenting of a child in most single parental families (Ortese, 2015). This was because when the parents are over burdened by responsibilities and by their own emotional reactions to environmental situation they often become irritable, impatient and insensitive to their children’s plight.

According to Vassar (2012), the family has to carry out its duties and responsibilities as the principal educator and supervisor of morals and character. In that regard, if the family is headed by a single parent it is often so very difficult for the single parent to provide the required children nurturing as per expected moral standards of the particular society due to reasons beyond his or her biological make-up. In most African culture there is a well marked social distance between parents of one sex and children of the opposite sex, such as that of father and daughter. In that way, father-headed families will find fathers being unable to either nurture, counsel or guide their daughters into the best societal accepted characters. As a result of family structure and gender roles of singleparents being inappropriate, they lead to problems such as psychological distress in the children. Thus, this situation at the end may affect the children’s effectiveness in school activities

Furthermore, researchers have identified different factors that are capable of influencing the academic performance of school students. Such factors include their personal and socio-economic background, their internal state (intelligence, state of health, motivation, anxiety etc.) and their environment (availability of a suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. Children in single parent families are at greater risks than children whose both parents are actively present. Even when they have the same intellectual ability, children from single-parent families are two times more likely to drop out of secondary school than children from two-parent families (Amato, 2017). Battle (2018) opines that parents are the primary and sole sources of financial support for the family. However, single parents have less time to help their children in their academics, and they are less likely to be stern in disciplining their children, leading to less parental control and low academic achievement (Battle, 2018).

Nevertheless, observations have shown that students from single parent families are at a greater risk of not performing well academically compared to other types of families, despite the fact that they may have equal intellectual abilities (Lankard, 2015). They are likely to have higher chances of dropping out of school due to financial constraints. This may be attributed to the fact that the single parent may not be in a position to provide all the basic needs for the family and the child may be forced to drop out of school to assist the parent financially. The single parents again may not be in a position to monitor the academic progress due to their busy schedule as they spent most of their time trying to earn a living thus leaving them with inadequate and quality time to give their children guidance in discipline and academic matters (Stipek, 2018).

In Nigeria, parental roles are culturally determined and distributed. Maternal roles include child-rearing, home training and playing of complementary roles, while paternal roles include financial provision (food, clothing, shelter, etc) for the family and discipline of the children (Nyako, 2011), the inference from this submission is that a child is likely to be morally, mentally and emotionally balanced when the caring responsibilities are carried out by both parents. However, these balances may be jeopardized when the responsibilities are being carried out by a single parent. The decline in the academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Nigeria is becoming alarming, such that employers of labor now consider many Nigerian graduates unemployable. Several factors, which are social, economic, institutional and infrastructural in nature, are being attributed to this unpleasant situation. However, there has been little focus on the home environment and parental factors. (Uwaifo, 2012).

Regardless of the circumstances that led to the birth of their children, parents must plan for them from infancy to puberty, and ultimately, adulthood. Having a plan and making that plan work out is one of the ways to ensure that children are properly cared for and that they grow up to be healthy, responsible, and productive human beings accepting and fulfilling their civic responsibilities in the society in which they live in. Both parents should be actively involved in the planning of their children’s education. It is against this backdrop that this study was being planned to investigate the possible psych-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is worthy to note that education of high quality is expensive and possibly beyond the reach of most poor single headed homes. No doubt, the National Policy on Education (2009) suggests adequate financial provision from all tiers of government for successful implementation of educational programmes. It therefore shows that access to education by the child/children of a single parent depends on their financial capability. Not too surprise, that children of single parents in the study locality attend public secondary schools. A fewer number from wealthy homes however, attend private day schools or private boarding schools as the case may be.

However, the worst scenario are witnessed in the camp of the illiterates and unskilled workers who have absolutely no plan for their wards compared to their counterparts who are not only financially buoyant but determined to provide the best for their children’s education. In other cases, those with certain level of education but at the lower class in a society encourage their wards to achieve a higher status they could not have achieved. According to Goede and Spruigt (1996), they warned of the impending danger of students’ failure caused by truancy, bad company, all forms of unethical behaviours, failure in not doing assignment and its end result as academic backwardness.

Students who experience separation, divorce or death of one of their parents do not always perform or achieve well. Also, they are at risk of not reaching their full potential. Different researches have been conducted relating to single parenting and its effect on students’ academic performance but no study has been directed on single parenting in relation to academic achievement in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. This study was, therefore designed to assess the effect of single parenting on academic achievement of students in senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study was to assess the psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on students academic Achievement among selected secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area.

The study was guided by the following objectives:

i. To examine differences between the academic performance of students from single parent families and those from two parent families.

ii. To determine the relationship between psychosocial variable and students academic achievement.

iii. To examine effects of gender on psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement

1.4 Research Questions

This study provided answers to the following research questions which guided the present investigation:

  1. To what extent the academic achievement of students’ from single parent families and from two parent families differs?
  2. What is the relationship between psychosocial variable and student’s academic achievement?
  3. What are the effect of gender on psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested in this study at the 0.05 alpha level of significance.

Ho1: There will be no significant difference between academic achievement of students’ from single parents and those from intact parents.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement.

Ho3: There is no significant effect of gender on psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study encompasses the psycho socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement in Alimosho L.G.A. The menace of single parenthood in child’s academic performance practices. The study is limited to Alimosho Local Government Area (L.G.A) of Lagos State, where sample will be drawn for the purpose of making generalization.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The research work will be restricted to selected secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Some of the respondents will be bias in providing sincere and adequate responses. Hence, the researcher and assistants will monitor and explain the importance of sincerity and accurate responds.

Another limitation of the study is that most of the single parenthood students cannot disclose their family status in front of their classmates because they will feel discriminated and made mockery of, by other classmates. The researcher in this instance will try to make it more confidential.

Finally coverage is another factor that will affect the generalization of this study to other cities in Nigeria. Therefore similar studies of kind are needed to be carrying out in other cities within the country to ascertain generalization of the outcome.

1.8 Significance of the Study

The study intends to provide information and recommendations to educationists like education policy makers, educational planners i.e. curriculum developers and education officers, teachers, parents, counselors and individual students on how to combat problems resulting from changing family structures for secondary school students with a view of improving academic performance of all students from families with one parent. To planners such as curriculum developers and education officers, the study will enable them to plan and allocate resources according to the needs of schools having such children. Similarly, findings of this study will also enable policy makers to formulate proper policies which will address the problems faced by such secondary school students.

Finally, through exposing the magnitude of the problem, the findings might form the basis for further studies on problems related to the effect of changing parenthood on secondary school students’ behavior. This study will also add new knowledge to the existing body of knowledge on how best parents, teachers and heads of schools can provide adequate supportive environment for students from single parenthood to excel academically.

1.9 Definitions of Key Terms

In order to provide clear understanding of basic terms of this study, the following definitions of terms are formulated;

Secondary Education: is a post primary education offered to persons who have successively completed six years of primary education. In this study, secondary education refers to the ordinary secondary level i.e. form one to four.

Academic Performance: is taken to mean someone’s level of quality education coupled with subject or course grade obtained when performing examinations.

Family: is a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, usually consisting of parents and their children.

Father Headed Family: is a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, consisting only of a father and his children.

Mother Headed Family: is a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, consisting of just a mother and her children.

Single Parent Family: refers to a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, consisting of one parent i.e. either father only or mother only and the children.

Two Parent Families: is a collection of people living together and functioning as a single household, consisting of both parents i.e. a father and mother and their children.

Separated parents: refers to married couples that have stopped living together but are still legally married.

Divorced Parents: are married couples whose marriage had been ended by official decision of a court of law.

A Never Married Parent: refers to someone who has never been joined to another person by official marriage, but he/she has a child or children.

A Single Parent: is a father or mother who brings up a child or children alone, usually because he or she is never married, widowed, divorced, or separated.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews a record of related literature. A Review of literature aided the researcher identify existing knowledge gaps as per the objective and justify on the need to carry out research on psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement. The literature review is segmented into the following themes:

  • Conceptual Framework
  • Concept of Family
  • Concept of Single -Parent Family
  • Causes of Single –Parenthood
  • Factors that Influence Students’ Academic Achievement In Single Parents.
  • Assessment of Academic Performance of Students from Two-Parental Families versus Single Parental Families
  • Effects of Single Parenting on Students’ Academic Achievement
  • Challenges of Single Parenting on the Society
  • Social Policies in Support of Single Parent Families
  • Empirical Studies
  • Implication of Reviewed Literature
  • Appraisal of Literature Review

2.2 Conceptual Framework

Literarily, parenting connotes the care, responses, control which parents’ make on their children, in other words, the rearing/training which parents’ give to their children. It could be single male or female parenting depending on the type of family type. Single parenting is a product of marital separation with a deleterious effect on the child exemplified by fluctuation in parental attention and a weakening social bond. The situation is worst hit with a male dominated single parenting (Otite and Ogionwo, 1989). They argued that children who are reared under this type of condition rarely do well in school because of lack of care, love and attention that they received from their parenting father.

Most children who are reared by single male parents’ are reported to be having a weak academic records (Denga, 1983 and Kelly, 1991). In adducing reasons for such low achievement, they agreed that such children’s school progress is never monitored by the parent as well as their school attendance and out of school activities. Children from these homes been aware that their movement and activities are not being monitored and as such, get involved in anti-social behaviours like absenteeism, partying, truancy, hooliganism, etc which give no room for any good academic performance (Denga, 1983).

2.3Concept of Family

Generally, family can be seen as a group of people who have biological, emotional or legal ties to each other (McDonald; Campbell and Seaburn, 1990). In different cultures, the term “family” may mean different things and a wide variation in families, usually people of two generations and two genders are involved (Lidz, 1983 and Jallinogo, 2000). In the 1990s the sociological literature defined family as a unit in which at least one adult and a child lived together (Tolkki and Nikkonen, 1992). The concept of family has changed from the large extended families to smaller units, the nuclear family, and nowadays to even smaller single-parent families. Family systems evolve rules, roles and power structures as well as the various forms of communication, conflict resolutions and problem solving that enable the performance of numerous tasks and the achievement of their objectives.

But a family, unlike other systems, is an emotional system characterized by affection, loyalty and durability of memberships that organize itself in ways that may be either stated or unstated and whose meanings and broad effects may not be fully understood by the family members or at least may be difficult for them to isolate and articulate (Goldberg and Goldberg, 1999). A family is a complex natural social system complete with its own properties and processes. As in any system no part stands alone and no process operates without influencing to a degree, every other process and every component of the system.

In view of the above, the home environment or family is therefore important on students’ academic performance (Nzewuawah, 1995; Ajila and Olutola, 2007). It has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state. The family lays the psychological, moral and spiritual foundations in the overall development of the child. Structurally, the family was earlier seen as an institution, but nowadays, the family is based on the intimate relationship between at least two adults (male and females) involved. If the relationship is not working, the family will probably be broken (Jallingo, 2000).

2.4 Concept of Single -Parent Family

The concept of single- parent family is used when a family is formed of one custodial parent and a number of dependent children (Sauvola, 1987). According to Whitting and Child (1973), Eshleman (1981) and Henshin (1985), single parenting can be defined as a situation in which one of the two individuals, involved in the conception of the child is being responsible for upbringing of the child. Single parenthood may arise when either the male or female decide to produce and rear a child or children outside wedlock (Ortese, 1998). In Nigeria, the existence of single-parents is formerly unknown and where they existed they are ignored as exceptional cases. Though, poor academic performances by students lately have been indicated as likely effects of single parenthood. It is what (Nwachukwu, 1998) described as fast growing family patterns both inside and outside Nigeria.

In the past, death of a parent was more responsible for disrupting families than was with divorce (Amato, 1994). In recent times, single –parent family is usually formed after parental divorce. There are no available statistics of single parent families in Nigeria, practical experience and tabloid reports show that there is an increase of this menace in Nigeria.

It is a growing trend with increased adults and children living in single parent households (Nwachukwu, 1998). Other reasons attributed to single parenting are artificial insemination, adoption, surrogate motherhood or extramarital pregnancy. It may also be child neglect, or child abuse. In South Africa, the major factors which have enhanced the increasing population of single parenting are HIV/AIDs and teenage pregnancy. Many children are therefore left growing up without their father.

However, women and little girls are proned to this hazard more than the men. The amount and quality of contact with the non-custodial parent, usually the father, varies a great deal, some children losing the contact totally. It has been estimated that in the United States 15 to 25% of the non-custodial fathers maintain weekly visits even several years after the divorce (Thompson Thomas and and Maclanahan, 1994). Life in a single parent family can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with the challenges of diminished financial resources (Children’s Defense Fund, 1994) assumptions of new roles and responsibilities, establishment of new patterns in intra-familiar interaction and re-organization of routines and schedules (Agulanna, 1999). This is because when the single parent is overburdened by responsibilities and by their own emotional reaction to their situation, they often become irritable, impatient and insensitive to their children’s needs (Nzewunwah, 1995).

2.5 Causes of Single –Parenthood

The increase of single parenthood is not a phenomenon isolated to the western world. Even in Nigeria and other developing countries, there have been a high percentage of single parents within the population caused by one factor or the other or combination of more than one. As in any country, single parenthood arises because of the following major causes:

  1. 1. Divorce: The trend of increasing divorce rates has virtually continued for more than 100years (Bumpass, 1990). According to Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (2006), divorce is the legal ending of a marriage between a man and a woman in a law-court by their counsels.

