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Earth's Layers and Soil Composition Hands-on STEAM Lesson for Children

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I am a Christian. I was an 8th-grade American History teacher. I am currently a freelance writer, public speaker, & homeschooling mom of 9.

Edible model of the Earth's layers

Edible model of the Earth's layers

This is part 1 of a 6 part hands-on unit on Earth Science from a Christian perspective. Make an edible model of the earth, act out each of the Earth's layers, do core testing on a cupcake, make oobleck, and more! My lessons are geared toward 2nd-3rd grade level children and their siblings. These are lessons I created to do with a weekly co-op. We meet weekly for 2 1/2 hours and have 14 children between the ages of 0-12. Use these fun lessons with your classroom, family, after school program, or co-op!

Earth by Seymour Simon

Earth by Seymour Simon

Layers of the Earth Introduction

1. Discuss Genesis 1:1-13 and Psalm 24:1-2.

2. Look at a photo of Earth taken from space such as the photo from Earth by Seymour Simon. Ask questions such as:

  • What do you notice? What can you learn about Earth just from the photo?
  • What is the name of a scientist who studies the Earth? (Geologist)
  • Does the Earth look calm and still in this picture or does it look like it's constantly changing? The Earth is constantly moving and changing. Constructive forces build up the Earth and create new landforms. Destructive forces destroys landforms and break them down. (Show photos of volcanoes, earthquakes, flooding rivers, hurricanes, glaciers, etc. from a book such as Earth by Seymour Simon or from online.)
  • What do you think is inside Earth? Is it hot or cold? Solid or liquid?
  • How far do you think it is to the center of the Earth?

YOU WILL NEED: a photo of Earth taken from space such as the photo from Earth by Seymour Simon

3. Read How to Dig a Hole to the Other Side of the World by Faith McNulty. (Change "millions" to "thousands" of years.)

YOU WILL NEED: How to Dig a Hole to the Other Side of the World by Faith McNulty or other book on the layers of the Earth

Book to Use for Activity 3

Demonstrating P Waves and S Waves

Demonstrating P Waves and S Waves

Determining the Composition of the Layers of the Earth

4. How do you think geologists have determined what is inside the Earth?

  • Who's dug a hole? Have you ever dug a hole so deep that it was deeper than you are tall? Do you know how deep the deepest hole someone has ever dug was? In 1970, the Soviet Union began drilling down the Kola Superdeep Borehole. They got about 7.6 miles and then hit a huge issue: their drill bits kept melting. Do you know what one of the most surprising things scientists found down there? They found water. We'll talk about that in a future lesson, though.
  • If we can't dig down through the Earth because of extreme heat...and pressure, how have geologists created theories about what's down there? It has to do with seismic waves, from earthquakes...and nuclear bombs from the Soviet Union.
  • What do you remember from when we learned about sound waves? There are other waves than sound waves. Two particular types of waves are important to geologists: P waves (primary waves) can travel through both liquids and solids. S waves (secondary waves) can only travel through solids.
  • I'm going to demonstrate these waves in a very simplified manner.
  • [Shove a bowl of water.] I shoved this bowl of water on my side. Can you tell on your side when I shove the bowl of water? Yes, you can. How? Yes, you can see the waves of water move across the bowl. They make it all the way over to you.
  • [Hide your hand behind a chair or something else that is solid that can conceal what you're doing. Gently poke the back of the chair.] I'm on this side of the chair and you're on the other side of this solid chair. Can you tell when I'm poking it? No, you can't because my poke isn't moving this chair at all because it's solid.
  • [Point to a globe.] Geologists use the same kind of way to determine what's inside the Earth. If an earthquake happens on this side of the Earth, can the waves be felt on the other side of the Earth? If the Soviets explode a huge nuclear bomb on this side of the Earth, can it be felt in the middle of the wilderness over here in Montana?

