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Legolas: The Boy with the Bow

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Archery Props in The Lord of the Rings Films

Welcome to the extended edition of my popular "Legolas: The Boy with the Bow" article, covering the archery stunts and props in The Lord of the Rings.

First, we'll take a look at the marvelous archery props and gear in the movies -- not only Legolas' bows and arrows, but also everyone else's. Then comes a humorous review of Legolas' stunts. If you're not thrilled by gorgeous props and just want the play-by-play, jump to Part II: Legolas' Stunt Archery in FOTR.

Disclaimer: This is a movie review through the eyes of a traditional archery enthusiast. These are off-the-glove opinions based on my own experience as an archer and close observation of the films. However, I'm an amateur, not an expert!

Archery Props and Gear: Bows - Weapons of Middle-Earth


(Legolas after a raid on Archer's Depot in Lothlórien)

The Lord of the Rings bows are mostly bent and shaped wood, crafted and refined using traditional bowyer techniques. Bows are under such tremendous pressure that any flaw or crack may cause them to snap when drawn, sometimes failing catastrophically and sending wooden shards flying like a shatter grenade. (This also may happen when a bow is "dry-fired" without an arrow, a major concern since many arrows were added in CGI). The craftsmanship of these props is therefore not mere window dressing; it is vital for the actors' safety. (See the Glossary of Archery Terms below for explanations of the different kinds of bows).

Legolas' Mirkwood bow: An elegant 60" recurve of dark wood, possibly hickory, painted with gilded ivy leaves and tendrils around the handgrip and tips. The string is black. Apart from the gilding, everything about the Mirkwood gear is somber earth tones, to reflect the place it came from, and perhaps as camouflage. Possibly over 100# draw,* although as a stage prop it would've been closer to 15 to avoid arm fatigue and wobble.

*Details marked with a star from alleycat's notes on Legolas' gear gleaned from Casa Loma exhibition; I can't be sure of these.

"To Legolas she gave a bow such as the Galadhrim used, longer and stouter than the bows of Mirkwood, and strung with a string of elf-hair. With it went a quiver of arrows." (Farewell to Lóren, FOTR)

Legolas' Lórien bow: It's worth renting the extended version of the DVD just to see the delight in his eyes when he's examining it, and the amusement of Galadriel watching him with a smile that seems to say, "Aww, the puppy likes his new toy."

The bow is a longbow with recurve tips, with a stunning scalloped profile and decorations carved in high relief. For safety reasons mentioned above, this bow is actually injection molded rubber* as opposed to traditional wood. Like all the elves' possessions and architecture, it is embellished with organic, graceful patterns reminiscent of roots and leaves. Is it any better than the Mirkwood bow? Well, he certainly shoots faster with it! There's a ton of photos of the detailing here.

Aragorn's and Faramir's bows: Aragorn's is a short self bow suitable for hunting, compact enough to keep it from getting in the way while he's swordfighting. All Aragorn's archery gear is utilitarian and looks like he made it himself. It looks like a scaled-down version of the Gondorian longbow, which first appears in the prologue of FOTR, and is used by Faramir and his company in the later films.

Galadhrim bows: Haldir & friends' exotic double recurves are reminiscent of South Indian bows, and stained dusty gold like autumn leaves. Like the pommels of the Galadrim's two-handed swords, the limbs of these bows are tightly wrapped in thin flat metal spirals shaped like vines or tendrils; I've never seen anything like that before. The Galadrim bows also have an unusual crest on top. The bowstring is simply looped or tied rather than hooked over a notch; this is an older style of stringing a bow.

Orc bows: They are ugly, stiff composite bows that may be made partly of metal. The goblins of Moria use thick recurves that have a crudely-wrapped handgrip. The formidable bow of Boromir's Least Favorite Orc has metal chunks sticking out on either side of the grip, and its shape is similar to Mongolian bows. Other orcs use short wooden recurves. All are plain apart from occasional wrappings.