The dramatic increase in the number of divorces since the 1950s seems now to have leveled off starting at the beginning of 1980 in the United States (Goldstein, 1999). In any event, the current level of divorce is high and it is assumable that the majority of recent first marriages will not last a life time, although a stable marriage remains the ideal (Bumpass, 1990; Jallinogo, 2000).

Different social circumstances, personal attributes and even genetic aspects may contribute to the risk of divorce. There is agreement across diverse studies that marital instability is associated with premarital cohabitation and pregnancy, young age at the time of marriage, economic hardship, high levels of residential mobility and growing up in a disrupted or divorced family (Wadsworth, 1979; McLanahom and Bumpass, 1988; McGue and Lykken, 1992; Amato, 1994; Tulisalo, 1999). Mental disorders, for example, psychoses, depression and anti-social personality (Lahey, Hartdagen, Frick, Mc-Burnett, Connor, Hynd (1988); Kessler, Walters, Forthofer (1999) as well as heavy drinking and drug use are strongly related to the higher divorce risk (Leonard, Rothbard (1999); Fu, Goldman (2000).

  1. 2. Death or estrangement of a spouse: Losing a partner is very stressful for the parent. The psychological well-being of single parents in Nigeria has been very poor primarily because of the reason on why the partner was lost. According to the researcher, this is often worsening by the positions of the lost one in the family and the society especially in the eastern part of Nigeria. The problem is compounded where properties of the deceased are involved resulting in the exclusion of the woman and the children to their fate. This being the case, had forced many children out-of-school or resulted to poor academic performance in the latter years. However, the families soon might have forgotten the cause of the death such as illness, assassination, accidents, and natural occurrence (Amato, 1994).
    1. 3. Teenage Pregnancy: Nigeria, like other countries in the world, is currently faced with social fragmentation as women continue to suffer a high rate of teenage pregnancy. Over the years, the situation particularly among teenagers had become unabated even to the researcher owing to her years of experience as a teacher trainer. Women single parents feel the stigma of being poor and unmarried, widowed or divorced and are under extreme pressure from the society. Single mothers as central to this, look for ways to support their children and are very much willing to take huge risks to put some bread on the table are very vulnerable to prostitution and trafficking.
    2. 4. Artificial insemination (AI): It was identified as another cause of single parenthood especially in relation to the women. It was a technique developed for livestock which have been adapted for use in humans. This is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive organ of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using other means other than sexual intercourse. Among the humans, artificial insemination was originally developed as a means of helping couples to conceive where there were male factor problems of a physical or psychological nature affecting the male partner which prevented or impeded conception. In the opinion of the researcher, this has caused more harm than good for women in the later years when the children start schooling. Moreover, within the societies here in Nigeria, the stigma ranks higher to its recognition in supporting marriages (Wikipedia, 2010).
    3. 5. Polygamy and Multiple Unions: Polygamy is recognized traditionally as a legal institution. Polygamous men in positions of influence and relative wealth often contract second and third marriages with women who are much younger than they are. In Islam, a man may marry up-to four (4) wives, on the basis that he must be able to cater for them all and maintain equality between them. Social norms and legal systems that encourage or do not censure men’s multiple sexual partner are likely to leave many of the women who become mothers through such unions economically vulnerable especially when the man dies and the women becomes single parent. Few men have sufficient wealth to adequately support multiple families and invest equally in each mate and her offspring, yet men continue to father children with multiple partners, often late into their lives. The products of such unions are left at the mercy of people outside the family to cater for them (Mathu, 1999).
    4. 6. Rural-Urban Migration: Labour (worker) migration may lead to de-facto single parenthood for a mother whose migrant husband is absent for extended periods. Cases where migration flows are increasing due to transfer, unemployment, or other reasons, single parenthood may be common. While some of the best supported single mothers (Common in this part of the world) are those with migrant husbands or male kin who send back remittances on a frequent or steady basis, for many mothers and children, the benefits of male migration are illusory. Men (and women) may initially leave home to earn wages for the family’s benefit, but their commitment to sending help (in the form of money) home, or the practical possibility of doing so, sometimes fades. This cause affects not only the family but the educational activities of their wards. With repeated day or week long absences, it weakens mothers’ and children’s claim to the fatherly earnings or responsibility (Mathua, 1999).
    5. 7. Non Marital Childbearing: As myriad of activities or issues surround the world, within the universe of mother-supported families, those that spring from early unplanned child-bearing are arguably the most socially and educationally marginalized. Unprotected early sexual activity often robs a teenage girl of her childhood, impoverishes her adulthood and compromised the future of her children, even with the absence of a male partner. Adolescent and unmarried mothers are likely to have less education, low (if any) income, their prospects are often grim. Typical examples where unwanted pregnancy leads to marriage, the union is less stable, controversial and not lasting (Locoh, 2000).

2.6 Factors that Influence Students’ Academic Performance In Single Parents.

A number of factors have influenced how children in single-parental families respond to their educational needs in the society. These factors are:

  1. Environment: There is no doubt that a child’s level of intelligence plays a vital role in his academic achievement in school; this is the factor of his/her environment. In addition, parental homes suggested a lot on the child’s influence in later development. The influence of the home environment is most important at two periods, first, is during the pre-school years and secondly, at the secondary school period. In the pre-school years, there appears to be an increasing social class gap in test performance between the ages of eight and eleven. This indicates the growing influence of the environment on the measured ability and attainment of primary school children (Goje, 2002).

Marjoribanks, (1974); Musgrove, (1966) in Goje, 2002) felt that the significance of conducive reading environment to the students cannot be under-rated; therefore the availability of good books in a student’s home contributes constructively to his/ her academic progress. Coleman, (1968), cited in MaiKudi, (1993) in his concept “Equality of educational objectives” emphasized that the responsibility to create achievement lies with the learner’s environment. Children from wealthy situated locality attend private selected schools with rich educational environmental challenges and specially trained teachers. This situation stands in sharp contrast to the usual type of school provided by the government. Douglas, (1988) in Goje, (2002) carried out a longitudinal study on the influence or social variables on school attainment. He found out that there is a relationship between social inequality on home background and educational attainment. He stated further that the home background factor could be modified by raising the standard of the existing schools in the form of improvement in staffing and facilities for the schools.

Rosen and Andrade, (1979) felt that a child’s achievement motivation is likely to reflect parental attitudes and patterns of child rearing. Eysenck, (1987) suggested that inherited differences may affect children’s reaction to their environment. The attitudes and behaviour making up academic motivation represents the result of interaction between the child’s environment and his basic temperament rather than simply more specific environmental variables within social class. In the opinion of the researcher, socio-economic background determines the social environment of a student. Similarly, it also builds stronger friendship in a child which he/she transmit to the school. This affects his/her education one way or the other, depending on the type and character of such children.

One of the most popular researches on the influence or relationship of home environment and scholastic achievement is that of Fraser, (1969). The three variables used in the study were parental educational level, income and their attitude towards their children’s education to measure the relationship of the home environment with school attainment. He found out that the major component of the home environment that are mainly responsible for the high correlation with school success were in order importance, abnormal home background, income and the parents’ attitude to the education and future of their children.

  1. Parental Income: According to Bowles, (1989), the poor education of the children of the lower class is due to inequality of resources between the rich and poor. This led him to conclude that no amount of compulsory education can overcome the educational disabilities imposed upon the poor students coming from the lower classes. Tulkin and Kagan, (1982) reported that poor single parental families in addition to lacking money for adequate food and medical care, frequently lack the hope that they can do better in life and can communicate the message to the children.

A single parent is therefore a huge task as combined responsibilities is often handled by either the father or the mother as far as the child’s education is concerned irrespective of the parental status or income. Large families, besides drawing the family to near poverty, can also limit the ability to afford facilities such as books, textbooks for homework and studies. The acquisition of some facilities like the television, radio, newspapers also help to provide a means to educational progress for children. The provision of these facilities is a reflection of parental attitude towards the education of their children. The essence of a good supporting home environment for academic progress lies on the attitude of the parents.

Research findings have proved that there is a significant relationship between parental attitude and improvement of students’ academic achievement. Swift, (1976) cited in Murkherjee, (1988) observed that many upper and middle class parents continually push their children to aspire far more than they themselves had achieved in life. Parents from these families try all they can by pushing their children to achieve success in school and education. He added that it is quite common for these parents to seek additional help to give extra lessons for their children. They value high marks and a good report on their children’s performance. The economic deprivation of single –parent family life, in combination with other sources of strain and stress, is a major source of the problems experienced by both parents and children.

  1. 3. Parental Education: It may be both direct inputs into the production function that generates child quality and may indirectly facilitate a higher quantity of other inputs through the effect of educational levels on parental income (Arnaud, Colm, Vincent and Ian, 2005). In the knowledge of the teachers, the influence of parental homes on an individual pupil’s education is great. The works of Dale and Griffith, (1985) lend some support to the finding in which they found that a parent education contribute to a child’s performance and ultimately, where both parents and the single parents are educated the impact is much. A similar conclusion was reached by Douglas, (1988) who emphasized the importance of a mother’s education because her contact with the child is much greater than that of the father and so the impact is very much felt.

The middle class is a selective consumer of education depending on the value and importance of “getting ahead” which they place on progress. The lower classes are so occupied with survival and consumed education sparingly, does not provide the child with a home atmosphere conducive for the formation of good study habits.

The incentive to learn appears to be lacking. On the whole, traditionally, family status variables such as parental level of education have been regarded as predictors of child’s academic achievement. Increasingly, research has suggested that, rather than having a direct association with children’s academic achievement, parents’ level of education is part of a larger constellation of psychological and sociological variables influencing children’s school outcomes. Thus, the influence of parent’s level of education on student performance might best be represented as a relationship mediated by interactions among status and process variables. The literature also suggests that level of education influences parents’ knowledge, beliefs, values and goals of childrearing, so that a variety of parental behaviour are indirectly related to children’s school performance (Hoover, Kathleen and Howard, 1997).

For example, higher levels of education may enhance parents’ facility at becoming involved in their children’s education, and also enable parents to acquire and model social skills and problem-solving strategies conducive to children’s school success. Students whose parents have higher levels of education may have an enhanced regard for learning, more positive ability beliefs, a stronger work orientation, and they may use more effective learning strategies than children of parents with lower levels of education. It was observed that parents with higher levels of education are more likely to believe strongly in their abilities to help their children learn. A recent study exploring the relationships between levels of parental education, parental self efficacy, children’s academic abilities and participation in a head start programme found that level of parent education and programme participation was significantly related to parental self-efficacy. In turn, parental self- efficacy beliefs significantly predicted.

Ikejiofor, (1979) in Abbas, (2004) contends that the prime cause of poor academic performance lies mostly with students, this is in addition to the above foregoing. He gave such reasons as lack of adequate preparation for examination, the hope of cheating and examination leakages, wastage of study time at social gatherings and sometimes on drug addictions, as some of the possible causes of students’ failure. Among other factors which could determine the level of achievement of a child in school is the inborn ability of the child, family training, quality of schooling, self –concept or aspiration level which grows out of his family and school experiences.

Teachers are at the receiving end of any curriculum implementation play a crucial role in academic achievement of students. They observed their students in order to ascertain why they behave or act in a particular way. The need for teachers to express personal affection or interests on their subjects (students) who might be a product of single parental homes could also help instill foray of academic success in them. Teachers are seen as a model which can influence positive change in his students. It should be noted that every student could either be a slow learner or fast learner, whichever one; the responsibility lies with the teacher to identify which category a student belongs. This will help to assess such a learner coupled with available personal record provided to the school. The situation is worrisome especially with public schools in the country when compared with their counterparts. The National policy on Education spelt out this, that “no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers” (Hoover, Kathleen and Howard, 1997).

In the opinion of the researcher, there are lots more factors apart from those mentioned as influencing students’ academic performance of single parental homes. An environment which a child grows up in, determines to a large extent the level of his/her educational achievement. For single parents, the researcher was of the opinion that the status of their homes played a great impact in the lives of their children (students). They may live in a peculiar environment or otherwise depending on their financial status. Though, most parents who are victims of this prefer to isolate themselves from the society but rather strive to provide enabling environment for the survival of their offspring. The adverse effects sometimes constitute a nuisance to the society especially among the few female headed homes. In essence, their offspring are not spared from moral discipline which sometimes affect their academic performance, in and out-of-school.

If care is not taken into consideration, the child’s academics suffer a great loss. As mentioned of the financial status of homes, the extent of provision of educational materials lies upon this. Ultimately the environment and things the learner sees around him/her plays a vital role in the academic achievement. It is so sad that most single parents within the locality of the research work failed to understand the need to provide an enabling environment for their wards due to their level of education or income received. According to “father for life. Ormrod, (2015), 71 percent of high school dropouts come from homes without fathers.

Illegal behaviour: A single parent who works full-time may not have the time to monitor her child. In a two-parent home, there is a greater likelihood that a child’s behavior will be supervised. According to the institute for American values, a male teenager is more likely to be arrested if he lives in a fatherless home. Likewise Children age 14 and above who come from an intact family where less instructions are given and monitored are likely to be arrested than those from a single-parent home.