YOU WILL NEED: a container of water, something solid (like a chair), & a globe

earth-science-unit-on-earth-s-layers-and-soil-composition

Edible Layers of the Earth

5. Make an edible model of the Earth.

  • I used pages 8-11 from Planet Earth/Inside Out by Gail Gibbons to show each of the Earth's layers during this activity.
  • Prep: While the children are listening to the above book, lay out per student: a sheet of wax paper [each about 12”x12” if you want a larger ball and 6"x6" for a smaller ball], a red candy, and a large marshmallow. Use the tip of a serrated knife to poke a hole to the middle of each marshmallow.
  • Have children wash or sanitize their hands.
  • Inner Core - Have the children hold their hard candy. The inner core is about 4,000 miles below the Earth's surface. It is a solid ball made of mostly just two metals — iron (about 80%) & nickel. It’s about the size of the moon & is probably about 11,000F, hotter than the surface of the sun.
  • It’s probably solid because of the huge weight of pressure from the rest of the Earth pressing on it. It also pulls everything toward itself = Gravity. God created the perfect amount of gravity, pulling us down to the earth so we don't fly away but not too much that it kills us.
  • Something that I thought was neat is that I always thought of the inner core as being a smooth ball, but geologists have better equipment now. They've determined the inner core has valleys and mountains that are taller than Mt. Everest.
  • We know the Earth is spinning on its axis about every 24 hours, creating day and night. The inner core is spinning around as well, but independently from the Earth. It spins at a different speed. This is called Super Rotation. It’s floating in an ocean of molten metal so it’s free to turn independently.
The Outer Core is responsible for the Earth's Magnetic Field.

The Outer Core is responsible for the Earth's Magnetic Field.

  • Outer Core: Speaking of that molten metal, let's move on to the outer core. Hold up your marshmallow. It's not liquid but it's not really solid like the candy either. Tell the children to insert the red candy into the center of the marshmallow through the precut hole and then try to fold the marshmallow around it so the marshmallow completely surrounds the red candy. The red candy is going to represent the hot inner core of our earth and the marshmallow represents the outer core of our earth.
  • This mushy layer is also made of mostly iron and nickel, but here the metals are melted into a very hot liquid. This hot liquid forms a layer that moves around the inner core. It's about 1,300 miles thick, about how far it is from New York City to Miami. It's about 9,000F.
  • The Outer Core makes electricity that is responsible for creating the Earth’s magnetic field, like a huge magnet inside the Earth. [Show a magnet.] It's the reason why a compass needle points North. [Demonstrate this with a compass.]
  • The Earth's magnetic field from the Outer Core is also possibly what directs the internal compasses of migrating birds, bats, and other animals.
  • Something else new that I learned that I think is really neat is that it also acts like a force field. It's like Violet from The Incredibles and the Black Panther's sister. Don't you know how they could create a bubble to protect everyone inside? That's what the Earth's magnetic field does for us! The protective "bubble" of a magnetosphere extends about 10 times the radius of the Earth. Using the Earth's magnetic field, which comes from the Outer Core, God protects us from the radiation of the sun & the highly charged particles (solar wind) from the sun. Without the magnetic field, most of the ozone gas, which protects the earth from harmful UV radiation, would be depleted away from the atmosphere.
Edible model of the Earth

Edible model of the Earth

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Edible model of the Earth cut in half

Edible model of the Earth cut in half

  • Use a sharpie marker to write each child’s name on the corner of their sheet of wax paper.
  • Mantle: The Rice Krispie mixture represents the thick layer of the Earth’s mantle. Divide children into 3 groups. Each group will make a batch “Rice Krispie Treats Earth Mantle”: In the large mixing bowl combine 3 Tbsp. butter and a 10.5 ounce bag of marshmallows. Microwave on high for 1 1/2 minutes.
  • Stir in 6 cups of cereal. (Let each child have a turn dumping in a cup of the cereal. Let each child have a turn GENTLY stirring the mixture.)
  • Spray children's hands with non-stick cooking spray.
  • Place a generous scoop of the Rice Krispie mixture onto each child’s sheet of wax paper. Tell them to flatten out the mixture a bit and then place the marshmallow in the middle. Have them surround (or "hide") the marshmallow with the Rice Krispie mix.
  • Then fold and roll the Rice Krispie mix into a ball shape. Pack it tightly.
  • The Earth's Mantle is rock-hard, but it actually flows around the outer core, moving about as slowly as your fingernails grow. It's about 7,500F & 1,800 miles thick. It's mostly solid like the Rice Krispies but has some partially molten, or melted, rock that moves slowly like our melted marshmallow mixture.
  • This is also where we find diamonds.
Adding chocolate syrup for the Earth's Crust