Misc. bows: The armies of the Last Alliance give you a taste of archery during the opening scene: early elves used longbows with minimal but typically elvish dribbles on them. The men of Gondor in that battle and in the Third Age have powerful longbows strong enough to punch through armor at long distances (below). The Rohirrim have small composite horsebows. It's hard to tell whether it's just riders/actors gripping the bows off-center by accident, but these horsebows may be asymmetrical, a special adaptation of some real-world horse bows which maximizes power while minimizing the risk of hitting the saddle.

The Corsairs of Umbar (on the Black Ships) have a crossbow they don't get a chance to use thanks to Aragorn's undead army. The Mumakîl riders have some truly bizarre bows-- some are recurves, while others have odd rings on the limbs which are either exotic decorations or meant to be the ridges on some kind of animal's horn.

Gondorian Longbows

Reality check: Modern bows look like they are made by Klingons! Pulleys are only the most blatant change that makes them an entirely different weapon. For comparison, here's a modern archery website.

Glossary of Traditional Archery Terms

Types of Bows, Arrows and Medieval Weapons

Concerning Bows

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  • Power (weight): Bows are rated by the poundage of pull. That is, it takes a certain amount of force to draw back the string, equivalent to lifting a weight (except horizontally). The stronger the poundage, the harder it is to draw, hold, and release the arrow steadily, but the more range, speed and punching-power the arrow will have. The bow's materials, and the amount by which it is bent out of its unstrung shape, determine the power. The bows in the movies are almost certainly lightweight, I'm guessing around 15#-20#, because archery uses a strange set of muscles, and they can fatigue and start twitching/shaking uncontrollably very quickly.
  • Kinds of bow: Bows are classified by shape and style, which vary widely between cultures and time periods. Styles determine to some extent a bow's accuracy, rate of fire, power, and suitability for certain specialized environments (e.g. riding, mail-piercing). The more complicated shapes are, of course, harder to manufacture.
    • Recurve- The tips of the bow are bent in the opposite direction from the draw, adding to its power once drawn, providing a slight kick to the bow's release. The bow may only be curved at the tips when unstrung, or it may actually be curved dramatically in a C-shape which must be bent back into a D when strung. This provides a lot of power.
    • Double recurve- It adds another curve, contributing still more kick.
    • Self bow- A bow made of one single piece of material or two joined at the grip.
    • Backed bow- A self bow backed with a thin layer of wood, rawhide, silk or sinew that (sometimes) helps keep it straight.
    • Longbow- A powerful self bow or backed bow developed by the Welsh and English. The wood is straight or only slightly curved when unstrung, so full draw puts a lot of pressure on it.
    • Composite- A bow made of laminated layers glued and bound together, using different types of wood, horn, and/or sinew. This was done either to compensate for limited materials or to exploit the materials' physical properties for various parts of the bow (e.g. the backing helps the bow maintain its shape; the front part tends to determine draw power).
    • Take-down bow- A more modern innovation, although some medieval cultures invented modular bows that could be disassembled and reassembled.
    • Crossbow- A bow with an added crosspiece where the arrow rests; the string of the bow is drawn back along this stock and anchored on some sort of latch or trigger. Early crossbows had to be drawn by hand; later ones had cranks. The advantage of a crossbow is that it can have much higher power, since the archer merely has to draw the string, not hold it steady while shooting.
  • Materials: Traditional bows were originally made of wood, but horn, sinew, and even metal and fabrics were used in bow construction. Modern bows use fiberglass, metal, carbon, rubber and plastics.
  • Bowstrings: Hemp, sinew, or silk, twisted or braided. Beeswax helps prevent fraying and provides waterproofing. There was usually a loop on at least one end, but the other was originally tied with a "bowline knot". Later bowyers invented ways of twisting loops into the ends of the strings. Modern bows use dacron or other synthetics.
  • Nock point: A knot, bead, or other device placed on the string; it allows the archer to feel when the arrow is in the correct position (exactly 90° to the string) without having to look down and check. It's usually a guide, not a support, and is often set above where the arrow nocks. Legolas' Lórien bow has a beaded nock-point, a vital aid when speed-shooting.
  • Things these bows lack: The bows in the films are ancient and traditional styles lacking many later innovations that help steady the arrow or bow, aid in aiming, tell the archer when arm and arrow position are correct, and support some of the bow's draw weight during draw and/or aiming. These include balancers and stabilizers on the bow, clickers, various forms of bowsights, levels, arrow rests, and pulleys. The film's bows also lack shaped handgrips, which help ease the strain on the bow-hand and give a guide to consistent hand placement. In lieu of such modern conveniences, which many archers can't imagine doing without, the actors must master a great deal more to hold and shoot these weapons in a way that looks plausible.