Psychological disorders: According to the mayo clinic, teenager can develop a number of psychological disorders due to a lack of supervision, a lack of positive parent involvement and divorce. They are more likely to develop Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) anxiety depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactively Disorder (ADHD), also children are three times less likely to develop mental disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder and anxiety, depression and attention deficit, if they come from intact families the risk of developing these disorders can also be high for children who come from a two-parent family where the marriage is troubled.

Financial support: Raising a child in a single parent home puts stress on finances, stress accumulated for the parent who is trying to manage a work like and a home life, and also for the child who may suffer from the lack of financial support for daily necessities and an absentee parent.

The self-esteem: In single parent families, self-esteem issues play a major role in a child’s behavior, children have lower self-esteem with a single parent than children who are raised two parents, and the strongest finding relates that the mother-daughter relationship suffers the most, as girls formulate their world-view and confidence from the example of the mother (Amofa, 2016)

2.7 Assessment of Academic Performance of Students from Two-Parental Families versus Single Parental Families

Lidz (1983) argued that human development cannot be properly understood without considering the importance of family in the child’s overall development. The family is the key social institution which nurtures many of the socialization processes of children irrespective of their social class. The two-parent family has traditionally been assumed to offer a better environment for the children’s development than a single-parent family (Winnicott, 1965; Lidz, 1983; Amato and Keith, 1991).

It has been argued that a child models him/herself after and identifies with the parent of the same sex, but regards the parent of opposite sex as basically a “love object”, whose affection and approval are sought by identifying with the parent of the same sex (Lidz, 1983).

But in reality, reverse may be the case where such child/children are staying with parent of the same sex may proved notorious. The traditional two-parent family, in which the biological parents maintain their marital union and joint custody at least until the child reaches adulthood, has become rarer in modern Western societies. In the past few decades divorce rates have increased sharply world-wide and a large number of children experience parental separation and disruption of what should be a stable family.

Nowadays 50% of all marriages are estimated to end up in divorce (Statistics Finland, 1999). It has been estimated that more than half of all the children will spend at least some period of their childhood in a single-parent family environment, mostly with custody of the mother (Hernandez, 1988; Bumpass and Raley, 1995). This means also that many fathers live apart from their own biological children and that more and more men live with children to whom they are “social” but not biological fathers.

Increasingly, children are born either to single mothers or into families were the parents are cohabiting but are not legally married (Bumpass, 1990; Statistics Finland 1999, 2000). In Finland, 37.2 % of all the children were born out of wedlock in the year 1998 whereas in 1966 only 4.8 % of the children were born to unmarried mother (Statistics Finland, 1999). Illegitimacy was earlier considered to be deviant and socially condemnable and thus children born with the stigma of illegitimacy had to face numerous negative attitudes (Lambert and Streather, 1980).

However, the liberating attitudes towards the end of the 20th century have changed the family a great deal, and today about every tenth child is born to a mother who does not live in any permanent relationship (Kartovaara, 2001).For children, the disruption of family life due to parental death or whatever represents an extraordinary upheaval of normal life. It may be followed by many other stressful experiences such as residential change, deterioration in the economic situation, diminished parental availability and perhaps parental discord and increased emotional problems (Wallerstein and Blakeslee, 1989; Hetherington, Stanley-Hagan, and Anderson, 1998). Altogether this may complicate the psychological maturation process and the adjustment of children in single-parent families.

In addition to the acute stress, parental divorce may have detrimental impact on the life course of the offspring up to adulthood (Amato and Keith 1991b; Wolfinger, 1998). Compared with those raised in intact two-parent families, adults who had experienced a parental divorce score lower values in psychological well-being, had more behavioural problems, experienced less education, achieved a lower job status, lower standard of living, lower marital satisfaction and an increased risk of being a single-parent or suffering from poorer physical health. However, most of the children who have experienced parental divorce nevertheless do grow up into well-adjusted adults (Amato & Keith, 1991). The immediate effects of divorce and family disruption on children are better known than the possible long-term effects of living in single-parent families. Prospective follow-up studies, with data based on the general population, on the effects of living and growing up in single-parent families are few.

Concepts of “family disruption“, “childhood bereavement“, “broken home“, “non-intact family“ and “non-standard family“ have also been invoked when referring to families with only one custodial parent, be it due to divorce, separation, death, or mother never having been married (Dennehy, 1966; Wadsworth, 1979; Mednick and Kandel, 1988; Isohanni, Moilanen and Rantakallio, 1991).

Only when parents are an important part of children’s lives- that is, parents are the social capital of children- can the parents’ own human, physical and social capital benefit the children. Coleman (1988) found that adolescents living together with both parents had a lower dropout rate in school than those living in single-parent families. He contended that without parent-like adults in the family, adolescents lose the human capital these adults could provide , which implies that an additional adult in the family who has strong and close relations with the children constitute an advantage for children’s learning.

In the last few decades, strong evidence has emerged in research findings that single-parent and stepparent families have adverse effects on children’s educational achievement (Biblarz and Raftery 1999; Haveman and Wolfe 1995; McLanahan and Sandefur 1994). However, there was some evidence in the U. S. that children of single-parent families with grandparent(s) cohabitating performed quite similarly to those of intact families (Aquilino, 1996; Deleire and Kalil, 2002; Entwisle and Alexander, 1996). Thus, an additional biologically related adult relative like a grandparent at home seemed to compensate for the loss of one parent that single-parent families suffer by bringing into the family additional social capital and resources.

However, does this mean that the cohabitating grandparent in the single-parent family provides the same advantage as a parent? If so, does the cohabitation of grandparent(s) in an intact family bring an additional advantage to the children as well? Why does family structure matter to children’s educational achievement? Researchers (Winnicott, 1965; Lidz, 1983; Amato and Keith, 1991). have proposed at least three important mechanisms mediating the effects of family structure on children’s academic achievement: the economic resources, the socialization resources (parenting and involvement), and the network resources.

It is likely that the cohabitating grandparents bring such resources to the children. This makes possible the observed equalizing effect of the grandparent cohabitating for outcomes of children in single-parent families. Assuming that the resources brought by co-residing grandparents are the same for either intact or non-intact families, the effects of grandparents should also be the same, when such resources are controlled. However, such reasoning requires empirical testing. (Coleman, 1988)

Researchers in the US have consistently found adverse effects of single-parent families on the child’s educational achievement. For example, in reviewing research results from large longitudinal data, (Zill, 1996) found that students from nuclear intact families had the best academic performance, while students from alternative family types such as stepparent families and single-parent families performed not so well.

Why are students from single-parent families at such a disadvantage? Through what mediating mechanisms does family structure affect the adolescents’ educational achievement? In general, researchers attributed the disadvantage to three types of resource:

(1) Economic resources: single-parent families are often trapped in poverty or have greater economic burden;

(2) Socialization resources: single-parent families are less able to provide a good environment for children in terms of educational involvement and educational aspiration;

(3) Network resources: single-parent families have fewer network ties for obtaining information and other types of support related to children’s learning (Zill, 1996).

  • Economic Resources

Many researchers have found that a crucial reason for the disadvantage of single-parent family students was the poor economic condition that usually accompanies this type of families (Entwisle and Alexander, 1995; Entwisle and Alexander, 1996; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). Particularly, McLanahan and Sandefur (1994) found that economic conditions explained 50 % of the variation of achievement scores. McLanahan and Bumpass, (1988) also found that the effect of intact versus single-parent families on high school graduation rates dropped 30 to 50% once family income was added into the model.

They offered as the explanation that, owing to lack of economic resources, children from single-parent families had less access to books and to cultural activities that would have helped develop their cognitive ability and intelligence, which resulted in the higher dropout rate than peers from intact families. In Taiwan, Huang (Huang, 2000) found that single-parent families had fewer economic resources and that such families spent less on children’s education and single-father families spent even less on education (Huang, Wen-Jui, and Garfinkel, 2000).

  • Socialization Resources

Socialization resources refer to parents’ or other family adults’ behavioral and psychological involvement of children’s education. Many researchers have found that, regarding children’s achievement, effects of socialization on children’s educational achievement were independent of those of socioeconomic status (Astone and McLanahan, 1991; Ho and Wilms, 1996; Lee, 1993). Parents may be involved in children’s learning in many ways, such as the home-based involvement of monitoring after school activities, monitoring school studies, and advising on studying strategies; or the school-based involvement of directly intervening in school administration by changing classes or tracks assigned for the children, selecting teachers or talking to teachers on behalf of the child.

These actions are generally found to benefit children’s learning achievement (Astone and McLanahan, 1991; Fehrmann, Keith, and Reimers 1987; Ho and Wilms, 1996; Stevenson and Baker, 1987). In fact, monitoring children’s home activities was constantly found to be positively related to their achievement (Crouter and MacDermid, 1990; Muller, 1993; Muller and Kerbow, 1993). In general, single-parents and stepparents tended to provide less supportive parental practices for children are schooling (Cooksey and Fondell, 1996; Thomson, McLanahan and Curtin, 1992; Lee 1993). In comparison with parents of intact families, they monitored their children less (Dornbusch, Sanford, Merrill, Bushwall, Ritter, Entwisle, Doris and Alexander, 1985; Muller and Kerbow, 1993) and tended to involve less in children’s schools (Nord and West, 2001).

One important reason is that parents with high expectations do more than having positive and encouraging attitudes toward the children. They also provide resources (such as buying books, puzzles and games, telling stories, and going to the library) to help developing the cognitive ability, so that the children can live up to the expectations. Thus parental expectation is, to the children, another form of resource in addition to economic capital and human capital. (McLanahan and Sandefur,1994)

  • Network Resources

Network resources such as relatives outside the family (Shavit and Pierce, 1991), neighborhoods (Entwisle, Alexander and Olsen, 1994), or schools (Ho and Wilms, 1996) were found to benefit the child’s educational achievement, by providing support to the adults, supplementary monitoring of the children, as well as better facilities for learning such as the library and parks. With the disappearance of the spouse, however, single-parents lose potential resources from relatives of the spouse. Moreover, pressed with the load of livelihood, single-parents are less likely to pay attention to the management of networks with friends and relatives. As a result, they are less likely to obtain resources or information from the networks of relatives or other parents. Since it has been found that the step-parents are less involved in children’s schools (Nord and West, 2001), it is reasonable to assume that stepfamilies also have less opportunities to involve in sharing and obtaining information beneficial to the children.

2.8 Effects of Single Parenting on Students’ Academic Achievement

Single parenting as is called is already becoming a rapidly growing trend in both the developed and developing nations of the world. Studies show that in some States alone, there are four single parents to every ten parents and there are two single parents for every ten (10) adults (Single parent centre, 2010). Since the decision of single parenting is jointly taken by the parents, one voice is often ignored and it is that of the child. It was reliably gathered that single parenting has significant effect on the child’s mental, emotional, social, behavioural, financial and psychological outcomes (Locoh, 2000). The following effects are not exhaustive:

  1. i. The direct effect of being raised by a single parent is especially visible in child’s thinking and mental mind set. This has been validated by psychologists and advocates over time. Tests and observations have consistently concluded and found that single parenting makes school children more aggressive and rebellious. Hence, these are transferred on their educational needs for survival in the society. Experts say the behaviour could be the outcome of the anger and limitation the child experiences while growing up. These are obvious reasons to make the child feel abnormal, different and unaccepted (Mathu, 1999).
  2. ii. A student from homes where the couples are present will be well taken care of and socialized in the best way possible (Ortese, 1998). This is due to the fact that the process of socialization which starts from the family depends on the effort of both parents playing a complimenting role in the child’s upbringing. Such a child is likely to achieve self-actualization while the other from a single parent suffers deprivation and denial of some rights and opportunities. This invariably affects the way he socializes in school and seat with those who will help such a child to teach (Kelley, 1991).
  3. iii. In some conditions (Ortese, 1998), single parents and their children may require professional help through counseling. Counselors can give reasonable advice to the child and the single parent to make sure every small conflict is resolved timely. Absence of this is transmitted into the school and as such, affects the academic performance of such learner. It’s a difficult situation for any child to be raised by one parent, but surprisingly, not an impossible one anymore.
  4. iv. Fadeye, (1985) pointed out that both parents play a complimentary role in child’s education. However, if the father is absent from the home and the mother is not privileged enough to cater for all the basic needs as well as supervise the academic performance of the child, he/she (the child) will be backward or withdrawn. The same thing occurs when the mother is absent and the father is not privileged enough (Ortese, 1998). A single parent faces doubled responsibilities requiring more time, attention, and money which of course may not be enough.
  5. v. The stress of having to find the basic necessity of life such as food, shelter and clothing for the family by a single parent consequently places them at risk of becoming detached from their children, and compromises their ability to succeed in their academics. (Bowles 1989) attachment theory suggests that insecure attachment (which is likely to be seen in the relationships between absent single parents and their children) can result in the ineffectiveness of parenting strategies, as in an overwhelming amount of stress on parents as they endeavour to carry out their academic responsibilities and vice versa.
  6. vi. Single parenting have negative effects on the academic achievements of the adolescents, such that their talents, abilities and interest may not be fully developed to allow them to achieve self-actualization in life. In a report by Salami and Alawode, (2004), they suggested the need for these critical issues to be looked into, as it does more harm than good to the proper and successful educational development of the school learners.

