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Music in Gaston Leroux’s “The Phantom of the Opera”

The Managers’ Farewell Gala – Chapter 2

The Funeral March of a Marionette, Charles Gounod – This has been a perennial favorite with horror fans, particularly since it was used as the opening music for Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Gounod originally intended for the composition to be a piano solo; but I think we’re all grateful he changed it to a full orchestral work – it wouldn’t be half so creepy if it was played on piano.

Overture to Sigurd, Ernest Reyer – The opera Sigurd was a sort of precursor to Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen. Reyer made the mistake, however, of not having his work staged until 1884, nearly twenty years after it was completed and fifteen years after the premiere of Wagner’s Ring. Consequently, Sigurd has almost always been overlooked. Selections from the work were performed intermittently before the premiere. Sigurd was surprisingly successful for several decades before dropping into obscurity.

Danse Macabre and Rêverie Orientale, Camille Saint-Saëns - Everybody knows Danse Macabre (Saint-Saëns Op. 40). This is one of the most popular pieces of Classical music ever written. However, it was a total flop at its premiere in 1874 because the audience was too creeped-out by its dissonance. It is unlikely Danse Macabre would really have been played at a prestigious gala; however, Leroux most likely included this as it fits in with the theme of Erik being described as a “living corpse”.

Lon Chaney in the 1925 film version of "The Phantom of the Opera"

Lon Chaney in the 1925 film version of "The Phantom of the Opera"

If you attempt to research Saint-Saëns’ Rêverie Orientale, you will very likely come up with NOTHING. In and of itself, the Rêverie Orientale no longer exists: what Leroux describes in the novel was an 1875 composition which Saint-Saëns later reworked as the theme for his Op. 60, the Suite Algérienne. This is the closest we can now come to hearing the original. It doesn’t exactly have a horror movie sound, but it’s exotic and seems appropriate with Erik’s connection to the Orient.

Marche Hongroise Indèit, Jules Massenet – This one is pretty hard to track down. The title translates to “Hungarian March Unpublished” and it is most likely part of Massenet’s obscure Scènes Hongroise. However, it is also possible that Leroux at some point attended a concert which included a previously unperformed (and still unknown) march by Massenet.

Carnaval, Ernest Guiraud – The Carnaval Leroux refers to is the ballet from Guiraud’s 1876 opera Piccolino. And talk about plagiarizing yourself! – Guiraud “recycled” this tune from one of his earlier orchestral works.

Guiraud never gained much recognition as a composer. However, he was a well-known figure around the Paris theaters since he was nearly always called in to finish operas left incomplete by the untimely deaths of more lauded composers (e.g. Guiraud put the finishing touches on Bizet’s Carmen)

Pizzicati from Coppèlia and Valse Lente from Sylvia, Lèo Delibes – Unless I am terribly mistaken, Leroux made a little error when listing Lèo Delibes’ contributions to the managers’ farewell gala: There is indeed a Valse Lente (Slow Waltz) in the ballet Sylvia, but there is not a Pizzicati in Coppèlia. I think Leroux (or his editor) accidentally got the two reversed and meant to say that the Valse Lente from Act I of Coppèlia and the Pizzicati from Act III of Sylvia were performed at the gala.

Mercé, Dilette Amiche from I Vespri Sciliani, Giuseppe Verdi – In the novel, Leroux refers to this aria as the “bolero”. This is a notoriously difficult piece of music, due in no small part to the fact that it isn’t sung until Act V of the opera! The soprano, after undergoing several hours of operatic trauma, sings this aria when she briefly believes she will live happily-ever-after. But, alas, the opera isn’t over yet…

Gaston Leroux does not let Christine Daaè sing this song, but rather lists the performer as Marie Gabrielle Krauss (1842-1904), an Austrian soprano who would have been at her peak during the time the novel is set in. Leroux was not demeaning Daaè’s vocal ability: the soprano role in Verdi’s opera calls for a much heavier voice than Christine (or Carlotta) would have had.

Drinking Song from Lucrezia Borgia, Gaetano Donizetti – Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia was never successful and is now rarely performed. However, the brindisi or drinking song from Act III has always been a popular showpiece for mezzo-sopranos.

Adelina Patti and Giovanni Mario playing the lead roles in Faust during an 1864 production

Adelina Patti and Giovanni Mario playing the lead roles in Faust during an 1864 production


Nothing is more important to The Phantom of the Opera than Gounod’s Faust. A lot of people think this is because there are some sort of weird occult undertones to the novel. However, the real reason is that there is nothing more appropriate than to have a bunch of opera singers in France during the late 19th century performing what, at the time, was the most popular French opera ever written (Bizet’s Carmen was still considered a bit too seedy by most audiences).