Archery Props and Gear: Arrows - Forget the Elf; This Is Why I Drool



The exquisite handiwork of the arrows is what made me start paying closer attention to details throughout the films. These are handmade arrows -- thousands of them. Some are lathe-turned and straightened; others seem to have been whittled. The heavier and stiffer the arrow, the stronger a bow is required to get it moving; lightweight arrows wobble and lose momentum faster. Painted or varnished shafts help waterproof and protect arrows against warping.

I'm still debating about the nocks (the notches in the back). One archer who's seen them assures me they are self-nocks, cut by hand and reinforced with bindings to fight splitting, but I keep seeing what looks like caps on the back of the arrows. Alleycat reports that at least some are bone nocks.

The fletchings show a diligence and dedication to detail that made me sit up in my seat and stare. While everyone else was getting their first glimpse of heartthrob Haldir, I was thinking, "Good gods, thread bindings!" That means someone had to take thread (usually boiled sinew) and carefully wrap each and every feather, keeping the feathers 60 degrees apart and trying not to separate the "vanes" of each feather lest they create drag.

Legolas often uses arrows with two colors of feather: one for the pair of feathers that are roughly up-and-down when the arrow's nocked, almost parallel to the string, another color for the feather that's 90 degrees to the string. This is a common practice that helps one nock the arrow right side up; upside down that sideways feather will be on the archer's side of the string and will brush the bow on the way out, creating slight drag or wobble.

Many arrows have custom-forged metal heads. I'm not sure whether any rubber-tipped arrows were used for action, or whether all the in-flight arrows are actually a unique and special arrow developed just for this film: the magical CGI arrow composed entirely of pixels.

The arrows in these films vary greatly: each race has its own style of point, its own fletchings. Even the way the feathers are cut says something about the characters: graceful curves for the Elves, straight and traditional for Men, bristly and messy for orcs.

Gallery of Sharp Pointy Things

Mirkwood Arrow: dark and well-camouflaged. You'd need elf-eyes to find them after shooting 'em. 30" shafts* with "bodkin" tips. Alley Cat says the flights (feathers) are green, but I'm seeing brown and autumn orange.

Legolas' Lórien Arrows: lean, mallorn leaf-shaped points of steel or bronze with a socket-style sleeve. Turkey feathers cut and colored to resemble winter or summer leaves, mostly 2-yellow 1-green batch, some a pale green. Bindings of gold thread. Alleycat costuming says the nocks are bone, which avoids the "plastic caps" issue. I hope the orcs appreciated being slain by works of art.

In Two Towers, when the Three Hunters are nosing around the eaves of Mirkwood and Legolas almost shoots Gandalf, there's a lovely close-up of his hand as he's nocking an arrow, and you can plainly see he's got a metal bead on his bowstring. Hee. Most of us use one, never rest the arrow on top of it), but it's still amusing to see Legolas having to use an aid to find his nockpoint without looking (he correctly brings the nock up to it; resting the arrow on it may mess with smooth release). Gamling sure needed one!

Arrows of the Galadhrim: Haldir and friends have arrows with strange flanges on the tips and lovely long white feathers that seem too big for goose or turkey feathers. My theory is that they're supposed to be swan-feathers, since there's a lot of swan imagery in Lórien and among Elves in general.

Orc-Arrows: Some are what I call "feather dusters of doom," which remind me of the fuzzy feathers on spears thrown by Australian atlatls. Others are even uglier, with bristly, sticky, oily-looking feathers that must have a lot of pounds of force behind them to fight drag. In Moria, the "goblins" (scrawny orcs) use arrows tipped with a black metal tip that looks like a mini harpoon; they've got one barb which would make them horrible to pull out. Orc-arrows in ROTK look more businesslike, tipped with hammered metal broadheads that look iron (they're rusty) and are attached with a teensy nail.