The researcher was of the opinion that students raised by single parents may live a worthwhile life or otherwise depending on the circumstance, level of maturity or love shown to them by the environment they find themselves in. Worried by this development, the negative effects outweigh the positive side as suggested by the researcher. A child could have mental feelings when s/he has a close relationship with the ouster parent and this indirectly affect the emotional feelings of such a child.

This, the researcher expressed that such a child/children can be taken out of the environment and must likely return after sometimes when s/he has fully recovered. In this kind of situation, the affected child/children may need to be kept busy with objects or things around that would make him/her to be happy at all times. The custodian parent would need to make self happy first before extending such to the affected children.

On the part of helping the affected students to socialize and be provided with social rights and opportunities, the school and the society would not be exempted through the assistance they should offer as a form of support to the custodian parents. When they team up with them, the students would thus become a better person in life and succeed academically. The level of relationship between the school and the custodian parent need to be strengthened and record of students should therefore be updated regularly to enable the counselors’ seat tight on their duties. Also, the researcher observed the struggles of homes (especially with single parents) where survival of existence beckons on hard work. The researcher employs single parents to endeavour to live a lasting legacy to their wards if they must enjoy a peaceful life on earth and in the world thereafter (Winnicott, 1965).

2.9 Challenges of Single Parenting on the Society

According to Michelle, (2010), the circumstance making one to be single due to a number of issues (death, abandonment or decision of one partner to walk out) has continued unabated. In Nigeria as a case study, it is not advisable because of the impending challenges. These include:

  1. i. Economic Struggles: Only one income parents are forced to work less hours if they are employed or result to begging when not employed due to childcare responsibilities. Depending on the social class of the single –parent families, it was discovered to have effect on the educational achievement of their children. According to Murkerjee, (1978) in Abbas, (2004), it is believed that many single parents would try investing on their children so much in order to provide schooling for them, on the basis of their financial strength. They see the importance of schooling and success linked together and therefore make every effort to be in tuned.

One is hopeful that gender segregation sets in, at work places, confronted with pay discrimination and high cost of childcare. As conservative as the Nigerian society is, most single parents are restricted in their ability to explore and utilize community resources. Early studies by Henderson, (1987), Miller, (1971), and Brofunbrene, (1974) showed that a large proportion of children who failed in school are from disadvantaged homes. A subsequent study by Curry, (1980) however, introduced another dimension to the nature of this problem. In his conclusion of the study, he asserted that when students are of high intellectual ability and have gone high in their academic grade level, the influence of social background is minimized, if not completely wiped out.

  1. ii. Medical Obligation: Social stratification arising from social inequality sets unjust limits to individual parental aspiration to work, medical, education or life styles. Most single parents’ puts the nutritional needs of their children before their own nutritional needs and medical issues related to stress. Cost of medical bills is beyond the reach of average single –parents or even full parents in our modern society. In the National Health Plan presented in 1996 to Government, it seeks to finance health care within the framework of health policy which among other things ensures that users pay for curative services but preventive service shall be subsidized. While public assistance shall be provided to the socially and economically disadvantaged segments of the population (James, 2003).

However, such students from poor single parenthood homes are the worst hit when the issue of medical attention is reinforced. Their parents could barely afford the medical expenses, if out-of- paid employment to take care of their wards. Medically, children are expected to visit hospitals once every six (6) months for medical check-ups. These improve their health status and make them free from any medical ailment in or out of school. It is sad enough that most children from poor single homes have not been disposed to health information as it relates to their medical background. In the event of any calamity their parents could not be reached out to, as a result of economic burden on how the family will live. This therefore, puts the life of such student at great risk and possible death. Worst are the illiterate ones who did not deem it fit to inform the school of the health status of his/her children (Stein, 1999).

  1. Societal Problems: Families in which school children are raised by only one parent are now more common around the world. Women are the worst hit as many have never been married or live without a partner; this also account for an increasing proportion of single parent families. There are no concrete statistics as far as Nigeria is concerned. Typical African societies frown at this act, as women are the worst hit. Online information shows that no one cares to understand the situation. Many cases are responsible for this just like the causes. In Islamic law, a man is allowed to marry not more than four (4) wives on the condition that all must be treated equally (Hassan, 1983).

This system breeds one wife staying far from each other, thus promoting single parenthood. Automatically, one partner takes care of the children’s education or upkeep with the man struggling to make ends mean. By implication, the woman became a subject of ridicule to people, family and friends (Mathu, 1999). The child is not left in the object of discussions by peer groups, neighbours and families, no doubt, arousing emotional disturbance which sooner or later affect his/her academic performance. Such child resorts to physical harassment of his/her mother as the situation persist. In the event, the woman is being molested by men and decides to play on with life.

  1. iv. Family Conflict: Regardless of the circumstances, family conflict often occurs which usually leads to unexpected changes, and is often the source of loss and grief. Traumatic experiences such as broken homes and family dysfunctional results in depressive symptoms. Moreover, studies have also associated broken homes and family dysfunction to mental and physical health issues. In some few exceptional cases relating to this, family unity had been shattered by conflict resulting in proper separation and the problem of whose care the children should be under (Machell, 2010).

Litigation had been filed in law courts in number of occasion, thereby subjecting the children to media harassment and emotional instability to concentrate on their studies. This often breeds hatred and lack of trust in the child. Such children could only regain their freedom where counseling services are sort for. Statistics below shows figures of children in single – parent families between 1990–2000, in the United State of America.

Years

Number in thousands

Percentage of Children (%)

1990

15,867

25.4

1991

16,624

26.3

1992

17,578

27.4

1993

18,476

27.8

1994

18,595

27.9

1995

18,938

28.2

1996

19,755

29.1

1997

19,799

29.0

1998

19,777

28.9

1999

19,926

29.0

2000

19,223

27.8

Source: U.S. Census Bureau Population Survey for the years 1990 – 2000

2.9.1 Social Policies in Support of Single Parent Families

The increase in the number of children living with single parents has instigated the need for policies and programmes to improve their educational achievement at school. Single parents confront tensions that arise from their dual responsibility of raising their children while simultaneously earning a living. Here, the correlation between single parenting and poverty is clear. Furthermore, single parents are more likely to face social isolation due to stigmatization. Many single parents also experience feelings of stress, frustration, incompetence, hopelessness and helplessness. However, with social policy in place, one hope such will help address socio-economic problems in the society. Not without the exception of Nigeria, and other developing countries Amato, (2017).

In the United States, single mothers experience greater poverty not only as the nation with the highest record but because of lack of education or skills, also as a result of economic and social inequality that stems from deficient social spending policies. With many single parent families relying on one salary to address all of their financial needs, many of them are in need of additional government supports and entitlements. Research however indicates that wages or income support for impoverished families in US is lower than they are in many other developed countries Amato, (2017).

Prior to 1915, there were no social programmes in place to provide aide to single mothers. Provisions for women in crisis were only offered through private maternity homes that assisted at-risk women and children without governmental cash incentives. Welfare programmes were initiated in the mid 1930’s for the purpose of providing resources and income assistance to impoverished individuals. Aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) was later developed to specifically address the financial needs of mothers with children while empowering them to seek education or vocational training and subsequently become self sufficient (Amato, 2017).

To checkmate the excess of the recipients, government introduced a significant cut-backs in the 1980’s which resulted in increased poverty among single –parent families. Following this, it sparked off mixed reaction from people. Some believed that it has contributed to significant improvement in child living arrangements from 1996 – 2000 with increased self-sufficiency by mothers and others argued that it encourages dependence on cash entitlements without supporting the well –being of mothers and their children Amato, (2017).

The decision of couples to become separated may sound healthy but worsen if the challenges of being so are critically looked into as it affect every spheres of human lives. Economically, the burden on the affected parents if not in paid employment could be considered alarming. As the sole parent in charge, s/he would be confronted with how to improve the standard of living, cost of education, attention or care for the children left in his/her custody (Haddad, 1979). Most disturbed is the situation where the custodian parents are not in strong paid employment. Because the responsibilities may far outweigh the salaries or wages earned.

It has also become noticeable that medical needs of the affected children suffer a lot. The children are either underfed or malnourished since the custodian parent may not be able to afford qualitative food for his/her household, thus, necessitated the need for prompt medical attention to further save the situation from worsening. On the societal front, the victims are not accorded any fair hearing on important issues of discussion. They are classified as irresponsible to handle sensitive issues. These are invariably transferred to the children who are more likely to exhibit these characters and attitudes when they grow up. Because of this, the researcher has come to terms that the challenges before the single parenthood if not well managed may set their lives on danger (Machell, 2010).

2.10 Empirical Studies

In a study conducted by Alawode and Salami (2004), on the influence of single– parenting on the academic achievement of Adolescents in secondary schools in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State, a total of 100 senior secondary students from five schools were randomly selected in the study using a descriptive survey research method. The student t –test statistical analysis was employed on the five null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The instrument used in data collection was the students’ academic records in English and mathematics as well as personal data forms on each individual student.

Results indicated that students from intact homes had significantly better academic achievement than those from single parenting homes. Significant difference was found between the academic achievement of Christian and Muslim students from intact homes whereas none was found between Christians and Muslims from single parenting homes. Also, significant difference was found between the academic achievement of males and females from single parenting homes but none between those from intact homes.

The recommendation of the study was that single parenting cannot be totally exempted in the family pattern of the society but where feasible should be addressed; that the type of student’s homes be identified by the counselors and where such indicate single parenting homes, workload assigned to the students be reduced in favour of their academic activities and the need for single parents to be counseled on social needs of their children so that their academic work will progress as the situation changes. The present study is different from the former as it will adopt other statistical tools as Pearson correlation and one way analysis of variance. Research instruments included questionnaire and achievement tests on teachers and students respectively. Six schools were selected from six districts of Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State (Alawode and Salami, 2004).

Uwaifo’s (2008) study on the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of Nigerian University students were carried out on six faculties of Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Twenty (20) students each were selected from Single parental families and another twenty (20) students from two-parenting families in each faculty. This made a total of two hundred and forty (240) students that participated in the study. Major variables included gender and family pattern –single parent families and two-parent families as it affects the students’ academic performance. The instrument used in this study was guidance and counseling achievement grade form (GCAGF).

T–test statistical method was employed in testing the three null-hypotheses formulated in this study. The results of the study indicated that significant differences exist between the academic performance of students’ from single parent family and those of two –parent family structures. The results also showed significant differences in academic performance of male and female students compared on two –types of family structures. It was therefore recommended that school counselors should be employed in all schools and that they should provide necessary assistance to students especially those from single parent family to enable them overcome their emotional concerns as it affects their academics. In the former study, five null hypotheses were formulated and to be statistically analyzed using t-test, Pearson correlation (PPMC) and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Such factors like income, education, environment and gender were considered in this study. Also, research assistance was employed in this research work (Uwaifo’s, 2008)

In a separate study by Eweniyi, (2006), on the impact of family structure on university students academic performance. The study was conducted on two hundred and forty (240) students of Olabisi Onabanyo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State. The study adopted same approach in its writings similar to that of Uwaifo‘s, (2008) study. On the previous studies reviewed, the researcher was fully convinced that foundation information had been provide for subsequent researches except that new concepts are being examined in the present study. Such includes parental income, Education and Environment as a major factor in exploring a meaningful understanding of single –parenting on the academic upbringing of students.

The above reviewed literature shared a common similarity with the present study in that both studies evolved assessing students of single parental homes and those of two-parental homes. The former study took a case study of a university while the present study is limited to selected secondary schools in another part of the country. The sample size in the former study was lower than that of the present study but evolve descriptive survey.

The present study was comprised of both survey and quasi-experimental research designs. The statistical method used in the present study is Pearson Correlation Co-Efficient contrary to t-test adopted in the former study. Also, the recommendation made in the former study was contestable as to ascertain whether it has been implemented or not, no answer can be provided as to that. Only one instrument Guidance and Counseling achievement grade form was used in the former study against two used in the present research work (Uwaifo’s, 2008)

In a paper presented by Oyerinde, (2001) on impacts of family structure, parental practices and family size on children's academic performance. The paper discussed the types of family structure available to include single-parent families, two- parent families (intact families) and step-parent families. The roles of both the father and the mother in the general up-bringing and maintenance of a congenial home environment are clearly identified. Family was defined as any group of people that are related by blood or marriage especially a group of two grown-up people and their children. Usually, there are two major types or family: Nuclear family and extended family.

The father is the breadwinner, head and semi-god of the family. His impacts on each member of the family go beyond emphasis. Women's function and roles are complementary, not inferior. A house wife who stays at home is not idle; she combines a lot of roles in her capacity as housewife. An interior decorator who organizes the home and makes it homely, a culinary expert who prepares food to be consumed by members of the household, a manager/accountant who controls the domestic purse, a psychologist, a teacher and character molder who trains the children and brings them into responsible positions and citizens (Oyerinde, 2001).

Many studies have revealed that children who grow up in single-parent families are less likely to complete high school or even attend college than the children who grow up with both parents. The quality of parent-child relationship in single-parent and step-parent-families may be lower than in intact families because of the stress associated with divorces. remarriage, or both, because of conflict between children and step-parents for" mother's male- partners). The difference between single-parent and two-parent families is limited to variables that reflect differences in the amount of time parents have available monitoring school work and general supervision, whereas the contrast between step-parent and two-parent families extends to educational aspirations as well (Oyerinde, 2001).