Because Faust is performed several times throughout The Phantom of the Opera, pretty much all of the music is discussed; for example, Chapter 8 makes reference to the rather odd drinking song Vin ou Bière, as well as to the fact that Marguerite has only about four lines when she makes her entrance in Act II and has to wait until after the intermission for her part to really get started. However, the most lauded Phantom/Faust connection is the Act V trio Anges Purs, Anges Radieux, which Christine sings at the managers’ gala and wows the world. She is also singing this in Chapter 14 when she is kidnapped onstage by the Phantom. And, of course, Carlotta’s famous “croak” takes place in the middle of the Act III love scene.

Other Operas

La Juive – In Chapter 12, Christine scares Raoul to death by disappearing and “renewing her triumph” without the help of Erik by singing Halvey’s La Juive. Although it was immensely popular during the 19th century, the work has now been completely forgotten except for the soprano aria Il Va Venir.

Le Prophète – It is not surprising Leroux makes no reference to the music from Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète, but rather only to the “white horse” which Erik uses to help convey Christine down to his lair for the first time. Le Prophète is a terrible work (a roller-skating ballet in Act III?!?) which has easily been forgotten. However, a white horse is needed for the coronation scene in Act IV and provides a wonderful plot device in Leroux’s novel.

Otello – Verdi’s Otello is made reference to in Chapter 13 and is usually overlooked. But however brief it may be, it is chilling: Before the unmasking scene, Christine and Erik sing the Act III duet, Esterrefatta Fisso lo Sguardo Tuo Tremendo, which appropriately translates to “I am shocked by your dreadful look”.

When Erik kidnaps Christine the first time, he confesses he deceived her by saying he was the Angel of Music. The only way he keeps her from going is by singing “Desdemona’s love song” from Otello. Desdemona does not have an aria until the end of the opera and it is far from romantic. Most likely what Leroux is referring to is her part in the Act III ensemble when she sings “Se inconscia, contro the, sposo, ho peccato” or “If unconscious, against you, husband, I have sinned”.

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Roméo et Juliette – Before singing Faust at the managers’ gala, Christine sings “a few passages from Gounod’s Roméo et Juliette”. Leroux makes another reference which specifies that one of these passages was final duet as the lovers are dying. She also more than likely sang the Act I aria Je veux vivre, as the optional aria in Act IV would have been too heavy for her voice type.

In Chapter 10, Erik also uses Roméo et Juliette to lure a half-willing Christine away from the masked ball by singing the duet from the wedding night.

Le Roi de Lahore – Although this opera made Jules Massenet a star, it is now a completely forgotten work. In Chapter 1 of The Phantom of the Opera, Joseph Buquet’s body is found hanging from the scenery for Le Roi de Lahore. However, like the entire story, there is much more to this than meets the eye:

Le Roi de Lahore or “The King of Lahore” is a melodramatic tale built out of forbidden love, supernatural beings, and hidden trapdoors. If that on its own doesn’t sound like a Phantom allegory, get this: Lahore is the capital of PUNJAB, Pakistan!

The Resurrection of Lazarus by Giovanni di Paolo

The Resurrection of Lazarus by Giovanni di Paolo

The Resurrection of Lazarus

The Resurrection of Lazarus is almost as important in The Phantom as Faust. The only problem is that no one has any idea what Leroux is talking about. Since every other piece of music in the novel is traceable, it seems unlikely Leroux would have made this one up as a plot device. Franz Schubert’s unfinished cantata Lazarus, or the Celebration of the Resurrection (D. 689) has been presented as a possibility. However this seems unlikely for several reasons:

1. The police report in Chapter 6 as well as Christine’s description in Chapter 13 makes reference to Jesus calling Lazarus from the tomb. Jesus does not play an active role in Schubert’s work

2. Nearly every other piece of music discussed in The Phantom of the Opera was written by a French composer. It seems unlikely Leroux would have departed from this unwritten rule to dredge up an unknown work by an Austrian.

3. If The Resurrection of Lazarus was not written by a Frenchman, it is more likely it was written by some unknown Scandinavian composer. Come to think of it, The Resurrection of Lazarus is really known only by Christine and Raoul, and this because they heard it played by Daddy Daaé. Erik knows it, but he is a musical genius who traveled all over the world. Now, it would probably take both a trip around the world and a séance to figure out what Leroux had in mind.


Deborah Minter from U.S, California on July 04, 2017:

Wonderful article. I've always wanted to hear romeo and Juliet wedding night duet, but I've never been able to find it.... Enjoyable read.

LastRoseofSummer2 (author) from Arizona on October 24, 2013:

Twilight Lawns - I have seen parts of that version of "La Fille du Regiment" and all of "The Barber". Obviously, Florez was the main draw on that production, but I was equally amazed by Ruggero Raimondi! He was quite an old man at that point and was still singing unbelievably! I have a recording of "Rigoletto" that was probably one of Raimondi's first projects. He sang Monterone - not a very prestigious role, but MAN did that great booming voice of his work on the Curse from Act I! I love that recording of "Rigoletto"! MacNeil, Grist, Gedda, and Raimondi!

