Darla Sue Dollman, B.A., M.F.A., is a freelance writer with 42 years combined experience as a journalist, author, photographer, and editor.
According to Irish writer and poet Oscar Wilde, "Life imitates art far more than art imitates life." Perhaps this was true for Oscar Wilde, but the connection between films and the disease of alcoholism would seem to prove otherwise, that the reality of the alcoholic's life and the treatments available for those who struggled with alcohol addiction is reflected in art, or at least in films.
Classic Film Star Mary Pickford with Camera
Beginnings of Social Awareness
One example of this social awareness in art is the portrayal of alcoholism. The progress--and setbacks--in the attempts of film directors to accurately portray the disease of alcoholism through the art of film-making in vintage films reflected an awakening of social awareness to the problems of alcoholism.
In the early 1900s, before censorship gained popularity, films often depicted political and historical events and the social problems that inspired these events, including Prohibition.
On November 18, 1918, the United States Congress passed a temporary Wartime Prohibition Act. The purpose of this ban on the sale of alcohol was to protect the country's grain to supply American soldiers with food. By 1920, this act had changed numerous times and the United States was completely "dry," according to law.
In fact, the sale of alcohol and problems associated with alcoholism increased tremendously, along with the popularity of alcohol-themed crime films, such as 1927's Underworld and the 1931 film City Streets. In the 1930s, Americans resumed their pre-prohibition consumption of alcohol, but with a changed perception of alcohol addiction. Due to the connection between alcohol and crime, as established in films, alcoholism was viewed as a weakness, or personality flaw.
What Price Hollywood?
The plot for the 1932 drama What Price Hollywood? is a classic representation of the spectacular fall of Hollywood professionals due to alcohol addiction. Ironically, it was released one year before President Franklin Roosevelt brought an end to Prohibition.
Waitress Mary Evans (Constance Bennett) serves film director Maximillian Carey (Lowell Sherman), who invites her to a movie premiere. The two end up in Carey's bed. Evans may be naive, but she is also stubborn, and is eventually granted the screen test Carey promised during his seduction.
Evans is offered a contract and soon achieves stardom. Carey's career declines. He becomes increasingly dependent on alcohol, and in predictable alcoholic stages, his addiction interferes with his relationship with Evans and affects her career. Carey eventually commits suicide.
It is speculated that What Price Hollywood? and the--too close for comfort--film A Star is Born were based on the tragic endings of many Hollywood professionals. In fact, according to a TVGuide.com review, the original title of the film was The Truth About Hollywood. The script, written by Adela Rogers St. Johns, was based on the tragic alcoholic demise of many Hollywood greats, including film producer John McCormick, director Tom Forman, and actor John Barrymore.
Clara Bow was considered for the starring role in What Price Hollywood? However, her own struggles with alcoholism altered her physical appearance so drastically that the role was passed on to Bennett. The film was nominated for Best Writing, Original Story at the Academy Awards.
Fredric March and Janet Gaynor in A Star is Born
A Star is Born
The 1937 version of A Star Is Born, is nearly identical in plot to What Price Hollywood?. In A Star is Born, Esther Blodgett (Janet Gaynor) is a small town girl who arrives in Hollywood with big dreams. She changes her name to Vicky Lester. While serving as a waitress at a party, Lester meets the much older alcoholic actor Norman Maine (Frederic March). Maine uses his connections to help his young lover achieve success while his own career slowly fades.
The realism of this film is intense. During this time, alcoholism was treated in hospitals in ways that would now be considered barbaric. The disease was "treated" with a combination of Barbituates and Belladonna, known as "purge and puke," according to Alcoholics Anonymous, and patients who reacted poorly to this treatment were committed to equally-barbaric treatments in mental assylums. These treatments were used on everyone--famous Hollywood professionals were not spared.
In this version of A Star is Born, Maine spends time in a sanitarium trying to recover from the insidious disease. The treatment fails. He then follows a nearly identical path to the one taken by Maxim45illian Carey in What Price Hollywood? The disease slowly destroys his life, his relationship with Lester, and damages her career. He follows this path to the end of the film when he also commits suicide to protect the career of his young love.
A Star is Born was nominated for eight Oscars and received the Academy Award for Best Writing, Original Story, (which is surprising and a bit humorous considering its nearly identical plot to What Price Hollywood?, which was released the year before).
Judy Garland in A Star is Born
A Star is Born: Minor Variations on the Theme of Alcoholism
A Star Is Born was remade in 1954 with a slightly different plot. This time, Esther Blodgett (Judy Garland) rescues the intoxicated Norman Maine (James Mason) from an embarrassing moment at a social function.
This version of A Star is Born is brutally honest about the devastating effects of alcohol on all aspects of life, particularly when Blodgett steps up to receive her Academy Award and the intoxicated Maine stumbles up beside her, swings his arm wildly and slaps her across the face. It is a film moment that is not easily forgotten--painful, humiliating, embarrassing. One can only imagine how it affected fans who watched the movie in theaters.
