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The Epic Tale of the Singkil Dance


Singkil (originally Sayao sa Kasingkil) is often erroneously considered a traditional Muslim dance, as it is a dance of the Maranao ('people of the lake')—a Malay Muslim or Moro ethnic group who inhabit the shores of Lake Lanao in Mindanao, Southern Philippines. But the Singkíl is in fact secular, performed by the Ummah communities of the Maranao and Maguindanao, but has roots in pre-Islamic Mindanao, and is regarded as the most golden Filipino dance.

The Singkil is danced with fans and bamboo poles, and is an expression of grace delicately balanced within danger, as the dancers must step nimbly between moving bamboo poles that could trip them up or crush their ankles with a single mistake. It is named after the heavy leg bracelets or anklets of silver, nickel, or brass with chiming bells of the same name worn on the ankles of the Maranao princess. But it is also the act of voluntarily or accidentally entangling one’s feet in either vines or tall grass because singkil literally means 'to twist the feet with disturbing objects.'

Originally, Singkil is performed as a ritual for festivals and ceremonial rites of passage by the Maranao prince and princess to define their courting. But since it is considered taboo for Muslim men and women to dance together, especially for royalty; it became that only women—particularly of noble blood, danced the Singkíl. It is to present her eligibility in a conscious or unconscious advertisement to potential suitors for her future marriage while displaying the agility of the young girl turning into a woman with every step.

Singkil Anklets

Singkil Anklets

Initially, the dance was performed with just one pair of bamboo poles, but eventually adopted the use of more teams, arranged in either crisscross, parallel or rectangular fashion. Additional sets were added in later adaptations to build more thrill and heighten excitement. Another notable variation from the original is its inclusion of male dancers as pole clappers.

For the music, the musicians match the tempo of the clapping bamboo with kulintang (an ancient musical instrumental composed on a row of small, horizontally laid gongs) and Agung(a set of two wide-rimmed, vertically suspended gongs). These instruments are forged in either brass or bronze and tuned to each other, and cannot be separated or mixed with different ensembles.


The modern version of this dance is divided into four movements:

  1. The first movement is called asik, where the maidservant with an umbrella is introduced which usually precedes the performance of Singkil. Asik means "agitated, or to leap for joy or anger" in the Maranao dialect. It is a solo dance performed by the umbrella-bearing attendant (some scholars list her role as ‘slave’) to win the favor of her sultan master.
  2. The second movement is the entrance of the princess, heralded by the chimes and gongs, resplendent in dazzling golds, sapphires, and other jewel tones. The princess’ manservants carry her in a litter or sedan chair (depending on the capability and resources of the dance company) in a solemn procession. Upon her ankles, the small bells mark to count her movements. Usually, her entourage of ladies-in-waiting precedes her, carrying either scarf, fans, or decorative umbrellas, and flourishing their measured movements while keeping dignified expressions on their faces. After that is the arrival of the prince—a suitor courting the princess who dances opposite her, bearing a kris (a Malay-Indonesian dagger with a wavy-edged blade) and shield.
  3. The third movement is called patay (meaning 'dead'), which is a slow section. It is a structural dance convention often found in Western performances.
  4. And the fourth movement is the climax, in which all dancers dance to the crescendo of the music while the speed of the bamboo poles between which closures they skillfully navigate quickens the pace. Performers would therefore gracefully step in and out of clapping bamboo poles, while the main lady attendant dutifully follows her mistress wherever she goes. The dance ends with the princess going home with the prince.

Costume and Props

The Singkil costumes are among the most colorful and intricate Maranao attires, with some Arab influences.

The Prince

It consists of a colorful long silk shirt adorned with metallic golden threads, matching long pants with similar decorations, an enormous metal necklace, and a knotted cap decorated with exquisite gold embroidery. His props include a shield made from wood, covered with thin brass plates, and decorated with Maranao ornamentation. He also carries a native sword called kris (also known as keris or kalis)—a highly spiritual blade filled with mythology in many cultures in Southeast Asia. It is believed to contain a spirit and is capable of warding off or defeating evil entities. The kris is also believed to protect homes and was passed down as heirlooms. Only those with royal blood can possess this magical weapon, except for the spiritual leaders like the babaylan.