Tenibiaje and Tenibiaje (2011) in their study titled Effects of single-parenthood on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of family pattern on the academic performance and truancy behaviour of secondary school students. A total number of two hundred and fifty (250) subjects were randomly sampled for the study. This study adopted a survey method of research.

Schools were purposely selected to cater for mixed schools, boys and girls schools. A questionnaire was designed by the researchers to measure the effects of single-parenthood on the academic performance of students; the questionnaire contained the following items: name of the respondents, name of the school of each respondent, age, sex, religion and the type or kind of family structure. Other instruments used in this study were class- register and last students’ examination result.

Independent t-test was used for analyzing the hypotheses. In analyzing the first hypothesis, it showed that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of adolescent students from single parent homes and those from intact parent homes. The second hypothesis revealed that there is significant difference between truancy behaviour of adolescent students from single parent homes and those from intact homes. With the results obtained, these conclusions were made, that there is no difference between the academic performance of single parent students and intact parents students, but there is difference between them in truancy behaviour. These recommendations were made that students from single parenthood should be counseled on self-esteem and self concept, so also marriage disagreement should be handled with love between the parents, instead of settling for divorce (Tenibiaje and Tenibiaje, 2011).

Ogunshola and Adewale (2012) conducted a study on the Effects of Parental socio-economic status on academic performance of students in selected schools in Edu LGA of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study was interested on how socio-economic status of parents relating to home environment of students could have effects on children academic achievement. The population of students under this study was made up of both males and females in three senior secondary schools. Samples were obtained on One hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. In the selected schools, three consecutive ends of term examination results were obtained for twenty students from each of senior classes, I, II and III. Questionnaire was employed to elicit relevant information about the respondents.

Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and 50 health statuses of the students were identified to have statistical significant effect on the academic performance of students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area. The study recommends that social and economic policies should be put in place for children of low social class; health care services for lower class children should be made to narrow the gap of inequality among Nigerians and the need for the intake of balanced diet should be emphasized (Ogunshola and Adewale, 2012).

2.11 Implication of Reviewed Literature

The family is the most important social institution, an institution that enables children to survive and develop into integrated and functioning persons by augmenting their inborn tendencies. Family life has, however, markedly changed in the last few decades in Nigeria similar to that of the western countries. Divorce rates have increased, spate of dreadful diseases in geometric progression, new family pattern, such as single parent families, have emerged and a large proportion of children in this condition have been badly affected academically. This could be positive or negative depending on how one focused on it. These changes have probably many as yet unknown, far reaching effects on an individual student life and the society as well.

A wide range of problems have been identified such as economic struggles, medical obligation, family conflicts and societal isolation as they affect the academic performance of students on one side and the dual responsibilities of the concerned parents. The problems would not have surfaced if not for causes ranging from divorce, death of one’s spouse, unwanted pregnancy to artificial insemination. However, available literatures have been examined to shade more lights on this while it should be noted that the concept is relatively new in the Nigerian context. Reviews of previous works of scholars were undertaken in this Chapter. It dwelt extensively on issues relating to single parenthood of homes and its influence on our present Societies. It existence in European and other Countries have taken a long time only that it is a new phenomena in the Nigerian scene. Several causes were identified for single parenthood such as death, separation, artificial insemination and others. IT nature differs from Society to Society and cut across all ages, gender, Culture and Classes.

One has to come to the reality that this ugly trend in our Societies today are either natural or man-made causes. Parenting connotes the care, responses and control which parents make on their children. Unfortunately, today homes are either male or female headed ones brought by the earlier mentioned points.

However, most African Traditional Societies are not in support of this Western adopted style of home pattern. The losses outlived its benefit particularly as it has become storage towards the future and academic life of their children. Worst list, are the impact income status, education and occupation of single parents towards this dilemma. One striking consequence of this, was that the role or responsibilities of two biological parents now turning to one. Sadly enough, the party involved maybe poor financially or otherwise. There is therefore, the need to understand the situation before taking such decision even though such decision may not be ignored when the situation goes out of hands. This helps to prevent an everlasting repercussion whenever it is discovered that both couples can no longer stay together.

Based on the aforementioned points raised, it is clear from the previous studies that very few literature materials dwelt on the comparism of poor and wealthy single parental homes. Especially as it affects assessing the level of student’s academic performance in a unique subject area as Government. From this analysis, it became imperative for this study to extend its dragnet to these two critical areas and make comparison of their influence of school performance.

It is however important to note that one other uniqueness of this study with the latter is on its rationale to assess the impact of such variables as income status, educational attainment and occupational status on academic performance in Government. An observation made by the researcher indicate that these three essential variables are more significant to one’s academic performance than to size of the family, educational qualifications, environment or any other factors.

In fact, in most of the studies reviewed, the above variables were linked to single parents alone while the present study is assessing the identified variables were linked to single parents alone while the present study is assessing the identified variables on the two key concepts of poor and wealthy single parental homes.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

This chapter puts forward the operational procedures of the study. It explains the research design, area of study, target population, sample size and sampling procedures. It again describes employed data collection methods that were used to acquire information related to the study. Furthermore, this chapter presents validity, reliability and as well as data analysis procedure.

3.2. Research Design

The research study was carried out using descriptive survey design. Descriptive survey research design is best for gathering, organizing, presenting and analyzing data for the purpose of describing the occurrence of an event or phenomenon. It was used since the study attempt at describing and exploring the effect of single parenting on academic achievement of some secondary school in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State without any attempt being made to control or manipulate the outcomes of the study.

3.3 Population of the Study

A population is any group of individuals that has one or more characteristics in common and that is of the interest to the researcher (Best and Kahn, 2006). The population for this study was all secondary school students in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. The researcher realized a great deal of responsibilities that both father and mother have to their children. Hence, their presence and involvement in nurturing and upbringing of children is of paramount importance, otherwise it is a disaster.

3.4. Sample and Sampling Procedures

The term sample is used to mean a specimen or part of the whole drawn to represent the rest (Kothari, 2004). The characteristic of a good sample is its ability to represent a large population A total of five public schools were selected. The sample included 50 students from each of the five secondary schools in Alimosho L.G.A. Each school therefore had 50 students who participated in the study. This made a sample size of two hundred and fifty (250) students from all five secondary schools involved in the study.

Table 3.1: The List of Selected Schools for Sampling

S/N

NAME OF THE SCHOOLS

SAMPLE NUMBER

1

State Junior High School, Alimosho

50 Students

2

Community Senior Grammar School, Ipaja-ayobo

50 Students

3

Alimsho Junior Grammar School

50 Students

4

Ijegun Senior Comprehensive High School

50 Students

5

State Senior High School, Ipaja

50 Students

3.5 Instruments and Instrumentation

A self-structured the psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on child academic Achievement (PSESPCAA) questionnaire would be used for collection of data. This questionnaire was in two sections A and B. Section A was focus on demographic data while section B deals with variables selected from the study. The questionnaire was designed in four Likert Attitudinal Format. The measurement is on a four point scale, that is, SA, A, D, and SD as shown below;

1. Strongly Agree SA

2. Agree A

3. Disagree D

4. Strongly Disagree SD

Responses were scored by indicating appropriate response with a tick ().

3.7. Validity of the Instruments

Face and content validity of the instrument were carried out by giving a copy of the instrument to expert in the field of study (research supervisor) for correction and amendment. Validity is the extent to which an instrument measure what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. It is rare, if nearly impossible, that an instrument be 100% valid, so validity is generally measured in degrees. As a process, validation involves collecting and analyzing data to assess the accuracy of an instrument.

3.8. Reliability of Instruments

Generally for a research, when a researcher is developing a new scale set to measure some characteristics values of .75 above of Cronbach's Alpha is indication that the scale will be respectable and will be internally consistent. The reliability of the instrument was carried out by using Cronbach’s Alpha in Excel sheet to calculate results of 20 questionnaires from pilot test. The result of the calculation was r-0.80. The result was shown a high degree of correlation, indicating consistency of the research instrument.

3.8 Method of Data Collection

Copies of the questionnaire were administered by the researcher personally with the help of one assistant. Both primary and secondary data were explored. The primary data were obtained through questionnaires while the secondary data were gotten from documents and publications such as journals, textbook and the University gazettes, articles and research studies.

3.9 Method of Data Analysis

The tool for analysis was frequency count and simple percentages were used for demographic variables. While all stated hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) test with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 18).

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the data presentation and analysis. Inferential statistic of Chi-square, with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18) was employed to test the hypotheses in order to uncover the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in each hypothesis. A total of 250 copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents during the study, while 240 copies were properly filled and returned for the analysis. Data analysis was undertaken at five percent 0.5 level of significance.

4.2 Demographic Analysis

Table 1 Gender Distribution of Respondents

Frequency

Percentage

Valid Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Valid

Male

140

52.2

52.2

52.2

Female

100

47.8

47.8

47.8

Total

240

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 1: shows that 52.2% of the respondents are male while the remaining 47.8% were female. This implies that male respondents participated more in the field study than their female counterpart.

Table 2: Age Group of Respondents

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

11-13

77

23.4

23.4

Valid

14-16

151

70.6

70.6

17-19

12

6.0

6.0

20 Above

Total

0

240

0.0

100.0

0.0

100.0

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 2 shows that respondents between ages of 11-13years are 23.4%, 14-16 years are 70.6%, 17-19 years are 6.0%, while 20 and above are 0.0%. This implies that respondents between the ages of 14-16 participated more in the research study than any other age group.

Table 3: Parents/Guardians Academic Qualifications Respondents

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Primary School

O level

NCE/OND

Valid HND/B.Sc/B.Ed/ B.A

M.Sc/M.Ed/M.A

Total

0

30

60

132

18

240

0.0

13.0

26.4

52.6

8.0

100

0.0

13.0

26.4

52.6

8.0

100

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 3 shows that parents/guardians academic qualifications of respondents are primary school certificate 0%, O level certificate13.0%, NCE/OND certificate 26.4%, HND/B.Sc/B.Ed/ B.A certificates 52.6%, while M.Sc/M.Ed/M.A8.0%. This implies that parent/guardian with HND/B.Sc/B.Ed/ B.A academic qualification participated more in the research study than any other qualifications.

Table 4: Respondents Based on Family Types

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Both Parent

Valid Single Parent

Relatives

Others

Total

98

130

12

0

240

39.4

55.0

5.6

0.0

100

39.4

55.0

5.6

0.0

100

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 4 shows the family types of respondents. Participants of both parent are 39.4%, single parent are 55.0%, relatives 5.6% while others 0%. These mean that respondents from single parent participated more in the research study than any other qualifications

Table 5: Parents/Guardians Occupations of Respondents

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Civil Servant

Valid Traders

Teacher

Bankers

Total

81

125

26

8

240

34.0

52.0

10.2

3.8

100

34.0

52.0

10.2

3.8

100

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 5 shows occupation of parents/guidance respondents. The outcome implies that respondents whose parents are civil servant are 34.0%, traders are 52.0%, and teachers are 10.2% while bankers are 3.8%. It therefore means that respondents whose parents/guardian is traders participated more in the research study than any other occupations.

Table 6: Type of Respondents’ Home/Apartment

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

One Room

Room and Parlor

Valid Flats

Duplex

Total

23

66

141

10

240

11.0

25.0

60.0

4.0

100

11.0

25.0

60.0

4.0

100

Source: Field Survey, 2019.

Table 6 shows the type of respondents Apartment/House. Respondents who live in one room 11.0%, room and parlor 25%, flat 60.0%, while duplex are 4.0%. This implies that respondents living in flats participated more in the research than those of other apartments.

4.3 Respondents’ Characteristics and Classification

Table 7: I am not doing badly in my school work

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

163

80.3

A

43

9.5

D

19

6.6

SD

15

3.6

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

In the analysis above, 80.3% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 9.5% agreed, 6.6% disagreed, while 3.6% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This means that single parent does not have effects on bad academic achievement.

Table 8: I can classify myself as being academically brilliant

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

180

92.7

A

24

2.9

D

12

1.5

SD

24

2.9

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019

From the table above, 92.7% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 2.9% agreed, 1.5% disagreed, while 2.9% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. It implies that single parenthood does not have any effects on academic brilliancy.

Table 9: I have every needed support from home to do well in school

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

145

67.2

A

83

31.4

SD

12

1.5

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

The result above shows that, 67.2% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 31.4% agreed, while 1.5% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement.

This shows that needed support from home does not depends on single parenthood.

Table 10: My parents /guardians are interested in my ability and academic achievement

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

180

85.4

A

47

12.4

SD

13

2.2

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

In the analysis above, 85.4% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 12.4% agreed, while 2.2% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This means that irrespective of parenthood, all parents are interested on the ability and academic achievement of their children.

Table 11: My parent/guardians pay my school fees on time

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

166

82.5

A

33

9.5

D

14

2.9

SD

27

5.1

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey July, 2017.

From the table above, 82.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 9.5% agreed, 2.9% disagreed, while 5.1% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. It implies that most of parent/guardians pay their children school fee on time irrespective of been single parent.

Table 12: Students’ from single parents face intimidation than students’ from dual parents

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

11

.7

A

33

9.5

D

26

4.4

SD

170

85.4

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

The result above shows that, 0.7% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 9.5% agreed, 4.4% disagreed, while 85.4% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This implies that students’ from single parents does not face intimidation than students’ from dual parents.