In this version of A Star is Born, in a desperate attempt to prevent his lover from suffering further from his alcoholic self-destruction, Maine walks into the ocean and drowns.
A Star Is Born must have seemed like a mirror to Judy Garland who started a tempestuous affair with Mason during filming and also struggled with alcoholism for much of her adult life.
Best Portrayal of the Alcoholism Disease
A Slight Change of Attitude: Bill Wilson and Alcoholics Anonymous
Religious organizations with a focus on assisting with alcohol addiction were formed early in the century. These organizations became more prominent in the U.S. post-prohibition and aided in the creation of Alcoholics Anonymous, which was given its boost in popularity with the success story of Bill Wilson.
Wilson failed to graduate from law school because he was too drunk to pick up his diploma and destroyed his Wall Street career through alcohol abuse, but eventually succeeded in beating his addiction using his faith in a higher power.
Wilson's story, told in the 1935 book Alcoholics Anonymous, has many similarities to the widely-publicized stories of Hollywood actors who ruined their careers and lost their lives to the insidious affects of alcohol. Classic films also reflect the attitudes and approved treatments of alcoholism during this time period.
The Lost Weekend
The 1945 classic The Lost Weekend stars Ray Milland as Don Birman, a character whose story resembles that of Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Bill Wilson. Birman is a struggling writer, a man who has the loving support of family and friends who recognize that he is capable of great achievements with his writing skills, but Birman is fearful of success and turns to alcohol as an escape. Birman's life spirals downward quickly with his alcohol abuse and his desperation is painful to watch.
As the film begins, Birman and his brother, Wick (Phillip Terry), are packing for a short, weekend vacation when Birman's girlfriend, Helen (Jane Wyman), arrives with tickets to a Carnegie Hall performance. Birman convinces his brother and girlfriend to attend the concert without him in a classic ploy to distract his caretakers so he can search for alcohol. Wick is suspicious of his brother's excuses. He searches the apartment and finds a secret stash of whiskey, pours the alcohol down the sink, then leaves with Helen.
Birman is in an alcoholic panic, but when the maid arrives, he discovers his brother has hidden money in a sugar bowl and uses the money to support a two-day drinking binge. The money does not last long. The painful desperate-addict scenes in this film take place when Birman steals a woman's purse, and when he tries to pawn his typewriter--his only means of success and survival--to feed his addiction.
Eventually, Birman purchases a gun. Helen discovers the gun, suspects that Birman intends to commit suicide and convinces Birman to write the story of his lost weekend, instead.
The Lost Weekend uses many classic film noir cinematic techniques to enable the viewing audience to share the helpless, hopeless feelings of alcoholics. One of these scenes is used to open the story with a pan of the Manhattan skyline providing a feeling of never-ending repetition that reflects the actions of those who suffer from this disease. The focus then moves in on a lone window in this vast, crowded city and a bottle of whiskey tied to the window crank and dangling down the outside of the building--Birman's stash. This scene has a dual purpose. It shows there is someone who lives behind the window trying to hide from the outside world, and someone hiding inside the building trying to avoid the contents of the bottle.
The Lost Weekend was received favorably by critics and is still considered one of the finest portrayals of the disease of alcoholism. The film was nominated for seven Oscars and won four well-earned Academy Awards including: Best Actor in a Leading Role for Ray Milland; Best Director for the incomparable Billy Wilder; Best Picture; and Best Writing/Screenplay, which was shared by Billy Wilder and Charles Brackett.
The Lost Weekend
Night Into Morning
In 1951, Ray Milland once again portrayed a man on an alcoholic downward spiral as Philip Ainley in Night Into Morning. In this film, Ainley is an English Professor at University of California, Berkeley who uses alcohol to avoid facing the loss of his wife and son when they die in an explosion in their family home.
There are a few brief moments in the film when Ainley clearly contemplates suicide, such as when he leans over the ledge of a tower on campus, but is called back to reality by the janitor who tells Ainley he is sorry for his loss. This moment forces Ainley to pause and reflect on the fact that he is not alone in the world, in spite of how he feels when he is drinking.
The English Department's secretary, Katherine (Nancy Davis-Reagen), and an Associate Professor, Tom Lawry (John Hodiak), try to rescue Ainley from his self-destructive path, but Lawry realizes their efforts are in vain. Eventually, Ainely realizes he has hit the proverbial alcoholic "rock bottom" and must stop drinking to save his own life.
It is surprising that Milland would agree to do a film so close in subject matter to the blockbuster However, Night Into Morning is unique in the way the film gradually introduces individuals who attempt to interact with Ainley, increasing the tension as Ainley continues to isolate himself.