Aragorn, predictably, has scraggly dark arrows. I can't see the tips.

Faramir and the Green Company have brown-fletched arrows (undyed turkey feathers?) with blue-green click nocks (snap onto string and tend not to slip). They sure look like plastic to me, though not a standard shape. Scalloped indentations on the sides might help them get a more precise feel and grip through archer's glove.

Rohirrim-arrows have similar brown fletchings but have very strange tips, like flat circles with points stuck through them. (Same shape as the hilt of Théoden's sword). Shafts appear to be tapered.

The Guards of the City have long arrows with rectangular white fletchings, very minimalist and geometric-looking in contrast to the Elves' fanciful swooshes.

In the gallery that follows, keep an eye out for the Southron arrow with a flint (?) tip. It's definitely some kind of chipped stone bound on with sinew and resin, something I've seen in Native American arrows.

Finally, in many scenes, we have the magical Elvish arrow made of pure light! (Most in-flight arrows were added with CGI.)

Out in the real world, a Legolas mural on a nearby building seems to have shot a giant arrow into a Wellington, NZ pub.

Props and Gear: Quivers



A quiver is just a spot to stick things; it doesn't need to be much more than a stiff cardboard tube with strapping tape on the bottom (which works great for kids' costumes, by the way). Any detailing beyond a secure and stable form of attachment is gratuitous. Straps are tricky; it's hard to make a quiver that doesn't flop all over the place. These quivers often have places to tuck bows, knives, even bedrolls.

Most are back quivers. That seems obvious, since we're all familiar with Robin Hood flicks, but in fact, many archers use belt quivers which hang down like a sword's sheath (e.g. Boromir's Least Favorite Orc), or shin quivers. Modern bows often have built-in racks. The back quiver is more stable, but the straps across the chest tend to create a tripartite breast effect. Add a cloak, and you've got fabric bunching up and catching on the arrows. It took a clever bit of tailoring (and some strategic holes) to get Legolas' back quiver and cloak to work together.

Legolas didn't get a cloak until Lórien, however. His Mirkwood quiver is stained wood* oiled to give it a rich shine, decorated with bronze tendrils using a lost wax process like that perfected in ancient Greece (in fact, the decoration reminds me of an ornamental chariot). Built-in sheaths hold knives, and there's some kind of strap/holder for his bow. Evidently magical Elven bows don't warp or lose power like human ones do when left strung for long periods of time!

As usual, Galadriel's gifts make everything else look drab. The detailing on Legolas' second elegantly-shaped leather quiver is beautiful. Again, custom knife-sheaths keep knife-handles and arrows within easy reach, so Legolas can quickly switch between distance and hand-to-hand combat. There's a sleeve to hold the strung bow (see slideshow below) so that it will be ready to shoot at a moment's notice. Someone had a sense of humor, decorating this accessory for Middle-Earth's best-dressed archer with a large golden peacock!

Aragorn has a scrappy-looking black leather quiver, hard-sided on the bottom, with a soft leather inner sleeve that's usually pulled up as a rain cover. His bow can be hung on the outside in an emergency or unstrung with the string spiraling around it and tucked into the arrow-case.

Faramir and the Green Company (his Ithilien Rangers) have greenish-grey leather quivers similar to Aragorn's, with inner/outer leather sleeves. A tiny detail on these is a triangular buckle that's a stylized representation of the seven circles of Minas Tirith -- see sketch and notes on Gryphonsmith's Faramir costume page.

The Rohirrim have a simple back quiver (looks like undyed leather, but they never hold still long enough to see it). The Mûmakil-Riders (aka Southrons, Haradrim) have arrow baskets within easy reach on their mobile platform. Lurtz the Uruk-hai has that belt quiver, but most orc archers have back quivers.

That's it for the toys. Now it's time to look at the so-called (by envious cast members) archer-god's form. Go to:

The Boy With the Bow Part II: Stunt Archery in The Lord of the Rings

Got feedback? Comments? Do you know more about archery than I do, and would you like to offer some critique? Go ahead! I don't aim as well as Legolas does, so you should be quite safe!

Pedo, Mellyn! - Speak, Friends!