Table 13: Students’ from single parents experience less proper upbringing and parental care than students’ from dual parents

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

2

1.5

A

13

9.5

D

5

3.6

SD

220

85.4

Total

140

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

In the analysis above, 1.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 9.5% agreed, 3.6% disagreed, while 85.4% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This implies that students’ from single parents does not experience less proper upbringing and parental care than students’ from dual parents.

Table 14: It is not true that single parenting will lead to low self esteem, locus of control and dependent personality

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

208

76.6

A

30

21.9

D

1

.7

SD

1

.7

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey July, 2017.

From the table above, 76.6% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 21.9% agreed, 0.7% disagreed, while 0.7% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. It implies that single parents does not effects on student low self esteem, locus of control and dependent personality

Table 15: Students’ from single parents feel bad when their mates in school make jest of them because they are living with a single parent

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

2

1.5

A

17

12.4

D

4

2.9

SD

217

83.2

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

The result above shows that, 1.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 12.4% agreed, 2.9% disagreed, while 83.2% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This shows that students’ from single parents does not feel bad when their mates in school make jest of them.

Table 16: It is not true that students’ from single parents feel inferior to students’ from dual-parents

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

205

74.5

A

29

21.2

D

4

2.9

SD

2

1.5

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

In the analysis above, 74.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 21.1% agreed, 2.9% disagreed, while 1.5% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This means that students’ from single parents does not feel inferior to students’ from dual-parents.

Table 17: It is good to obey the rules and regulations of the school

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

227

90.5

A

7

5.1

D

4

2.9

SD

2

1.5

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

From the table above, 90.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 5.1% agreed, 2.9% disagreed, while 1.5% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. It implies that obeying the rules and regulations of the school does not depend of parenthood.

Table 18: Disobedience to the school rules and regulations result from home background

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

219

86.9

A

17

10.2

D

3

2.2

SD

1

.7

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey July, 2017.

In the analysis above, 86.9% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 10.2% agreed, 2.2% disagreed, while 0.7% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This means that disobedience to the school rules and regulations results from home background.

Table 19: Students from both parenting are more respectful and uphold the rules and regulations guiding the school system

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

3

2.2

A

16

9.5

D

5

3.6

SD

216

84.7

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

From the table above, 2.2% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 9.5% agreed, 3.6% disagreed, while 84.7% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. It implies that been respectful and upholds the rules and regulation does not have effects of single parenthood.

Table 20: Single parenting has nothing to do with being respectful

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

226

89.8

A

11

8.0

D

1

.7

SD

2

1.5

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

The result above shows that, 89.8% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 8.0% agreed, 0.7% disagreed, while 1.5% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This shows that single parenting has nothing to do with being respectful

Table 21: Our teachers do not relate with us on the basis of our home backgrounds

Frequency

Percent

Valid

SA

2

1.5

A

20

14.6

D

3

2.2

SD

215

81.8

Total

240

100.0

Source: Field survey, 2019.

The result above shows that, 1.5% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, 14.6% agreed, 2.2% disagreed, while 81.8% of the total respondents strongly disagreed to the statement. This shows that teacher’s relationship with students’ does not depend on home backgrounds.

4.4 Testing of Hypotheses

Decision Rule

If the P-value is less than 5% (P<0.05), then the null hypothesis is rejected, otherwise accepted.

Test of Hypothesis One

Ho: There will be no significant difference between academic achievement of students’ from single parents and those from intact parents.

Table 22: Result of Hypotheses One

Variables

N

Df

x2cal

x2Tab

Decision

Single Parent and Intact Parent

240

9

93.4

16.92

Rejected

Academic Achievement

Having subjected the figure on the table to Chi Square test at 0.05 significant tests, the result shows that the table value of 16.92 is less than the calculated value of 93.4. This implies that there is a significant effect of single parent and intact parent on academic achievement.

Test of Hypothesis Two

Ho: There is no significant relationship between psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement.

Table 23: Result of Hypotheses Two

Variables

N

Df

x2Cal

x2 Tab

Decision

Psychosocial Variable

240

9

87.25

16.92

Rejected

Students’ Academic Achievement

Having subjected the figure on the table to Chi Square test at 0.05 significant tests, the result shows that the table value of 16.92 is less than the calculated value of 87.25. This implies that there is significant relationship between psychosocial variables on students’ academic achievement; hence the stated hypothesis was rejected.

Test of Hypothesis Three

Ho: There is no significant effect of gender on psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement

Table 24: Result of Hypotheses Three

Variables

N

Df

x2Cal

x2Tab

Decision

Gender on Psychosocial Variable

240

9

23.5

16.92

Rejected

Students’ Academic Achievement

Having subjected the figure on the table to Chi Square test at 0.05 significant tests, the result shows that the table value of 16.92 is less than the calculated value of 23.5.This implies that there is gender differences on psychosocial variables, hence the hypothesis that state “There is no significant effect of gender on psychosocial variable and students’ academic achievement” was rejected.

4.5 Summary

This study has made an attempt to examine psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement in some selected senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Survey research technique was used for this study. Questionnaires was the major tool for data collection and data so collected were analyzed using the statistical tools of frequency counts, simple percentage and inferential statistics of Chi-Square (X2) were used to test the stated hypotheses in order to reveal the relationship between the dependents and independents variables in each hypothesis with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18 .0). A total of 250 copies of questionnaire were administered to respondents during the study, while 240 copies were properly filled and returned for the analysis. Data analysis was undertaken at five percent 0.05 level of significance. The highlight of the study showed that:

There is a significant effect of single parent and intact parent on academic achievement in selected senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.

The outcome of second hypotheses state; there is significant relationship between psychosocial variables on students’ academic achievement in selected secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State..

There is significant effect of ICT and teacher’s performance on early childhood learning in nursery and primary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter consists of the summary from the data analyzed, the conclusion reached, and policy recommendations put forward.

5.2 Discussion of Findings

The results of the tested hypotheses are discussed thus:

Result from the first test concluded that there is significance relationship between single parent and intact parent on academic achievement. This result is consistent with the previous findings by Alawode and Salami (2004), on the influence of single– parenting on the academic achievement of Adolescents in secondary schools in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State, a total of 100 senior secondary students from five schools were randomly selected in the study using a descriptive survey research method. The student t –test statistical analysis was employed on the five null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The instrument used in data collection was the students’ academic records in English and mathematics as well as personal data forms on each individual student.

The second result concluded that there is a significant relationship between psychosocial variables and students’ academic achievement. The findings contradicted the similar result by Uwaifo’s (2008) study on the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of Nigerian University students were carried out on six faculties of Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Twenty (20) students each were selected from Single parental families and another twenty (20) students from two-parenting families in each faculty. This made a total of two hundred and forty (240) students that participated in the study. Major variables included gender and family pattern –single parent families and two-parent families as it affects the students’ academic performance. The instrument used in this study was guidance and counseling achievement grade form (GCAGF).

Similarly, the result of the third test showed that there is a significance differences between gender differences on psychosocial variables and students’ academic achievement. This result is in consonance with the previous findings by Tenibiaje and Tenibiaje (2011) in their study titled Effects of single-parenthood on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of family pattern on the academic performance and truancy behaviour of secondary school students. A total number of two hundred and fifty (250) subjects were randomly sampled for the study. This study adopted a survey method of research. Schools were purposely selected to cater for mixed schools, boys and girls schools. A questionnaire was designed by the researchers to measure the effects of single-parenthood on the academic performance of students; the questionnaire contained the following items: name of the respondents, name of the school of each respondent, age, sex, religion and the type or kind of family structure. Other instruments used in this study were class- register and last students’ examination result. Independent t-test was used for analyzing the hypotheses. In analyzing the first hypothesis, it showed that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of adolescent students from single parent homes and those from intact parent homes.

Finally, there is gender difference on psychosocial variables on students’ academic achievement in selected senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.

5.3 Conclusion

This research study evaluated psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement in selected senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.

The conclusions of this study are anchored on the findings of the objectives of the study the focused on the psycho-socio effects of single parenthood on students' academic achievement. The study findings have led to the conclusion that single parenting has negative effects on academic achievement in comparison to students' from two parents’ backgrounds. It can therefore be concluded that students' from single parent lack a strong motivation to do well in academic works.

However, psycho-socio variables such as self esteem, locus of control and independent personality also play vital roles on students’ academic achievement; hence parent and school management should not neglect effects of psycho-socio variables on students’ academic achievement.

Finally, gender difference on single parenthood has significant effects on students. The outcome of this findings shows that female students’ from single parents are more emotional affected, which also influences their academic achievement negatively.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The school management should encourage the single parents to involve themselves in their children's academic work. This can be done through regular meetings arranged between parents and teachers.

2. There is evidence that family size of a single parent influences academic achievement of children, it is therefore important to encourage single women with families to embrace family planning.

3. Both single parents and their children should be counseled by school management and other relevant bodies such as the religious bodies and the ministry of education on the importance of education for individual and national development.

4. The Local, State and National Government should identify needy families’ especially single parent families and target them for economic empowerment.

5.5 Suggestions for further Studies

Based on the limitations of this study, the following suggestions were made for further studies.

(1) An investigative study should be carried out on the influence of teacher interaction dynamics with children from single parent families and academic achievement.

(2) Similar studies should be conducted, it would enable would-be researchers replicate this topic in another states and geo-political zone in Nigeria.

REERENCES

Abreu, M., (2011), Single Parent Homes Effect on Adolescent, University of Florida academic performance of Nigerian University students.

Adelani, T. & Ogunbanwo, B. (2008) Emergence of single parenthood in Nigeria and its implication on child rearing. Continental J Nursing Science. Wilolud Online Journals:

Agid, O., Shapira, B., Zislin, J., Ritsner, M., Hanin, B., Murad, M., Troudart, T., Bloch, M., Heresco-Levy, U, & Lerer, B. (1999). Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: A case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and Schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 4: 163-172.

Agulanna, G.G. (1999). Family structure and prevalence of Behavioural Problems among Nigerian Adolescents. The Counsellors, 154 – 159.

Ajila, C., & Olutola, A. (2007). Impact of parents’ socio-economic status on university students’ academic performance. Ife Journal of Educational Studies;7(1), 31 39.

Alawode, E. A. & Salami, S. O. (2004). Influence of single parenting on the academic achievement of adolescents in secondary schools: implications for counseling.

Amato, P. R. (2017). Family processes in one-parent, stepparent, and intact families: The child’s point of view. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 327-337

Amato, P . R. (1994). Life –span Adjustment of children to their Parents’divorce. The future of children 4:143 – 164.

Andersson, G. (1988). Children’s experience of family disruption and family formation; Evidence from 16FFS countries. Demographic Research (7).343-364 antisocial personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97: 334 – 337.

Ardelean, M. (2014), Study Type Determinants Deviant Behavioral Disorders In Teenagers From Different Residential Areas, Revista Educaia Plus, Vol.10, Nr.1, Editura Universities „AurelVlaicu” Arad, 2014, ISSN: 1842-077X, pg. 232-238

Astone, N.M. & McClanahan, S.S (1991). Family Structure, Parental Practices and high School Completion. American Sociological Review, 56, 309-320.

Barber L.B., & Eccles, S.J., (1992), Long-Term Influence of Divorce and Single Parenting on Adolescent Family- and Work-Related Values, Behaviors, and Aspirations, Pensylvania State University 27

Battle, T. (2018) What beats having two parents? Educational outcomes for African American students in single vs. dual-parent families. Journal of Black Studies, 28(6), 783 – 801

Begi, J. M. (2000). Determinants of Enrollment of Girls in Secondary Schools in Kenya. MA Economic Policy and Management dissertation, Makerere University.

Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. M. (2006). Research in education. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall.

Biblarz, T. J., & Gottainer, G. (2009). Family structure and children’s success: A comparison of widowed and divorced single mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62: 533–548.

Bill, O.H. (2010). The Rise and Fall of Single parents Families. USA : Cassey.

Blakslee A. (1989). Parents, Extended Households, and the Control of Adolescents." Child Population and Development Review, Vol. 10(4): 647-660.

Bodunde, H.A. (2004). The Relationship among Language policy formulation, preference and implementation in the Nigerian Primary Schools. Ph.D Thesis Department of Education, A.B.U., Zaria.

Bronnimann S. (2007). The stress of single mothers and its effects on quality child care. URJHS 7. American Association of Professional Hynotheapist, AAPH (2011) US Census Bureau

Bryan, S. & Devault, C. (1998). The marriage and family experience; intimate relationship in the changing society. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Bucureti-Zaharia A. (2012), Aspect epsihosociale ale imaginii de sine i integrriisociale la adolescen i, tez de doctorat, Universitatea.

Bumpass, L. L. (1990). What’s happening to the family? Interactions between demographic and institutional change. Demography 27:483-498.

Bumpass, L. L. & Raley, R. K. (1995). Redefining single parent families: Cohabitation and changing

Cherlin, A. (1981). Marriage, divorce, remarriage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Bumpass, L. (1994). A social map of midlife: Family and work over the middle life course children a decade after divorce; who wins, who loses - and why. Ticknor & Fields, New York. children.html

Children’s Defence Fund (1994). The State of America’s Children : Year Book Washington D.C.