The Princess

The lead female dancer graciously manipulates either a couple of fans called Apir (meaning 'to clap') made from bamboo and decorated with beautiful appliques, scarves, or just her bare hands. She is wearing a unique interpretation of the traditional outfit worn by a Moro princess made from silk or cotton. These garments are ornate and decorated with metallic threads embroidery, sequins, pearls, and long beads. She also has intricate jewelry, resembling gold and other precious stones, and wears colorful Arab pointed shoes. Her headdress is a work of art as well. It is made of silk and brass, decorated with tassels and dangling beads.

The Maidservant

The princess is accompanied by a lady-in-waiting called mag-asik, who holds a beautifully decorated ceremonial silk umbrella over the princess’ head wherever she goes. It is called payong-a-diakatan, and embellished with the traditional Maranao embroidery patterns and adorned with either old coin dangles or tassels. Her clothing consists of a long loose cotton dress adorned with beading and appliques, and a kind of sash called malong—the most common dress of the Maranao people. As this is a slave girl, she doesn’t wear shoes.

A favorite choice for National Costume by Filipino Beauty Pageant contestants.

A favorite choice for National Costume by Filipino Beauty Pageant contestants.

The Totem Bird

Almost all dance groups performing Singkil incorporate the mythical bird called Sarimanok, topping either the umbrella or the princess' headgear or crown. It is a symbol of wealth, prosperity, good fortune, and unity; usually portrayed with a fish hanging from its beak. The Sarimanok is a very important cultural symbol for the Maranaos and a common traditional motif used especially in royal occasions such as enthronement, weddings, or kalilang (feasts). It is usually made of brass or wood-carving, found in art, architectural designs, textile patterns, or part of embellishment in Maranao territories. But some insist that a princess dares to wear a sarimanok headdress.

The Sarimanok is derived from the totem bird of the Maranaos called Itotoro, a medium to the spirit world via its unseen twin spirit bird called Inikadowa, thus bridging the worlds of the seen and the unseen and invoked through rituals. Although figurative art displaying humans and animals is frowned upon by Muslims, it is sometimes also based on a later Islamic legend that says the Prophet Muhammad found a rooster in the first of the seven heavens, so large that its crest touched the second heaven.

The name Sarimanok comes from sari (meaning 'varied or assorted'), a Hindu cloth or garment made up of different colors, and manok, the Tagalog word for 'fowl' or 'chicken'. The colors of the Sarimanok are meaningful as well. The head consists of a crown that holds the colors of the Philippine flag, while the face is colored white to represent purity. Later on, the neck or tail has eight feathers to symbolize the first Tagalog provinces that rose against Spanish colonial rule, as with the eight sun rays in the Philippine flag.


Bayanihan Dance Company

When the Bayanihan Dance Company began performing the Singkíl in the mid-1950s, it became a popularized Philippine folk dance and was branded as the 'Princess Dance' or the 'Royal Maranao Fan Dance'. The Bayanihan version re-tells the Singkil conveyed with Western aesthetics, and performed for audiences around the world—even for Ed Sullivan, to much acclaim.

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It was researched, interpreted, and staged by the Bayanihan’s dance director Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula, who went on to be named a National Artist of the Philippines for dance in 1988; together with Henrietta "Ele" Hoffer (a choreographer of Maranao, German and Dutch descent, and founder of the Darangen Cultural Ensemble) who became the Singkil dancer in dance groups of the Philippine Women's University.

According to Hoffer, one of the original dancers of Singkil was Princess Tarhata Alonto-Lucman (the first Muslim lady governor of Lanao del Sur, who broke royal Muslim traditions by marrying the man of her choice, a staunch critic of the Marcos regime during the Martial Law Dictatorship, and eventually became a leading light for her fellow Muslims) who artfully twirled three fans for each hand.

The Bayanihan in its mission statement makes no secret of the fact that the historical folk dances they present are reinterpreted and restaged for contemporary audiences.

Bayanihan has both to remain constant and to change and adapt. It has to remain constant and true to its mission of showcasing the best of Philippine culture and artistry. But it has to do this by making the changes needed to meet the preference, expectations, and requirements of an audience of a different century, an audience nurtured in high technology and the information age.

— Helena Benitez, founder of Bayanihan Dance Company

Bayanihan Singkil Evolution (from top to bottom, left to right); colorized picture in1958, their earlier version of Singkil, and black and white in 1977.

Bayanihan Singkil Evolution (from top to bottom, left to right); colorized picture in1958, their earlier version of Singkil, and black and white in 1977.