Mariw on February 27, 2017:

I LOVE Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. I speak Elvish as well. There as two kinds of Elvish. Sindarin is used by the Wood Elves and Quenya is used by the High Elves. I speak them both.

Tanya Jones from Texas USA on May 04, 2014:

Hee, hee. A fellow LOTR fan. Excellent lens. I'll have to pop in more often. Legolas was my heart throb oh so many years ago. ;)

Vantis on December 29, 2013:

Wooow, you made quite a research on this subject. I'm a huge Lord of the Rings fan, and I like Legolas too. Great info, good job. Superb lens.

JLPTodd LM on October 24, 2013:

Great lens!

anonymous on June 13, 2013:

This (and the second part that goes with it) is really a superb article, which I've read to great enjoyment on numerous occasions for several years. It's wonderful to get this kind of perspective from someone who has the knowledge to really understand the kind of craftsmanship that went into world-creation in the LOTR films, as well as recognising the hard-earned skill and fluidity that 'Middle-Earth Boot Camp' instilled in the actors! I know I'll keep reading it again and again as long as it's up here... and if you ever do have time to publish Part III, I'll very much be looking forward to it :0)

jjj1 on April 26, 2013:

An absolutely fantastic lens!!! An ardent Lord of the Rings fan, I've read with great interest. This just shows once again the detail that Peter jackson et al put into making that film - I'd heard before how they set out to give each race its own distinct weaponry and fighting style, and this confirms that.

TanoCalvenoa on April 06, 2013:

Who would win an archery tournament between Legolas and Robin Hood (like the red fox in the Disney movie)?

Tim Bader from Surrey, UK on March 15, 2013:

Like this article on Legolas' bow.

I used to do archery when I was a boy with my dad (fond memories) so it's good to see it in the hands of an elf!

tinw (author) from Middle Earth on March 13, 2013:

@anonymous: Sorry, had comments set to approve automatically and didn't see this question until now! If you look up at the "Quivers" section of this page, I've got a photo of Legolas with his Mirkwood back quiver -- the first one -- that shows the bow tucked in between the quiver and his back. Presumably there's a leather sleeve that ties (or snaps ;) ) around it, like the hand grip you often find around the straps of duffel bags to tie them together. Also, in some photos of the "Peacock" quiver that goes with his Lothlorien bow, you can see a curved leather sleeve of that type that again holds the bow against and slightly under the quiver behind his back. I assume at a slant so it won't bump the horse, but it's a little hard to tell.

These are guesses based on photos I've looked at closely; I can't be sure since I haven't seen those back quivers in person. Good question! :)

anonymous on January 21, 2013:

hi, I loved this article and it was really informative. I was just wondering, how does the bow get strapped to legolas' back and how does it fit when he is riding?

Michelle Hogan on May 29, 2012:

I had no idea of he deail ha wen ino hese weapons, WOW!!!!

anonymous on May 23, 2012:

Legolas is so cool i LOVE him so much and I want to be every thing like him.

katie0 on April 26, 2012:

I love him so much, the same for all this decade and more. Can't never get enough of surfing around looking for him.

RylanPkns on February 20, 2012:

This was interesting >.< I found my new favorite squid lol!

Airyu2011 on February 02, 2012:

I loved the books the movies and of course the Elvish archery!

Great lens

Susanna Duffy from Melbourne Australia on December 29, 2011:

Revisiting this lovely, lovely page on Legolas

anonymous on July 11, 2011:

very interesting! thank you.

anonymous on May 26, 2011:

A very interesting article and a great read, mainly because you have total command of the subject material. I'd like to invite you to our forum:

Hope you stop by!