Adding chocolate syrup for the Earth's Crust

  • Crust: This is the thin, rocky layer we think of as the Earth's surface. Its thickness changes — from 50 miles to 3 miles. The ocean crust makes up about 60% of the Earth's crust & the continental/land crust makes up about 40% of the Earth's crust.
  • An adult should then pour chocolate syrup or Chocolate Magic Shell sauce over the Rice Krispie Treat ball. Allow children to use their finger to smooth (or "paint") the chocolate all over their earth ball.
  • If you are using Chocolate Magic Shell, place the earth balls [on their wax paper] onto baking sheets and place them in the freezer for at least 5 minutes so that they form a hard crust layer.
  • *We have used Chocolate Magic Shell in the past, but we now just use chocolate syrup so we can skip the freezer part. It is so much easier and I think it doesn't detract from the educational value of the activity.
  • If desired, have adults use serrated knives to slice the earth balls in half. Review the layers of the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust.
  • If desired, allow children to eat their Earth's Layer Edible Models now or wait until the end to eat them alongside their cupcakes.

YOU WILL NEED PER CHILD: a small hard candy (such as Skittles, red hots, etc.), a large marshmallow, a piece of wax paper

YOU WILL ALSO NEED: Planet Earth/Inside Out by Gail Gibbons or other book or picture that shows each of the Earth's layers, a magnet, a compass, ingredients to make Rice Krispie Treats (*One 10.5 oz of marshmallows, 3 Tbsp. butter, and 6 c. Rice Krispies makes enough for 6 children if you are creating large balls. It creates enough for 15 children if you are making smaller balls.*), at least 1 serrated knife, mixing spoons, 1 cup measuring cups, large microwave-safe mixing bowls, either chocolate syrup or chocolate Magic Shell syrup (used as an ice cream topping), non-stick cooking spray, & a sharpie marker

Earth's Layers book example made by me

Earth's Layers book example made by me

Earth Layer Books

6. Cover the table. Make layers of earth books: "This is the Earth that God Made." Have the children paint a watercolor picture (a circle with increasing circle layers) to go along with each page. If you have older children, print each book page (removing the WORDS IN CAPS first) and have children write in the underlined word and paint a watercolor picture (a circle with increasing circle layers) to go along with each page. If you have younger children, do not edit out the words. Staple the pages together before they begin painting so that they don't get out of order.

  • On page 1 the children should paint the earth with blue and green.
  • On the remaining pages they should paint a small purple circle (inner core).
  • On pages 3-8 they should paint a red circle (outer core) around the purple circle.
  • On pages 4-8 they should paint an orange circle (deep mantle) around the red circle.
  • On pages 5-8 they should paint a yellow circle (outer mantle) around the orange circle.
  • On pages 6-8 they should paint a green circle (earth’s crust) around the yellow circle.
  • On pages 7-8 they should paint a blue circle (atmosphere) around the green circle.
  • On page 8 they should draw themselves standing in the blue circle on the green circle

YOU WILL NEED: 7 small bowls for water & & items brought by families: watercolor paints with paintbrush & staplers & book papers, something to cover the table (plastic tablecloth or newspapers), 1 paintbrush & watercolor paint for each child, 1 small bowl for water for each pair of children, 1 printed off book for each child, 1 pencil for each child who can write, & staplers

Painting Earth's Layers books

Painting Earth's Layers books

Words to "This is the Earth that God Made" books

The Earth that God Made
Here is the EARTH that God made.
Here is the INNER CORE made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here is the OUTER CORE made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here is the DEEP MANTLE made of hot rock that surrounds
the outer core made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here is the OUTER MANTLE (ASTHENOSPHERE) made of molten rock that slowly moves around
the deep mantle made of hot rock that surrounds
the outer core made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here is the EARTH'S CRUST (LITHOSPHERE) made of plates that move across
the outer mantle (asthenosphere) made of molten rock that slowly moves around
the deep mantle made of hot rock that surrounds
the outer core made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here is the ATMOSPHERE (troposphere, tropopause, stratosphere, & ionosphere) that surrounds
the Earth's crust (lithosphere) made of plates that move across
the outer mantle (asthenosphere) made of molten rock that slowly moves around
the deep mantle made of hot rock that surrounds
the outer core made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.
Here I am
living below the ATMOSPHERE (troposphere, tropopause, stratosphere, & ionosphere) that surrounds
the Earth's crust (lithosphere) made of plates that move across
the outer mantle (asthenosphere) made of molten rock that slowly moves around
the deep mantle made of hot rock that surrounds
the outer core made of very hot liquid iron and nickel that slowly moves around
the inner core made of solid iron and nickel resting inside
the Earth that God made.