Singkil is truly one of Bayanihan's signature dances derived from the Maranao. In this rendering, the prince has a contingent of male warriors/assistants, counterparts of the princess' court ladies that serve as background fan dancers who stimulate the waves of the sea in their movements.

The inclusion of fans is allegedly an incursion from a fan dance of a different Muslim group—the Daling-daling dance from the Tausug of Sulu. It is also mixed with the Kini-Kini scarf dance based on the Maranao royal walk, representing their sophisticated women, with walking movements and shapes that are very articulate. Their scarves represent their fluidity and grace—a characteristic of their good education. All these different elements have been incorporated into the Bayanihan Singkil which is now the more recognized, iconic, and popular; with the original Singkil being far less known in comparison.

The Bayanihan portrayal became so popular that it is often mistaken for the authentic version of the dance, now replicated by innumerable dance companies and Filipino student groups around the world, believing in its authenticity. Pilipino Cultural Night festivities held by foreign-based student groups and other theatrical dance companies have modernized this dance, resulting in unorthodox portrayals of the Singkíl by even the most esteemed of Philippine folk dance choreographers.

Some dance companies have even fused the Singkíl with ballet, and artistic directors argue that there is a need to enhance common steps to visually stimulate audiences. What was an "invented tradition", has now, over time, obtained the status of national culture as the youth in schools (from elementary to college levels) have consistently performed this dance over the last few decades, especially during Buwan ng Wika (a month-long countrywide celebration of the Philippine National Language and Culture).

Other Renditions

But there are several interpretations of the Singkil. (The video above showcases several Filipino folk dances and the Singkil starts at 14:00.)

Filipino dancer, choreographer, stage designer, artistic director, and National Artist of the Philippines for Dance in 2006—Ramon Obusan, studied the Maranao folk dances and used his findings in presenting the folk dances close to their original form in his Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group. In his version, it is interpreted as a wedding dance performed with a brief ritual at the beginning.

The Singkil of the Philippine Baranggay Folk Dance Troupe, on the other hand, portrays a prince dancing with scarves instead of a sword and shield. It was based on Francisca Reyes-Aquino's research—who was considered the mother of Filipino folk dances, whose life and work were celebrated in Google's daily Doodle on March 9, 2019.

In Pop Culture

The Singkíl was also performed in the 2001 American independent film The Debut. The movie was directed by Filipino American filmmaker Gene Cajayon and starred Dante Basco, capturing the essence of Filipino traditions and blending these with modern American culture.

A play by Catherine Hernandez titled Singkil was published by Playwrights Canada Press in 2009 and tells a story of a Filipino family migrating to Canada, with the Filipino folk dance bridging their past and present.

Singkil concept art by Isaiah Santos

Singkil concept art by Isaiah Santos

The Epic

The Singkil was set into a storyline based on an episode of the Darangen (also spelled as Darangan), an epic poem written before the coming of Islam to the Philippine islands in the 14th century. It is the unique Maranao interpretation of the ancient Indian epic Ramayana, connecting it to earlier Sanskrit traditions and indicating the dance’s Hindu spiritual origin.

Darangen is considered to be the longest-surviving epic poetry in the Philippines. Each cycle pertains to a different self-contained story, but they are all connected sequentially. Its importance was first recognized by Frank Charles Laubach, an American missionary and teacher then living in the Lanao Province who first encountered it in February 1930 on a return trip to Lanao by boat and heard it sang (incompletely) by two Maranao leaders on the two-day journey. The Darangen is meant to be narrated by singing or chanting because it is derived from the verb darang, which means 'that which is narrated by song or chant' in Maranao.

Although the Darangen touches on topics such as social values, customary law, courtship, politics, and others; it also recounts the history of the Maranao as well as their folktales, myths, and feats through symbols, metaphor, irony, and satire. The epic also illuminates the inter-ethnic relationships of the Maranao people by mentioning the Manobo (referred to as the mountain-dwellers), and the Sama-Bajau (the sea gypsies/nomads) many times.

Sung in its original form, the Darangen possessed a sustained beauty and dignity, and it might be studied for its aesthetic values alone. A full performance of the entire epic usually takes about a week to recite the twenty-five beautiful chapters. In modern times, however, it is more common to only perform parts of the epic, which usually lasts for several hours, depending on the part being performed. The omitted parts are usually those that broach non-Islamic themes that mention ancestral and natural spirits because some Maranao Islamic religious leaders object to it; resulting in modern revisions and singers refusing to sing these older versions as they are deemed inauthentic.