Treasures By Brenda from Canada on March 05, 2011:

Interesting subject; very well done.

writercb1 from United States on February 21, 2011:

What a kickass article! I absolutely love it! LotR is one of my favorite books, the Elves are amazing, and I have a friend who used to compete in archery contests; he won third place when he was thirteen. I love the amount of detail in your lens, and now I'm off to read part 2!

writercb1 from United States on February 21, 2011:

What a kickass article! I absolutely love it! LotR is one of my favorite books, the Elves are amazing, and I have a friend who used to compete in archery contests; he won third place when he was thirteen. I love the amount of detail in your lens, and now I'm off to read part 2!

spencertr on April 28, 2010:

very interesting lens,thanks

EstherD on April 21, 2010:

I really love the time and effort you've put into this. One of my favorite parts about the movie Legolas is his archery stunts, and I appreciate learning about just how good they really are. After all, he's had several hundred years of practice; he ought to be a decent archer; if he was just an average shot, he wouldn't be very convincing.

lasertek lm on December 13, 2009:

Nice! You say you're an amateur? Bet you're an expert. I like the way you presented the different bow and arrow used by the LOTR characters. Never really gave much attention when I was watching the movie since I was pretty engrossed with the story line. I enjoyed this lens so much.

Rated 5* Hope you could visit my lenses and become a fan of my fb page. Thanks

David Lawrence from United States on November 15, 2009:

Very nice lens! Thanks for sharing all your knowledge on this!

Kiwisoutback from Massachusetts on November 13, 2009:

Well done! Squid Angel blessed.

anonymous on October 15, 2009:

K offically an idiot I went of and read the tell me there the answer to my first question...duh! Sorry : (

anonymous on October 15, 2009:

Haha I meant Galadhrim bow anyway I was trying to find somewhere to purchase a fully functional one, could you tell me if you have any info on the subject.

anonymous on October 15, 2009:

Hey I was wondering if the Mirkwood bow and the bow Galadriel/ Haldir's bow are the same??

grannysage on August 07, 2009:

I confess, I drool over Legolas. You know, he never runs out of arrows! What a wonderful and educational look at a wonderful movie. I give it 5 elf arrows!

Susanna Duffy from Melbourne Australia on July 12, 2009:

Absolutely wonderful. Blessed by an angel today (/my-angel-blessings)

qlcoach on June 21, 2009:

Very entertaining lens. It's enjoyable and fun. You obviously put a lot of work into this. Keep up your great work. Hope you will visit my new lens about emotional healing. Gary Eby, author and therapist.

anonymous on May 11, 2009:

i love your lenses!!!!!!!!!!!!!

anonymous on April 19, 2009:

legolas is the bestttttttttt!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

anonymous on April 16, 2009:

Wow. it's a great site.

dustytoes on March 31, 2009:

This is your models too...!! My son shoots into a big cardboard box in good weather. He only has 2 arrows though and they surely are not as fancy as the ones here. I'll have to show him your spectacular lens!

Mortira on February 26, 2009:

This is a fantastic lens! Five starts and a hearty welcome to the Armchair Critics group!

Adrienne Jenkins on February 17, 2009:

Well deserved top ranking.

Bellezza-Decor from Canada on February 13, 2009:

I'm drooling too. I love archery, but haven't done it in decades. Love medieval tales too for that matter - 5*!

WritingforYourW on February 05, 2009:

Legolas and Aragorn were my favorites in the movies (been too long since I read the books to remember, but probably there too... I was always a sucker for the ranger types in fantasy. :)

Charlyjl on February 05, 2009:

Truly excellent. I love the way you 'dissect' the archery. Gotta say that I drool over the elf, not the archery - but the archery is amazing. Well done

tinw (author) from Middle Earth on February 05, 2009:

[in reply to dc64] I haven't done archery in so long my scars have almost faded out... tsk! But I still love watching the archery in these silly films. And yes, the lad is pretty.

I hope you've found the second lens in this series; I got so distracted with props and gear in this one that I wound up moving the stunts to a separate lens.

dc64 lm on February 03, 2009:

I love archery, and have the burns on my fore-arm to prove it. I keep forgetting my fore-arm guard. Legolas hangs on my daughter's wall (not in person), and even though I'm a bit older (don't ask), I can still appreciate a handsome fellow! Great lens.

iron1 on February 01, 2009:

Good job :)

Treasures By Brenda from Canada on January 29, 2009:

There is more here than I need to know about archery in the LOTR but my sons will love it as many others will! Great job!


Mihaela Vrban from Croatia on January 29, 2009:

This is really fantastic lens!!! Never would have though newbie made it! Way to go girl!

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