In this film, Ainley also experiences a loss of such intensity that the audience is forced to feel his pain. He has many opportunities to pull himself out of this downward spiral and respond to those round him, but the temptation to hide from the world through alcohol abuse is too great. His refusal to face his grief traps him in the denial stage of loss. The alcoholism disease is portrayed with such precise realism in this film that the disease could be included on the list of characters.
A Star is Born with Barbara Streisand and Kris Kristofferson
Kris Kristofferson (1977)
A Star is Born, Again
In 1976, A Star Is Born was filmed again with Barbara Streisand as Esther Hoffman and Kris Kristofferson as John Norman Howard. In this version--the highest grossing of the three released thus far--Streisand plays (of course) a singer, and Kristofferson, a singer/songwriter, whose career is declining due to the same alcohol-induced outrageous behavior that first made him famous.
This version of A Star is Born is unique in many ways, including the increased focus on how Kristofferson's (Howard) bad boy rock star career defines his identity for most of his adult life. As Howard grows older, alcohol becomes a mask that he hides behind to mourn his loss of self. The focus on the use of alcohol as a social tool sets this version apart from the others.
In September of 2017, 40 years since the last remake, Warner Bros. announced that it will release another version of A Star Is Born starring Sam Elliot, Stefani Germanotta (Lady Gaga) and Bradley Cooper. The screenplay is by Cooper and the film was directed by Cooper. The film is set to release in May of 2018. Clint Eastwood had also discussed making the film with Cooper and Beyonce.
Once again, the focus of the film will be on alcoholism and its role in the downward spiral of a star. Once again, alcoholism plays such a strong part in these stories that it should be considered a character in the film.
Destroying the Stereotype of "The Drunk"
Each of these films shows how alcohol is used as a panacea that causes a downward spiral in the lives of intelligent professionals, thereby attacking the stereotype of the "drunk" as a lazy and irresponsible bum with the use of film to make a social statement.
Unfortunately, that stereotype still exists to this day as mainstream society refuses to recognize alcohol as one of the deadliest drugs on the market, and alcoholism as an insidious, deadly disease with many experimental treatments, but no cure.
- A Star is Born. 1937 Dir. William A. Welman. Perf. Janet Gaynor, Frederic March, Adolphe Menjou. Selznick International Pictures. Running Time: 111 min.
- A Star is Born. 1954 Dir. George Cukor. Perf. Judy Garland, James Mason, Warner Bros. Running Time: 181 min.
- A Star is Born. 1974 Dir. Frank Pierson. Perf. Kris Kristofferson, Barbara Streisand, Barwood Films. Running Time: 129 min.
- A Star is Born. 2018 Dir. Bradley Cooper. Perf. Sam Elliot, Bradley Cooper, Lady Gaga. Warner Bros.
- Kroll, Justin. "Bradley Cooper-Lady Gaga's 'Star is Born' Moves to May 2018." Variety. Posted September 22, 2017. Accessed January 28, 2018.
- Night Into Morning. 1951. Dir. Fletcher Markle. Perf. Ray Milland, Nancy Davis-Reagan. John Hodiak. Metro Goldwyn Mayor. Running Time: 86 min.
- The Lost Weekend. 1945. Dir.Billy Wilder. Perf. Ray Milland, Jane Wyman, Philip Terry. Paramount Pictures. Running time: 101 min.
- What Price, Hollywood? 1932 Dir. George Cukor. Perf. Constance Bennett, Lowell Sherman. RKO Pictures. Running Time: 88 min.
© 2015 Darla Sue Dollman
Darla Sue Dollman (author) from Alice, Texas on January 21, 2016:
Thank you! I'm looking forward to your comments!
Carolyn Emerick on January 21, 2016:
Yep. And issues regarding race, premarital sex and pregnancy, and so on, were also addressed here and there. Well, I definitely look forward to reading more in the series!
Darla Sue Dollman (author) from Alice, Texas on January 21, 2016:
I've followed this topic for years and plan to make this into a series . It is surprising how Hollywood responded to both alcoholism and drug addiction, and not. There were many actors dying from alcoholism--Gail Russell of course comes to mind because I just posted an article about her--and surprisingly, the problem was not ignored by the studios. The one that surprised me the most was Judy Garland who struggled with addiction issues most of her adult life, but starred in an award-winning film about a woman whose career was almost destroyed by her codependent relationship with an alcoholic. I often wonder if she recognized the irony. Thanks for reading!
Carolyn Emerick on January 21, 2016:
Very interesting overview of this topic. I grew up watching classic films and even took an Art of Film course in college, and was unfamiliar with most of these. People often criticize the first half of the 20th century as living in La La Land and a pretense of an ideal life. Yes, there are those representations. But, classic film and literature certainly addressed serious issues often. Sometimes I think these modern social critics really lack perception of the thing they are criticizing ;-)