Select parts are memorized and performed by male and female singers known as onor during weddings called kawing and other traditional nighttime celebrations, usually accompanied by music from kulintang-gong ensembles, tambor drums, and kudyapi stringed instruments. It is also traditionally accompanied by several dances (including the Singkil) each interpreting specific episodes of the epic. But it can also be used as a lullaby for children.

The use of archaic Maranao in the Darangen makes it less readily accessible to modern Maranao speakers, leading to a decreasing interest among modern Maranao youth. Some versions are so old that only the chanters can understand the words being used.

In 2002, the Darangen was declared a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines by the National Museum and a Provincial Treasure by the Lanao del Sur provincial government. The Darangen epic was also proclaimed a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 by UNESCO.

Darangen tells of the sentimental and romantic adventures of noble warriors. The heroes in the epic worship and interact with various ancestors and guardian spirits called tonong and nature spirits or minor deities called diwata; thus detailing the traditional pre-Islamic anito religions of the Maranao.

The Darangen features several locales, but the principal setting is the grand city of Bembaran (also spelled Bumbaran or Bembran). The seat of the Kingdom of Bembaran was described as being near a great river, but it supposedly does not exist anymore as it was enchanted and sank to the bottom of the sea. According to one source, this ideal mythological kingdom comes to an end with the final episode of Darangen recounting Bembaran's fall.

It describes how a Muslim missionary, famous in all of Sulu and Mindanao named Sharief Awlis, visited Bembaran and taught the Islamic faith. The people there refused to accept the religion, so Allah became angry and destroyed the kingdom with a great fire. A man named Butuanen Karinan—who barely escaped, is thought to be the direct ancestor of the Maranao people.

Prince Bantugan

In the epic, Bembaran is described as being founded by the grandfather of the notable warrior prince called Bantugan. Prince Bantugan (whose name means 'famous') was the younger brother of the chieftain of the empire. It is said that while the chief won many battles, Bantugan won many hearts; for the younger brother is not only a marvelous fighter but also very handsome and popular. His popularity later makes the older brother jealous.

Bantugan owned a magical shield, protected by divine spirits, and was capable of rising from the dead. One time, his enemies attacked Bembaran, thinking he was dead. But in the nick of time, Bantugan’s soul was recovered and he saved the city. There is also an episode where Prince Bantugan was on a quest and fought his enemies with his kampilan (a large single-edged sword). Soon, he got tired and fell into the water where a crocodile delivered him to his enemies. But he regained his strength, escaped his captors, commands an oarless ship, and won the battle.

I can relate to the story of Bantugen so easily because the story revolves around feelings. Like the king who has a longing for somebody, but Bantugen also is attractive to that woman. It’s very human in contrast to some of the scenes that I read that are quite unbelievable; like Bantugen fighting with the sun, riding the sun, fighting the rain, or beating the earthquakes. But I think that is how they sensationalize the greatness of Bantugan.

— Gener Caringal, artistic director and choreographer of the Philippine Ballet Theater

Putri Gandingan

There were also Darangen epic poetries that related stories of wars about abducted princesses, leading some to compare it to the chronicles of the Trojan War.

The Singkil narrates a scene in which an initially unnamed princess was rescued and wooed by Bantugan. Lines 718 - 887 of the 6th cycle of the Darangen epic titled: Paramata Gandingan, deals with the courtship of Putri Gandingan of Komara by Paramata Bantugan of Bembaran. (Putri means princess or daughter, and paramata denotes something of fine quality or easy on the eyes, while a gandingan is also a Philippine set of four large, hanging gongs used by the Maguindanao people as part of their kulintang ensemble; because in the story, the princess is also quite talented in playing this musical instrument.)

Putri Gandingan by Katrina Pallon

Putri Gandingan by Katrina Pallon


One day, Prince Bantugan strolled on the shoreline of a mystical place called Inantara Legawan (which means 'in between' or 'betwixt') and wondered at the brilliant rays glinting off from a mountain and decided to go over there. He then sees a beautiful woman whom he first thought was a lomiao (demon). Although he can tell that she looks like someone of royal blood. When asked why she was there alone on the mysterious mountain, she claims she does not know and refused to give her name.