Looking at the types of soil settling in layers

Looking at the types of soil settling in layers

Soil Composition

7. Read a book about dirt: Dirt: Jump Into Science by Steve Tomecek.

YOU WILL NEED: Dirt: Jump Into Science by Steve Tomecek or other book about soil

8. Lay newspaper or other table cover over the table (or go outside if the weather allows it). Give each pair of children a white paper plate with dirt scattered onto the plates. Allow children to look at it using a magnifying glass. Discuss what they see.

  • Soil is the upper layer of Earth's surface that's made of broken down rock combined with a mixture of living and non-living organic materials. Living organic materials include bacteria and fungi, while non-living organic materials can include air, water, and broken down leaves and animals.
  • Soil is important to most things that grow, including, plants, animals, and humans. How do you think soil is important for us? (It's needed for plants to grow & keeps those plants held into the ground. It also releases carbon dioxide into the air, which plants need in order to grow. It's home to animals & bacteria. It filters & helps to clean our water.)
  • Earthworms are especially important to healthy soil, as they create tunnels through soil to allow air & water to reach plants. They're decomposers, which means they break down non-living plants & animals into very tiny pieces, called humus, so plants can absorb those nutrients.

YOU WILL NEED: table cover (such as newspaper), 7 white paper plates, & 4 cups of dirt (must be dirt dug from your yard – NOT purchased dirt) & items brought by families: magnifying lenses

9. Give each child an opaque/clear cup that has a scoop of dirt in it that fills about 1/2 of the cup. Fill the rest of the cup with water up to about 3/4 full. Let the children stir the dirt and the water well with disposable spoons and then let them sit for a minute. The different types of soil will settle into different layers.

  • Clay soil can be gray or red. The particles, or tiny pieces, are packed very tightly together which causes clay to hold water because the water cannot pass through the particles that are so closely packed. It's not very good for growing most plants because they can rot in the water that doesn't drain. Clay particles are the finest of all the soil particles & clay expands when it's in contact with water & shrinks when it gets dry. It's very strong when it's dry, so it's used to make pottery and used in construction as mud mortar.
  • Silt has medium-sized particles, feels smooth, dries into a light powder that can easily be wiped off, and holds nutrients and moisture well. When it's wet, it's kind of slimy like the muck you might have slipped on next to ponds. You can easily form it into balls or other shapes in your hands. When it's dry, it feel like the flour you bake with. Silt is carried by water during floods & helps to forms a fertile areas along river banks.
  • Sand has the largest particles (pieces) compared to other types of soil. If you've been to the beach, you've seen sand. It feels rough, doesn't hold a lot of nutrients, & provides great drainage for plants. It's made of small pieces of rocks & minerals. The small grains of sand aren't close together & don't stick to one another easily, so water drains right through sand. It's not good for growing most plants because the water runs off so quickly that they plants don't get enough water, dry out, & die.
  • Loam is a mixture of clay, sand & silt and is the best type of soil for growing most types of plants.

YOU WILL NEED PER CHILD: a cup of dirt (must be dirt dug from your yard – NOT purchased dirt & try to get dirt from different places so different cups will have different compositions that can be compared), a large disposable opaque or clear cup, a plastic spoon, & water