Coleman, J. (1968). "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital." American Journal of Sociology 94:S95-S120.

Cooksey, E. C., & Fondell, M. M. (1996). Spending time with his kids: effects of single parents families.

Craft, B. D. (1981). Slums and suburbs in Juvenile Delinquency. New York: McGraw Hill.

Crouter, A. C. & MacDermid, S. M. (1990). "Parental monitoring and perceptions of children's school performance and conduct in dual- and." Developmental. Cultural Study New Harven and London: Yale University Press.

Curry, S .L & Russ. S .U. (1980). Identifying coping strategies in children. Journal of clinical child psychology.61-89

Dale, J. & Griffith, A. (1985). Relation of parental involvement and school traits student academic performance. The journal of Education research, 91(1) 33-41.

David, R. T. Susan P. K., Terri L. S. & Susan D. C. (2010). Parent involvement and student academic performance: A multiple mediational analysis. Journal of Prevention Intervention Community, 2010; 38(3): 183–197.

Deleire, T., & Ariel, K. (2002). "Good Things Come in Threes: Single-Parent Multigenerational Family Structure

Denga, D. I. (1983). Delinquency among polygamous families of Nigeria. The Journal of Social Psychology, 11 (2) 43-47.

Dennehy, C. M. (1966). Childhood bereavement and psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 112: 1049-1069.

Deslandes, R., Royer, E., & Turcotte, D. (1997). School achievement at the secondary level influence of pareating style and parents’ involvement in schooling.

Devall, O. (1986). Human Development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Differences by exposure, gender, and race. Demography, 25, 221-234. Dissertation, Makerere University.

Donkor, A. K. (2010). Parental involvement in education in Ghana: The case of a private elementary school. International Journal about Parents in Education, 4(1): 23-38.

Dornbusch, J., Sanford M., Merrill, C., Steven J. Bushwall, P., & Ritter, L. (1985). The Effect of household health Educational Management.

Downey, D. B., & Powell, B. (2017). Living in single-parent households: An investigation of the same-sex hypothesis. American Sociological Review,62 (4), 521-540

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E. (2010). Influence of age, financial status, and gender on academic performance among undergraduates. Journal of Psychology,; 1 (2): 99-103

Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L. & Olsen (1994). A parent’s economic shadow: family structure verses family resources as influences on early school achievement. Journal of marriage and family 57:399-409

Entwisle, D. R. & Karl, L. A. (1996). "A parent's economic shadow: ." Journal of Development 56: 326-341.

Entwisle, D., Karl L. & Alexander, R, (1996). "Family type and children's growth in reading and math over the family structure on fathers' and children's lives. Journal of Marriage and Family, Family structure versus family resources as influences on early school:.

Eshleman, B. (1981). Human Relationship Pattern. New York: The Roland

Eweniyi, G. D (2005). The Impact of Family Structure on University Students’ academic performance.

Eysenck, H. J. (1987).The definition of personality disorders and the criteria appropriate for their description. Jornal of personality disorders (3) 211-219

Ezenwa, R., & Obanya, I. (1985). Differential effects of parental involvement on cognitive and behavioural outcomes by socioeconomic status: Journal of Socio Economic. 30, 112-121.

Fadeiye, J. D. (1985). A text of social studies, socialization and political culture international organization for NCE and undergraduate. Ibadon; Ilori. family reality. Demography 32: 97 – 109. Family Structure or Income Matter?" Social Policy and Social Work 1: 55-98.

Farrell, W. (2011). Father and child reunion: How to bring the dads we need to the children we love. New York, NY: J.P. Tarcher.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2009) 4thEd. National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC Press.

Finance and Economic Planning, Kampala, Uganda. Foundation http://www.prb .org/articles /2001/theriseandfall of single parent Families. aspx .

Fraser .S. (1969). Ed International Education: Understanding and misunderstandings, Nashville Columbia University, New York, Bureau of Publication of Teachers College, Columbia University.

Fu, H., & Goldsman, N. (2000). The Association between healths related behaviour and the risk of divorce in the USA. Journal of Biosocial science 32: 63 –88.

Fustenbeg, R., & Kusick, H. (1993). Learning and Behaviour. New Delhi: Prentice Hall.

Gavrila-Ardelean, M., (2015) (coord.), Dezvoltareacompetenelor de exprimare cultural a tinerilor / Development of cultural expression skills of youngs, volumbilingv: român-englez, încolec ia Biblioteca Dezvoltrii Comunitare, Edituracoala Ardelean, ClujGavrila-

Ghor, W. (1988). Conduct disorder: parsing the confounded relation to parental divorce and Girls in Kaduna State Science Schools. M.Ed Thesis Department of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Goede, M. & Spruijt, E. (1996). Effect of parental divorce and youth Unemployment on adolescent health. Patient education and counseling 29: 269-276

Goldberg. S. (1990). Attachment in Infants at risk: Theory, research and practice. Infants an young children, 2, 11-20.

Goldstein, J. R. (1999). The leveling of divorce in the United States. Demography 36: 409 – 414

Gomes, N. (1984). “Family Size and Educational Attainment in Kenya”. Population and Development review, Vol. 10 (4): 647 – 660

Grall, T. S. (2009) Custodial Mothers and Fathers and their child support: Washington: US Census Bureau.

Haddad, D. (1979). Educational and economic effect of promotion and repetition practices.

Han, W. J. & Huang, C. C. (2000). "College Attendance and Education Expenditure in Taiwan: Does.

Henderson, K. (1987).The evidence continues to grow: parent’s involvement improves student achievement

Henshin, J. M. (1985). Down to Earth Sociology. An Introductory Readings New York: Macmillan.

Henshin, J. M. (2015). Down to Earth Sociology. An Introductory Readings New York: Macmillan.

Hernandez, D. J. (1988). Demographic trends and living arrangements of children. In Impact of divorce, single-parenting and step-parenting on children. Hetherington EM, Arasteh JD, eds. Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Hetherington, E. M., Stanley-Hagan M., & Anderson, E. R. (1989) Marital transitions. A child’s perspective. American Psychologist 44: 303-312.

Hilton, J. M., & Devall, E. L. (2014). Comparison of parenting and children’s behavior in single-mother, single-father, and intact families. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 29(3-4), 23-54.

Hoover–Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H. M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children’s education? Review of Educational Research, 67(1) 3-42.

Hornby, A. S. (2006). Webster’s Advanced Learning Dictionary. New York http:/jrank. Org /pages /1577/single-parent-families-effects-on

Huang, C. (2000). "Socioeconomic Trends in Influence on School Learning: Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Involvement on High School Grades." Journal of Educational Research 80:330-337.

Huberman, A.M., & Miles, M. B. (2002). Qualitative researcher’s companion. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication. Ibadon University Press. Implications. The counselors. 1601: 61-66

Isohanni, M., Moilanen, I. & Rantakallio, P. (1991). Determinants of teenage smoking, with special reference to non-standard family background. British Journal of Addiction 86: 391-398.

Jallingo, R. (2000). Perheen aika (in Funish) Otava, Helsink: Parental involvement and students academic achiever, Education Psychology Review 12-(1) 1-22

James, E. (2003). Knowledge, attitudes and Opinions of Health Care providers towards the National Health Insurance Scheme. A case study of Minna town Unpublished M. PH Thesis, Department of Community Medicine, ABU, Zaria. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53: 43-58.

Kartovaara, L. (2001). Finnish families. http://virtual.finland.fi/finfo/english/ families.html

Keller, A., Ford, L., & Meacham, J. (1997). Dimension of self-concept in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 14, 483-489.

Kelly, S. A. (1991). Advanced Educational psychology. New Delhi: Vikas. Kenya: Women report on Families in transition.

Kessler, R. C., Watters, E. E., & Forthofer, M. S. (1999). The Social Consequences of Psychiatric disorders, III : probability of Marital stability: American Journal of Psychiatry 155 : 1092 – 1096.

Knox, W. V. (2004).National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Journal of Human Resources, ERIC Journal.

Kothari, C. R. (1997). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.

Lahey, B. B., Hartdagen, S. E., Frick, P. J., MCBurnett, K., Connor, R., & Hynd, G.W. (1988). Conduct disorder: Parsing the confounded relation to parental divorce.

Lambert, L., & Streather, J. (1980) Children in changing families. National Children’s Bureau Series. The MacMillian Press LTD, London.

Lankard, B. A. (2015). Family role in career development, Eric Document Reproduction service. No.ED38987: Learned, What It Means for Schools." Pp. 139-174 in Family-School Links: How Do They Affect

Lee, S. (1993). "Family Structure Effects on Student Outcomes." Pp. 43-75 in Parents, Their Children, and Schools, edited by B. Schneider and J. S. Coleman. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Leonard, K. E., & Rothbard, J. C. (1999). Alcohol and the Marriage effect. Journal of studies on Alcohol, supplement 13: 139-146

Lidz, T. (1983). The Person: His and Her development throughout the life cycle. Reversed ed. Basic Books, New York. Living, 2(2), 155 – 169.

Lloyd, C. B. & Mench, B. (2006). Early Marriage and Pregnancy as Factors in School Drop-out: An analysis of DH data from sub- Saharan Africa.

Lloyd, C. B., Sahar, Tawila, E. L., Clark, H. W., & Mensch, S. B. (2001). Determinants of Educational attainment among adolescents in Egypt: Does school quality make a difference? No. 150.

Locoh, A. C. (2000). Attainment in secondary school. Oxford Economic Papers. 51. 300-321.

London Fulton Publishers. Martin Robertson, Oxford.

McDonald, S., Cambpell, T. O., & Seaburn, D. (1990). Family Oriented primary care. A manual for medical providers. Springer- Verlag. New York.

McGue, M. V., & Lykken, D.T. (1992). Genetic Influence on risk of divorce.

Mclanahan, G., & Gary, S. (1994), Growing up with a single parent: What Hurts, What Helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Michelle, V. R. (2010). The Challenge of Single parenting downloaded from http: //www ezinearticles.com/? Experts = Michelle_v_Roberts Retrieved:

Miller, L. (1971). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement: in childhood and adolescence causal relationships and underlying mechanisms.

Mosha, H. J. (2016). Planning educational systems for excellence. Dar es Salaam: E & D Limited.

Mukherjee, D. (1988). Regional inequalities: Income, occupation and education, A.C.E.E. Research Monograph. No.2.

Muller, C. & Kerbow. D. (1993). "Parent Involvement in the House, School, and Community." Pp. 13-42 in Parents, Their Children, and Schools, edited by B. Schneider and J. S. Coleman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Neequaye, A. R., & Neequaye, J. E. (1995). Factors that could influence the spread of AIDS in Ghana: Knowledge of AIDS, Sexual behavior, prostitution, traditional medical practices. Journal of Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome, 1, 4, (a), 914 .

Nord, C. W., & Jerry, W. (2001). "Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement in their Children's Schools by Family Type and Resident

Nwachukwu, F., & Henshin, J. (2016). Single-parent Family–An Emerging Family in Nigeria, The Counsellor.Vol. 137-14

Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental school involvement: The case of Ghana. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies; 2(5): 378-3

Nye, R. D. (1986). Three Psychologies. California: Brooks/Cole publishing

Ogunshola, F., & Adewale, A. M. (2012). The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu LGA of Kwara State Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences July 2012, Vol. 2, No. 7

Omojola, I. (1986). The school performance of children from single parents families, Economic or Interpersonal deprivation. Journal of Family Issues. 15-126.

Omolewa, M. (2001).The challenge of education in Nigeria. 1999 University Lecture. Ibadon:

Ormrod, J. E. (2000). Educational psychology: Developing Learners. Upper Saddle

Ortese, P. T. (1998), Single-parenting in Nigeria; Counseling Concern and Implications, The Counselor 16(1 (1998), 61-66

Ortese, P. T. (2015). Single Parenting in Nigeria: Counseling concerned and Implications. The counselors. 1601: 61-66

Otite, L., & Ogionwo, G. (1989). Indiscipline in schools. New York: Werdelin Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006). 5th Edition.

Oyerinde A. A. (2001) Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education. 70 (1) 27-61.

Rasaq, B., & Ajayi, .O. S. (2000). Research Methods and statistical analyses. Ilorin: Haytee press and publishing Coy. Retrieved 25/10/2010.

Rothbart, M. L. K. (1971). Birth order and mother-child interaction. New York: Cambridge University Press:

Ruther, B. S. (1990). Childhood and society. Middlesex: England pengul Books

Salam, S. O., & Alawode, E. A. (2016). Influence of Single-parenting on the academic achievement of adolescent in secondary schools, Implications for Counseling, department of Guidance and Counseling University of Ibadan.

Sauvola, A. (1987). The Association between Single Parent Family Background and Physical Morbidity, Mortality and Criminal Behaviour in Adulthood. A conference paper on the Department of Psychology, Outu, Finland.

Scroate, H., Cooper, G., & Declart, J. (1996). Organizational Behaviour; contingency view. U. K: secondary school students in English Language Journal of Research in Counselling psychology. 84 – 87.self feelings and expectations on children’s academic performance.

Shavit, Y., & Jennifer L. P. (1991). "Sibship size and educational attainment in nuclear and extended families: Arabs and Jews in Israel." American Sociological Review 56:321-330.

Sigle-Rushton W., & McLanahan, S. (2014). Father absence and child well-being: A critical review. In D. Moynihan, T. Smeeding, & L. Rainwater (Eds). The future of the family. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,; 116-155.