Throughout their lovely conversation, each began to admire the other until both were finally at ease and found pleasure in their meeting on the isolated rock. With exemplary conduct and refined royal upbringing, the prince convinces her to marry and be with him in his kingdom in Bembaran. The lady declined because it would be degrading.

Trying to win her trust, the chivalrous Prince assured her that if she decided to go with him, she would be with his sister in their magnificent tower called lamin atop the colossal palace; where they are home-schooled and taught everything that royals should know of—art, culture, social graces, and public-speaking among other things. Up in the tower, they are protected from the public's eyes, but they are kept abreast of everything by only their tutors. (The lamin is like a one-way mirror that shields them from being seen and the origins of the modern Filipino word for a mirror—salamin. This means that they are only visible on their terms because Maranaos put their women on a pedestal, both literally and figuratively.)

The princess weighed in on her predicament and finally consented. But Bantugan's brother, the king, opposed the engagement because she was homeless and poor. But also because her origins are still a mystery—an important requirement in a royal marriage. Still, they got married in secret with the help of Bantugan's cousins and the approval of all the high datus, except the king. She proves her high royal status by making refined clothes for Bantugan as a dowry and eventually had a son together.

When the son came of age, his mother divulged the truth about her background. She said her name was Putri Gandingan, her homeland was a wealthy and powerful kingdom where her brother was king. It had tributary domains and its warriors were respected and feared. But on her coronation day when she was engaged to be married to another prince, a powerful storm came and darkness engulfed the entire kingdom.

It was revealed in the epic that the tonong (guardian spirit) of Bantugan called Mango'aw, gate-crashed the wedding and took Gandingan away to the whimsical mountain, believing that the two are more suited for each other because they were equally matched in beauty, and wealth, rank, and grace.

Storytelling and Symbolism

There are several variants of the story on which the Singkil dance was based on.


It tells the fateful story of a princess accompanied only by her loyal maid-servant, who gets caught up in a forest during a terrible earthquake organized by the diwatas. A Maranao prince named Bantugan, who is noted for his amorous exploits, is finally captivated by the lovely princess whom he pursues in courtship, and was amazed by her ability to dodge large rocks.

But the diwatas that hover over the forests also beset his path with difficulties to punish Bantugan for his erstwhile philanderings; causing heaving of the earth and clashing of rocks which also causes the trees of the forest to topple around Gandingan, blocking her from the prince. He has to maneuver these obstacles that further hinder the pursuit of the princess.

For this reason, Kasingkil refers to the art of moving one’s feet in and out of two clicking bamboo poles that represent the evil forces that the two main characters had to overcome. The bamboo poles signify the fallen trees or the large protruding rocks the prince and princess (together with her slave girl) avoided smoothly, while the fans or scarves imitate the strong winds. The finale is when the prince eventually came to the princess’ rescue.


In another version, Putri Gandingan (named Sita in the Ramayana) escapes her abductor, the demon king Lawana (Ravana, the ten-headed king of the rakshasas), and is lost in the forests of Alangka ( the Kingdom of Lanka in the original). Thereupon being found by Prince Batugan (the role of Rama).

An interesting note is that in the original Ramayana epic, Rama selects Hanuman—the Hindu monkey god, to find Sita on his behalf. The fact that in the Darangen and Singkil, it is Rama (Bantugan) who finds her suggests a modification of the original Hindu aspects of the narration to conform with monotheistic Islamic ideology.

Filipino Indologist Juan Francisco, who translated another Maranao retelling of the Ramayana epic called Maharadia Lawana (narrating the adventures of the monkey-king, whom the gods have gifted with immortality) believed that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines sometime between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India. By the time it was documented later, the names of characters, places, and precise episodes and events already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana. He believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao and that upon reaching the Philippines, the story was further indigenized to suit local cultural perspectives and orientations.

Hinduism in the Philippines

Before the arrival of the new religions, the islands now comprising the Philippines were part of Hindu empires based in Java and other islands. Influences from the Indian subcontinent may be traced earlier before the arrival of the Arabs and the Europeans during the 1400s and 1500s, respectively. As evidence, the rulers of many of the islands in the Philippines were called rajas/rajahs—a Hindu title. The central region, Visayas, is said to be named after the last Southeast Hindu Prince, Srivijaya.