Book to read for activity 9

Cupcake core sampling

Cupcake core sampling

Cupcake Core Sampling & Snack

10. Cupcake Core Sampling:

  • Trying to "see" what is beneath the surface of the earth is one of the jobs of a geologist. Rather than digging up huge amounts of land to find out if oil or coal are under the ground, they take core samples of the earth's crust and/or mantle just like we are going to take core samples of this cupcake to see what sort of layers are in a cupcake.
  • If desired, watch the below YouTube video on collecting core samples from the ocean floor.
  • Have each child do a core sample of a cupcake. Give each child a napkin, cupcake, & straw. Foil baking cups and frosting will prevent the children from seeing the interior of the cupcakes in much the same way that a geologist can't see the interior of the earth.
  • Ask children what they think the inside of the cupcake looks like. What flavor of cupcake could this be? How might you get more information about the cupcake without peeling the foil or cutting it open with a knife?
  • Push the straw into the cupcake and pull out a core sample. Flip the straw over and take another core sample from a different part of the cupcake. Now what do you think the inside of the cupcake looks like?
  • Finally, the children can peel off the foil liner, bite into the cupcake, and compare what the cupcake looks like to what they thought.
  • Remind the children that what they are doing is what real life geologists do.
  • Allow children to eat the cupcakes. Provide water if they need it.

YOU WILL NEED PER CHILD: a straw (preferable clear), a napkin, a cup of water (optional), & a cupcake baked in at least 3 layers of colored batter (use white or yellow cake mix, divide the batter into 3 bowls, & put different colors of food coloring into each bowl and then put a spoonful of each color of batter into the cupcake liners or follow this recipe: http://www.ourbestbites.com/2009/05/colorburst-cupcakes/ ) baked in foil or dark liners & then frosted

Watch core sampling actually occurring by geologists

Taking core samples of a cupcake

Taking core samples of a cupcake

earth-science-unit-on-earth-s-layers-and-soil-composition
earth-science-unit-on-earth-s-layers-and-soil-composition

States of Matter

11. Introduce the properties of liquids and solids by handing each group of 4 children a cup of water and a cup with 4 ice cubes in it. Ask:

  • Can you put your finger through the water? The ice cube?
  • What happens when you pour the water into a cup? Does it take on the form of the cup? What about the ice? Does it take on the form of the cup?
  • Ice is a solid. It will stay the same shape no matter what container you put it into, and you can’t put your finger through it because the tiny molecules that make up the ice are tightly packed and don’t really move.
  • The water is a liquid. It will take on the form of whatever container you pour it into, and you can put your finger through it because the tiny molecules that make up the water are not as tightly packed as they are with the solid ice.
  • There is a third type of state of matter called gas. That’s what happens when you boil water and the steam rise up out of the pot. We’re not going to focus on gases, though.

YOU WILL NEED: 4 cups of water and 4 cups of ice cubes

earth-science-unit-on-earth-s-layers-and-soil-composition

Mantle's Liquid/Solid State & Review

12. Review the layers of the earth. Ask, “What is the inner mantle made of?” The earth’s mantle is made of a plastic-like liquid. It’s almost a solid but it moves a little. We’re going to make something similar.

  • Make similar liquid/solid substance (oobleck/gluep) and let the children play with it:
  • Give each child a sandwich baggie and tell them to hold it open. Have one mom scoop approximately two tablespoons of cornstarch into the bag. Have another mom pour approximately two teaspoons of water into the bag. Tell the children to squish them together. Add more water or cornstarch if needed.
  • Tell them to pour the mixture out into their hands. They should observe it as they pour. Does it have the properties of a solid, liquid or gas? Try to roll the mixture into a ball applying pressure as you do. Does it have the properties of a solid, liquid or gas? Try to pour the substance out of your bag. Does it have the properties of a solid, liquid or gas?
  • Let the children play with it and then put it back into their bags.

YOU WILL NEED: 1 sandwich bag per child, 1 box of cornstarch, 1 container to hold water, 2 tablespoons, & 2 teaspoons

13. 5 Minute Review of what we learned: What is the middle of the earth called? (core or inner core). What’s around the inner core? (mantle) What is the outermost part of the earth that we live on (earth’s crust)? What is dirt made up of? What is one type of dirt? What type of scientist studies the earth? (geologist) How can geologists find out what’s under the ground without having to dig a huge hole? (core sampling) Name a liquid. Name a solid. Which part of the earth is a plastic-like liquid? (mantle) What was your favorite activity from today?

14. If you are not limited by time, go outside and try to dig the deepest hole possible. Notice the layers. Some children will get messy, so bring plastic bags and towels!