Single parenting in the Nineties Developing a Healthy Self-esteem in your child, (1996), parents place, http//www.parentsplace.com.

Steinberg, B. C. (1993). The Facet of Intellect. American Psychology , 14,469-472.

Stevenson, D. L., & David P. B. (1987). "The Family-School Relation and the Child's School Performance." Child Development 58:1348-1357.

Stipek, D. J. (2018). Pathways to constructive lives. The importance of early school success. In Bohart A C, Stipek DJ, editors. Constructive and destructive behaviours. Washington, D.D: American psychological Association

Tenibiaje, M. O. & Tenibiaje, D. J. (2011). Effects of single-parenthood on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2, No. 1 (2011), pp. 240-248

Tolkki, H., & Nikkone, B. (1994). Parental Involvement and Academic Performance in Nigeria.

Tulkin, O., and Kagen, M. (1982). Helping Students Finish School: Why Students Dropout and how to help them graduate. The Office of Superintendents of Public Instruction, Olympia Washington.

U.S. Census Burean, (2010). Poverty status of families, by type of family, presence of related children, race and Hispanic origin: 1955 to 2008; accessed at www.census.gor/hhss/www/poversty/instpor/.

United Nations (2006). Retrieved from unstats.un.org/unsd/copy right.htm. University Level in Uganda. MA Economic Policy and Management.

Ushie M. A., Emeka J. O., Ononga G. I., & Owolabi E. O. (2012). Influence of family structure on students’ academic performance in Agege Local Government Area, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. European Journal of Educational Studies 2012; 4(2): 177-187

Uwaifo, C. (2016). Impact of parents’ socio-economic status on university students’ academic performance. Ife Journal of Educational Studies; 7(1), 31-39.

Uwaifo, V.O. (2012). The effects of family structures on the academic performance of Nigerian university students. Global Journal of Human Social Science; 12(5): Retrieved from www.globaljournalofhumansocialscience/

Vassar, R. L. (2012). Social history of American education: Colonial times to 1860 (Vol. I). Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.

Wikipedia (2010). Early motherhood. Retrieved from htt:enwikipediz.org/wiki/motherhood.

Wimmer, R. D., and Dominick, J. R. (1967). Mass Media Research.”An Introduction” Belmont California, Wadsmorth publishing Company Inc.

Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The maturational processes and the University Press facilitating environment. Studies in the theory of emotional development. International, New York.

Wolfinger, N. H. (1998) The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 39: 254-269.

Yombi, M. (2011) Major Religious Ranked by Size: African Traditional and African Diasporic Religion.

APPENDIX I

LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION (FULL TIME)

Dear Respondent,

QUESTIONNAIRE ON PSYCH-SOCIO EFFECTS OF SINGLE PARENTHOOD ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.

I am a student of above named institution and currently carrying on a research study titled “Psych-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement in some selected senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State”

Yours assistance in completing this questionnaire is solicited. Any information supplied in this regards would be used purely for academic purpose.

I promise to ensure strict confidentiality of information that will be provided

Thanks in anticipation for your co-operation

______________

Research Student)

SECTION A

RESPONDENTS’ BIO-DATA

INSTRUCTION: please indicate appropriate with

  1. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
  2. School_____________________________________________________________
  3. 2. Age: 11-13 14-16 17-19 20- above
  4. 3. Gender: Male Female
  5. Parents/ Guardian Academic Qualification

Father

Mother

Primary

Olevel

NCE/OND

HND/ B.Sc/B.Ed/B.A

M.Sc/ M.Ed/ M.A


  1. Others Specify__________________________________________________
  2. Who do you live with? Both Parents Single Parent Relatives Other (Specify) ______
  3. Parents /Guardian Occupation: Father ____________________________________
  4. Mother ___________________________________________
  5. _________________
  6. Types of house you live in: One room Room and Parlor Flats Duplex

SECTION B:

Note: SA =

A =

SD =

D =

Instruction: Please tick ( ) on the appropriate column to indicate your opinion on the following statement. Your responses should take the following order: SA- strongly Agreed, D-Disagreed, A-Agreed and SD- Strongly Disagreed.

S/N

Statement

SA

A

SD

D

Home and Academic Achievement

6

I am not doing badly in my school work

7

I can classify myself as being academically brilliant

8

I have every needed support from home to do well in school

9

My parents /guardians are interested in my ability and academic achievement

10

My parent/guardians pay my school fees on time

Students Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Dependent Personality

11

Students’ from single parents face intimidation than students’ from dual parents

12

Students’ from single parents experience less proper upbringing and parental care than students’ from dual-parents

13

It is not true that single parenting will lead to low self esteem, locus of control and dependent personality

14

Students’ from single parents feel bad when their mates in school make jest of them because they are living with a single parent.

15

It is not true that students’ from single parents feel inferior to students’ from dual-parents

Rules and Regulations of School

16

It is good to obey the rules and regulations of the school

17

Disobedience to the school rules and regulations result from home background

18

Students from both parenting are more respectful and uphold the rules and regulations guiding the school system

19

Single parenting has nothing to do with being respectful

20

Our teachers do not relate with us on the basis of our home backgrounds

APPENDIX II

LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION (FULL TIME)

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Instruction: Please tick ( ) where appropriate

Section A

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION OF RESPONDENTS

1. School______________________________________________________________________

2. Age: 11-13 14-16 17-19 20- above

3. Gender: Male Female

4. Parents/ Guardian Academic Qualification

Father

Mother

Primary

Olevel

NCE/OND

HND/ B.Sc/B.Ed/B.A

M.Sc/ M.Ed/ M.A

Others Specify_______________________________________________________

5. Who do you live with?

Both Parents Single Parent Relatives Other (Specify) ___________

6. Parents /Guardian Occupation: Father ………………………………………………..

Mother …………………………………………………………………………………..

7. Types of house you live in: One room Room and Parlor Flats Duplex

Section B

ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN ENGLISH LANGAUGE

INSTRUCTION: The purpose of this test is to measure ‘Psych-socio effects of single parenthood on students’ academic achievement in English. The test is comprised of 32 items/questions on three different dimensions of English Language and Mathematics. Each question is followed by several possible answers. Please read them carefully. You have to select most appropriate option/answer mentioned against each question and put a () mark against that answer. So you are requested to provide your responses intelligently and frankly.

PART A: READING Q.A1. Read the following passage carefully- Failures are our teachers. They draw our attention to our weaknesses. They make us think over the causes of our setbacks. We remove those causes. We make improvement. We gain success. Let us have a look at the lives of great men. They reached the peak of success only after climbing along the steps of failures. Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Gandhi, Rana Pratap, Edison- all had to face many failures. But they learnt lessons from those failures. Ultimately they gained success in their tasks. Human history itself shows the value of failures. Man started his life in the jungle. Today he has reached the moon. The leap from the jungle to the moon wasn’t a sudden one. There were lots of hurdles and setbacks. But man went on learning lessons from his failures. And he used his failures as stepping stones to success!

Read the questions (1to 5) given below and answer carefully as per the reading of above passage-

Q. 1. What are failures to us? a) Our teachers b) Our students c) Great men d) Rana Pratap

Q. 2. What do they make us think over? a) Our weakness b) Our failures c) Causes of our setback d) Our success

Q.3. How did great men reach the peak of success? a) after setbacks b) after improvements c) after climbing along the steps of failures. d) after doing task

Q.4. Which leap wasn’t a sudden one? a) leap from ordinary man to great man b) leap from failures to success c) leap from success to failures d) leap from jungle to the moon.

Q. 5. Which word in the passage means ‘defeats’? a) steps b) leap c) setbacks d) stepping stones

PART B: WRITING SKILLS WITH GRAMMAR

Directions Q. 6 to 8: Choose the correct tense form of the verb to complete each sentence.

Q. 6. This road ------- to Delhi. a) leads b) leading c) was lead d) none of these

Q.7. Don’t disturb her. She ------her homework. a) does b) is doing c) will do d) none of these

Q. 8. What is the name of that picture which you------on the wall? a) look at b) is looking at c) are looking at d) none of these

Directions Q. 9-10: Choose the correct passive voice of following active voice sentences.

Q. 9. He killed a snake. a) He was being killed a snake b) A snake was being killed by he. c) A snake was killed by him d) A snake had been killed by he.

Q.10. I write a poem. a) A poem is written by me. b) A poem wrote by me. c) By me was written a poem. d) A poem write I.

PART C: LITERATURE/TEXTBOOKS AND LONG READING TEXTS

Q. 11. Who found a real book? a) Tommy b) Margie c) The County Inspector d) Margie’s grand mother

Q. 22. What challenge did Evelyn Glennie face? a) She was completely blind b) She was profoundly deaf c) She was dumb d) She was lame

Q.13. Which instrument is associated with Bismillah Khan? a) Tabla b) Sitar c) Xylophone d) Shehnai

Q. 14. Where does the traveler find himself? a) at a cross road b) in a dense forest

c) where two roads diverged d) where there were no roads ahead

Q. 15. What was child’s favorite sweet? a) Gulab jamun b) Rasgulla c) Burfi d) Jalabi

Q. 16. Complete the sentence as per your reading of the poem “No Men Are Foreign”. Remember they have ___________like ours that wake or sleep a) hands b) eyes c) nose d) ears Q.

APPENDIX III

MATHIMATICS ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Section A

Q1. Write the next 3 natural numbers after 10999.

Q2. Find the perimeter of a square with a side of 25 cm.

Q3.Identify the successor of 2440701

Q4. Find the sum by suitable rearrangement of 837+208+363

Q5. Measure the length and the breadth of rectangle

Q6. Write 3 equivalent fraction n of 3/5

Q8. Find the fraction having denominator 16 equivalent to 3/8

Section B

Q8. Find the product using suitable properties

a) 738 X103 b) 854 X 102 c) 258 X 1008

Q9. Justify through example. If the product of two whole number is 1, can we say that one of both is 1

Q10. Find the perimeter of the table top measures 2m 25cm by 1m 50cm.

Q11. Illustrate, A piece of strings is 30cm long. What will be length of each side if the strings is used to form. a) A square b) an equilateral triangle C) a regular hexagon

Q12. Find the equivalent fraction of 3 5 having

a) Denominator 20 b) numerator 9 c) Denominator 30

Q13. Replace the following fraction to simplest form

Section C

Q14. IIla read 25 pages of a book containing 100 pages, latila 2 5 of the same book. Illustrate who read less.

Q15. Find the common factors of a) 20& 28 b) 15 & 25 c) 35 & 50 d) 56 & 120 e) 5 & 15

Q16. Explain the number of tiles whose length and breadth are 12cm and 5cm resp. will be needed to fit in a rectangular region whose length and breadth are resp: a). 100cm & 144cm b). 70cm & 36cm

CRONBACH'S ALPHA RELIABILITY TEST RESULT IN EXCEL

Subject

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q15

Total

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

3

3

1

4

1

29

2

2

3

1

1

2

3

3

4

2

1

2

3

1

4

4

38

3

4

1

2

1

2

2

3

4

1

1

1

4

2

4

3

38

4

1

1

1

1

3

4

4

3

1

2

2

4

1

3

4

39

#items/Questions/ Component 15

5

1

4

1

1

2

4

4

3

1

1

3

4

1

4

3

42

Sum of the item variances

12.4027

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

1

1

2

1

1

3

2

29

Variance of Total Scores

57.3275

7

1

1

1

1

3

3

2

4

2

1

3

2

2

3

2

38

Cronbach's α

0.802232

8

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

36

9

4

4

2

1

4

1

2

3

2

1

1

2

1

3

4

44

10

1

1

4

1

1

1

2

3

1

2

3

2

2

4

1

39

11

4

1

3

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

3

1

4

3

39

12

1

1

3

2

3

2

2

3

2

1

1

4

1

4

4

46

13

1

4

4

3

2

1

2

4

1

1

1

2

1

4

4

48

14

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

4

1

1

4

1

3

4

2

43

15

4

4

1

2

2

2

3

4

1

2

3

1

3

4

4

55

16

1

4

1

1

1

1

2

4

1

2

1

2

1

4

2

44

17

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

4

1

1

3

3

1

4

4

49

18

1

4

1

2

1

2

4

4

1

3

1

3

1

4

4

54

19

2

2

1

2

2

1

4

4

1

2

3

2

4

4

4

57

20

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

2

1

4

1

1

4

3

50

variance

1.3875

1.944737

1.063158

0.357895

0.765789

0.976316

0.765789

0.25731

0.221053

0.357895

1.115789

1.102632

0.786842

0.197368

1.102632

12.4027

Cronbach’s Alpha Formula

α = .

k refers to the number of scale items

σ2yi refers to the variance associated with item

σ2x refers to the variance associated with the observed total scores

SCORING KEY

ENGLISH LANGAUGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST (ELAT)

1.

a

b

C

D

2.

a

b

C

D

3.

a

b

C

D

4.

a

b

C

D

5.

a

b

C

D

6.

a

b

C

D

7.

a

b

C

D

8.

a

b

C

D

9.

a

b

C

D

10.

a

b

C

D

11.

a

b

C

D

12.

a

b

C

D

13.

a

b

C

D

14.

a

b

C

D

15.

a

b

C

D

16.

a

b

C

D