Hinduism was deterred by the spread of Christianity by the Spaniards and the spread of Islam by Indonesians and Malay missionaries before that. Ancient statues of the Hindu gods were hidden to prevent their destruction by a religion that destroyed all idols. A 4-pound gold statue of an Indo-Malayan goddess dubbed the Golden Tara of Agusan was found in Mindanao in 1917, which now sits in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and is dated from the period between the 1200s to the early 1300s. Another gold artifact of Garuda, the bird-like mount of Vishnu was found in Palawan, as well as those believed to be depicting Kinnari (part-human, part-bird creatures in Hindu-Buddhist mythology) found in Surigao and a clay medallion of Ganesha found in Mactan, Cebu by Henry Otley-Beyer in 1921.

Although Hinduism is now a minority in the country, Hindu beliefs still pervade the national psyche and it is socially and culturally ingrained in the majority of Filipinos today.

Maranao Legacy

The Maranaos have a reputation for holding to the highest degree of prestige, pride, and honor. They value self-dignity highly and fear being shamed as very much evident in the meeting of Princess Gandingan and Prince Bantugan in the story.

What distinguishes them from other indigenous groups in the Philippines is their intricate craftsmanship in metal, and are known for creating colorful sets of jewelry and clothing out of dyed pineapple and banana fibers which are showcased in their traditional dances.

Although the tradition of the Maranaos has pre-Islamic elements, it is combined with the tenets of Islam. But this type of adaptation or repurposing of new belief systems to native ones is not a new phenomenon, and also happens in Philippine culture as a whole concerning Catholicism and ancestor worship. Both the dance and the stories they are based on are art forms that serve a great deal in preserving the Maranao culture.

However, while the dances are performed, the audiences remain unaware of the stories they came from. Furthermore, younger audiences are more familiar with the dances than with the stories because the study of Maranao literature is dependent on the teacher’s discretion in teaching Philippine literature. While the study is very selective and tends to focus on the most popular stories which mostly retained their form, the folk dances are diluted and deformed.

Islamic Culture

Mindanao is a cultural melting pot. Although it carries a strong flavor from other lands before it became a breeding ground for foreign trade. Aside from the colorful contributions of its regional tribes, Mindanao is also home to the largest cultural minority in the Philippines today— the Muslims.

Brought by Javanese and Middle-Eastern traders, Islam is the religion of approximately 20 percent of the country's population, and Filipino Muslims have faced a history of oppression and prejudice in the predominantly Catholic Philippines. The Muslims in the Philippines—also known as Moros, were able to resist Spanish conquest and preserved the Islamic lifestyle that differs from the majority of the Philippine population. They are known for their mysticism, royalty, and beauty which are evident in their music and dances, marked by intricate hand and arm motion along with shimmering costumes, characterized by vivid colors and rhythmic movements which reflect the influence of Arabian and Indo-Malaysian cultures.

But issues about Mindanao have always been cast along the lines of war, underdevelopment, kidnapping, and lately, terrorism. The battle against the militant group Islamic State destroyed some of the foundational texts of the Maranao people, including family genealogies, religious texts, literature, and cultural heirlooms such as the Darangen epic when these insurgents occupied the city of Marawi in 2017 in a five-month battle that displaced hundreds of thousands of people and caused damages worth billions.

The keepers of these manuscripts are also put at risk because some of the contents are a more moderate and fluid interpretation of Islam. Although the loss was more subtle compared to the destructions caused by the Islamic State in other parts of the world, it is still profoundly felt. But even before the militants stormed into Marawi, strict Islamic scholars and followers (usually educated in Saudi Arabia), scorned folkloric practices and even encouraged the destruction of the ancient Maranao texts.


  • PARAMATA-GANDINGAN, Iranaoan royal website Ontay &
  • Sayaw Pilipino: A study of Contrasting Representations of Philippine Culture by the Ramon Obusan Folklore Group and the Bayanihan Philippine National Folkdance Company by Kinami Namiki (2007)
  • The Metamorphosis of Selected Maranao Stories into Dances by Jiamila E. Panaraag and Geldolin L. Inte
  • Trying to Save the Stories of a Philippine Culture, One Scan at a Time by Regine Cabato,
  • Roots of the Singkil; a Traditional Filipino Muslim Dance,
  • Of the Sarimanok Costume,
  • Mindanao Moro and Tapestry, Muslim Philippines,
  • About Philippine Epics and Folklores,
  • Knowing the Maranao,
  • Muslim Mindanao Dances,
  • In Focus: Dancing Darangen: The Way to the Maranao Epic,

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