Twilight Lawns from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K. on October 24, 2013:

I have the DVD: 'The Barber of Seville' with Juan Diego Flórez, Maria Bayo, Pietro Spagnole, Ruggero Raimondi.

It's beautiful.

Also, I have the DVD: La Fille du Régiment by Gaetano Donizetti, with Natalie Dessay, Juan Diego Flórez, Felicity Palmer, Alessandro Corbelli, Dawn French, with Bruno Campanella (Conductor), from the Opera House (2007). That one is really fun.

Yes, concerning e-book, one has to be very careful of how it was copied or one can spend hours deciphering the most bizarre collections of letters, figures and symbols.

LastRoseofSummer2 (author) from Arizona on October 23, 2013:

Twilight Lawns - Listening to it on YouTube is OK with me. I just wish it was complete :( Oh, well, maybe someday!

That sounds liked some really ripped off version of "The Phantom of the Opera"! Very strange.

Juan Diego Flórez is amazing! One of my favorite opera memories is from about seven years ago, I think, when I listened to a matinee radio broadcast of "The Barber of Seville" with Flórez and Joyce DiDonato. What fantastic singing!

Twilight Lawns from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K. on October 23, 2013:

Last Rose, I hate to say that there isn't a recording for purchase as such - or not yet. It was recorded at the Royal Opera House and, as far as I know, the recording wasn't official; or perhaps it was released as a once off television showing.

If it were available, I would have bought it already. Regardless, you can have a look (and a listen) on YouTube. but remember, the fourteenth "part" is missing.

Kaufmann just looks the part. I believe he has also done 'Don Carlos' with Thomas Hampson in the part of Rodrigo. That is one of my two very favourite operas (alongside Semiramide) and I have several recordings including the Roberto Alagna DVD; also with Hamson. Stunning!!!

I seem to remember, that in the translation (on Kindle) at one stage, they refer to the Phantom simply as POTO or PO (or something as equally is bizarre.

I know he's not a Dramatic Tenor, but I love Juan Diego Flórez. Thrilling sounds.

LastRoseofSummer2 (author) from Arizona on October 22, 2013:

Twilight Lawns - First of all, thank you for alerting me that Anna Haven had selected a best answer! And thank you for such a detailed comment! The original and most widely released translation of "The Phantom of the Opera" is absolutely terrible. I don't know if you still have access to the edition you read, but if no translator is listed on the opening pages, then it is in fact the original, rotten English translation. I have read a more recent version translated by Lowell Bair, which I HIGHLY recommend!

Oh, my goodness! Kaufmann and Gheorghiu in "Traviata"?!? I have already heard Gheorghiu in this opera and I think Kaufmann's voice is angelic (and, boy, do we need some good dramatic tenors right now!). I've got to look for that recording.

Thanks once again!

Twilight Lawns from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K. on October 22, 2013:

My goodness, you do write well. I am in awe of your range and knowledge.

Let me here congratulate you for your "Best Answer" to the question asked by Anna Haven: "If you could only listen to 3 songs from now till eternity. Which 3 would you pick?"

Well deserved choices, my friend. (Yours and Anna Haven’s)

I am going to admit to being an absolute Oik inasmuch as ‘The Phantom of the Opera’ is a book I found impossible to finish. I found it one of the most tedious pieces of reading I have ever undertaken, and all I hope is that I was just attempting to read a dreadful translation, But never mind, I still have nightmares about the interminable chapter concerning their being on the roof of the Opera. Ha ha... Joking, of course.

Incidentally, I love Angela Gheorghiu’s voice, and also admire her acting. I recently found ‘La Traviata’ on YouTube and thought it was a lovely production. Alfredo was played by Jonas Kaufmann, a very recent discovery of mine, and the interaction and combination of his very dramatic voice with hers was wonderful. I am not denigrating her version with Roberto Alagna, who I also rate very highly, but the physical as well as the operatic play was great to watch with Kaufmann and Gheorghiu.

Unless you have nerves of steel, however, I suggest you don’t find it on YouTube, as the person who downloaded it forgot to put on the end of the last act, so poor Violetta’s “Rinasce” is lost. Good thing for me, in a way, because that absolutely wipes me out. I go through that final scene saying to myself, “I hope this is the version where she gets better and they live happily ever after.” I know that there isn’t, but one can only hope.

Once again, I love your hubs. Thank you.

SimpleJoys on February 04, 2013:

As a lover of classical music AND of the Phantom (Book) This is amazing. The Punjab lasso link is very creepy! Great research!

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