Material To Bring From Home

*Everyone should bring for their own child(ren):

  • watercolor paints with paintbrush
  • stapler (optional – if you have one)
  • magnifying lens (optional –if you have them)
  • (For optional activity) plastic bags and towels and shovels

Good Children's Books on the Earth's Layers:

  • The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth (Magic School Bus) by Joanna Cole is an excellent book on the layers of the earth, though we changed the references from "millions of years" to "thousands of years." It is also a good overall introduction book for this unit as it includes rocks and volcanoes as well. My 2, 5, & 8 year old all enjoyed this and wanted to read it first before the other books.
  • The Earth and Sky (First Discovery Books) by Jean-Pierre Verdet, which has see-through pages and simple but still quite educational text
  • Home on the Earth: A Song About Earth's Layers (Science Songs) by Laura Purdie Salas, which is a simple book that sets the layers of the earth to a sung sung to the tune of "Home on the Range." Even my 2 year old enjoyed these books. I do skip a lot of information and change words because these books are not from a Christian perspective.

Good Children's Books on Soil Composition:

  • Diggin' Dirt: Science Adventures with Kitanai the Origami Dog (Origami Science Adventures) by Thomas Kingsley Troupe features an origami dog who comes across a worm while digging in the yard. The worm informs him about layers of soil and the importance of worms in the soil. This is good for PreK through 1st graders.
  • You Wouldn't Want to Live Without Dirt by Ian Graham
  • Dirt: The Scoop on Soil (Amazing Science) by Natalie M. Rosinsky
  • A Handful of Dirt by Raymond Bial
  • SOIL! Get the Inside Scoopby David L. Lindbo

Christian Geology for Your Entire Family: What My Family Used During This Unit

Ready for some videos? Here's a great one on the Geosphere & Biosphere from Crash Course Kids

Hydrosphere and Atmosphere by Crash Course Kids #6.2

(This is good but does contain "millions" & "billions" of years.)

From Lesson 5: Earthquakes

From Lesson 5: Earthquakes

Make an edible model of the earth as you study the Earth's layers, bake cookies that demonstrate how sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks form, create fossil casts, build marshmallow structures that can withstand a jell-o earthquake, carve gullies and valleys in sand using wind, water, and ice, make presentations on various aspects of the Earth, and more during this 6 lesson hands-on unit study of Earth Science!

  • Earth's Layers and Soil Composition Lesson - This is part 1 of a 6 part hands-on unit on Earth Science from a Christian perspective. Make an edible model of the earth, act out each of the Earth's layers, do core testing on a cupcake, make oobleck, and more!
  • Rock Classification Lesson - This is part 2 of a 6 part hands-on unit on Earth Science from a Christian perspective. Make and eat "Sedimentary" Seven Layer Bars, create "Metamorphic" Snickers bars, do some rock mining, and more!
  • Fossils Lesson - This is part 3 of a 6 part hands-on unit on Earth Science from a Christian perspective. The focus of this lesson is fossils! Create fossils casts, dig up and piece together dinosaur skeletons, excavate dinosaurs, eat edible ammonites, and more!
  • Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes Lesson - This is part 4 of a 6 part hands-on unit study on Earth Science. Make edible volcanoes, build an erupting ring of fire, demonstrate plate tectonics using graham crackers, form each type of volcano using play-doh, and more!
  • Earthquakes Lesson - This is part 5 of a 6 part hands-on unit study on Earth Science. Create a tsunami, build marshmallow structures that can withstand an earthquake, act out seismic waves, build and use a seismograph, and more!
  • Erosion Lesson - This is part 6 of a 6 part hands-on unit study on Earth Science. Demonstrate various types of erosion as children carve gullies and valleys in sand using air, water, and ice. Re-create the Grand Canyon. Compare how soil resists erosion.
  • Earth Science Presentation and Field Trip Ideas - This is the culminating project we did after a 6 part hands-on unit on Earth Science. We made edible volcanoes, performed earth science demonstrations, displayed paintings of the earth's layers and volcanoes, sang songs about the earth science, and more! Also included are the field trips we attended during this unit.
  • Fun, FREE Hands-On Unit Studies Hub - Over the years I have posted over 30 science and social-studies based unit studies, compromised of more than 140 lessons. The unit studies include the Human Body, Simple Machines, Earth Science, Medieval Period, American Revolution, Pioneer Life, Countries of the World, and many more! For each lesson I have included activities (with photos), our favorite books and YouTube video clips, lapbook links, and other resources.