Updated date:

Third World Cinema and Cuba's Cultural Revolution

Cuba Revolution Children's Album

Cuba Revolution Children's Album

After World War II, the conflict between western power like the US and the former soviet union was not resolved by sitting at a table until 1960. The world saw that time. The year 1960 was more important because, after the second world war, more new states were born on earth, many of them were rejected, as well as the departure of the colonists, rebellion and revolution for sovereignty. As a result, "Third Worldism" was created. Thus, the country that has not only achieved true freedom, but has found itself in constant discrimination and oppression in the course of history.

The main goal of these countries was to improve the economy after independence. The earth became more isolated in these two categories, east and west. Many problems have become more complex after independence. Political pressure in Cuba, Vietnam, and the Middle East like a dictatorship, foreign diplomatic pressure. The main goal of these countries was to improve the economy after independence. The earth became more isolated in these two categories, east and west. Many problems have become more complex after independence. Political pressure in Cuba, Vietnam and the Middle East, dictatorship, foreign diplomatic pressure. This led to civil war, ethnic conflict, political exploitation.

After the 1960s, people from the radical perspective thought that sovereignty, nationalism, economic development, and reform were not important factors or important for development and security. The militant group believed that the internal problems of the state have been created mainly during the colonial period. The creation of class processes or "Class System" in all management during the colony has led to internal conflicts and social neglect. The solution is to re-create the structure or create a new structure that will play a key role in the socialist movement. Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Mexico have already become manufacturing centers, with industrialization components leading to the entry of the ultimate capital policy of capitalism during that time.

Joris Ivens & Theodor Christensen Revolutionary Cuban Cine group.

Joris Ivens & Theodor Christensen Revolutionary Cuban Cine group.

The need for a new movement in independent countries that believed to destroy a state of inequality and unregulated state management in the era of Post-Independence.


The people of the world were led to promote social change, destroy obstacles, and establish revolution. From 1960 to 1970, this idea became a great friend of political weapons and human rights. Their political acts became the cause of freedom and sovereignty, for the sake of the people, for the oppressed class of people. Most of the Cinema and Film theorists say that, "Cinema became in the mid-1960 as a tool of social change and a weapon of political liberation."


The Marxist-left wing thinkers in western Europe and South America began to criticize the Western government in different ways during that time. They started to comment on Western policies, education policy and institutional policies explicitly. They responded to the economic crisis and the economic situation at that specific time frame ((It is worth noting that the left-wing intellectual, who presented the model for the western eradication model and growth of the Keynesian economic theory in the mid-1960s, said it would bring a massive collapse.) In the 1970s, the main goal of the West was to establish "Illusionary democracy" in all of the countries where the Non-West critics and leftist thinkers had tried to start work with the "Democratic Humanity". Here we found Differences between Non-West Third World and Western Capitalism. Their ultimate interest in creating a system of "constitutional law and justice".The beginning of a new revolution and rebellion in the independent country is the political culture of dissent.

Cuban Cine poster

Cuban Cine poster

"Third World Cinema" theory:

Latin America and Africa first introduced itself to the new form of film known as the "Third World Political Film". The characteristics of this idea are given below:

1.Historical review of the struggle and consciousness of the people. The struggle against monarchy, colonialism, and imperialism should emphasize more.

2.Exile Films, which represent every single person in a society whose roots were cut and exploited. On the other hand, showing the awakening of emotion and love for the motherland and the nation should emphasize.

3.The restoration of the ethnic consciousness and nationalism that we lost during the colonial period by using the elements and theories of ethnic culture.

4. The strategy of highlighting the importance of folk culture, the history of the ancestors, and the struggle and the ethnic diversity of events highlights the importance of nationalism and local identity. That also creates a clear dialogue between the current political body versus individual rights.

5. To embrace the style of our own culture by challenging the dependence on Hollywood's cultural and technical cinema. Also, eliminate class division stake in order to narrow the class conflict - economically and politically.

6. Using a camera in cinematic style in 'real nature' that we call "Realism" cinematic concept which concept is against Hollywood's imaginary and fantasy concept. The force, power, and speed are manifestations of the camera movement and progress technique.

Third World Cinema's Poster

Third World Cinema's Poster

Cuban Cinema: Third World Cinema

After President Batista left in 1959, Fidel Castro brought his guerrilla forces and capture Havana in its possession. After Castro arrived, the land-abuse army and feudal system were deactivated across Cuba. Castro's government therefore nationalized every economic institution and infrastructure. The first act that the Castro government enacted at that time was to establish ICAIC (Cuban Institute of Film Art and Industry) . It became the center of the soul of Cuba to eliminate The Cuban disparities and discrimination. It brought anti-westernization cultural value to defeat their western capitalism and the class system.

The company started making all kinds of films. The government spending was so high that the Production base became the Cuban art and cultural manifestation. Production has grown in size, with a large, more efficient workforce, technical support, and a strong government subsidy.

ICAIC started its journey from 1960 to the documentary project. That is, to create a "New Reality", the people who have changed from fiction to documentary are an intellectual bunch of people. The state's fight with national government policy against Western powers was one of the main themes of filmmakers at this stage. These are called the "New Cuban Documentaries"- such as "Now(1965) " " Hanoi (1967) "

Experimental group from ICAIC

Experimental group from ICAIC

Stock footage, the use of the title, animation, and the sound-taking process have encouraged the people to learn. The Cuban thinking was similar to the soviet thinking of that time and that artistic movement was called "Socialist Realism". Cinematic style, storytelling style, plot and drama writing, dynamics, photo-taking techniques are realistic and certain. Therefore Cuba made a theory to understand the new dimension of humanity against western culture. That is why Cuban cinema is called revolutionary cinema.

The more important theory about Cuba is that it has made political modernity as it is anti-imperialism. This theory enters technical work where modern art and language are used to create their own language and philosophy to promote nationalism. Cuban Thinkers at that moment believed that bring people of the culture of our own nation under the same umbrella. According to Alfredo Guevara, "This culture is capable of publishing where all kinds of business are no longer hidden, in reality, it becomes a cinematic form of human beings.". He showed that European art cinema's camera and technique are based on anti-humanitarian reality and imperial consciousness rather Cuban artistic movement focuses on more human reality and nature with the help of the camera. Camera became for people consciously not for capital fantasy.

Let's look at Elijah's "Death of Bureaucrat" (1966) . . . the film, which is a socialist genre's cinema. The film that presents the complex process of bureaucracy and is ridiculed for its system. Director pointed out that the bureaucratic problem creates for its own systematic construction and that's why we have to face political and social problems. Meanwhile, in "The Charge of Machete" Gomez brings up the historical struggle and brings a huge prize to the nation. The film then became a tool for anti-discrimination. Cuban directors immediately realized that Hollywood, what they call "imperfect Cinema", that imperfect cinema is a great tool for freedom and emancipation. It refers to mark the popular narratives, identifies the problems, and teaches people to feel the urge to reform the society and culture against the establishment of capitalist disparities."

"Death of Bureaucrat" Cinema's part

"Death of Bureaucrat" Cinema's part

It was with Memories that Alea was able to cement his status as one of Cuba’s most valuable cineastes. His antecedent to Memories, the hilarious Death of a Bureaucrat (1966), is a Kafkaesque comedy about a man who faces inexhaustible red tape after discovering his dead uncle was buried with his union card and his aunt cannot collect the pension. The film combines the absurdist slapstick of the Marx brothers with the witty and critical playfulness of a Jacques Tati, struggling to keep up with a world in flux. Considered to be the first classic post-revolution film, Death of a Bureaucrat may not employ as intricate ideas as Memories, but it certainly does not shy away from sharp critical reflection.

At that moment, soviet modernist techniques were found to access into Cuban cinematic narrative. Soviet Montage is called the "third new power" in combination with two shots or two different styles, which has a greater influence on cinematography, editing, and designing. Cuba tried to make its propaganda film with these formulas. For example, Gomez's "Days of Water" is very important. Here, the montage was used to make geographical differences and confirm their position. This process had expanded the anti-Americanisation theory and present the scene of the massacre. The battleship Potemkin was presented in the same way against the Tzar system and it caused the fall of the authoritarian government.

By mid-1970, Cuban cinema was presented as revolutionary theory around the world. The movie Novos Group had found great success in the elite categorical people. From 1972 to 1975, the popular film was produced in Cuba. Directors had created police thriller "The Strange Case of Rachel(1973) " and the Western Public" "The Man from Maisinicu (1973)" The films discovered new ideas therefore Cuba was heading towards new-age of movies.

Cuban cinema is revolutionary by its very own nature; these filmmakers’ political courage, their sense of beauty and creativity is partly indebted to the Cuban revolution, which allowed the conditions for such cinema to flourish.

Related Articles