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Know Your Clouds: A Photo Journey

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I'm a dental hygienist, pyrography artist, avid gardener, writer, vegetarian, world traveler, and many other things!

Clouds Give a Sense of Depth to the Sky

Clouds Give a Sense of Depth to the Sky

Cloud Basics

I've often wondered what the different types of clouds were, but for some reason never looked them up.

Earlier today I noticed some awesome clouds in the sky, yet I had no way to describe them, except by trying to explain what they looked like. If I'd known what type of cloud they were, or at least had something to go on, it would have made my Google search that much easier.

Before getting into the different cloud types though, I think it's important to have a general grasp of what clouds are and how they form.

Cloud Formation Diagram

Cloud Formation Diagram

  • What Are Clouds?

Clouds are simply a large collection of tiny water droplets or ice crystals that are so light they can float in air.

  • How Do Clouds Form?

All air contains water, and near the ground it's usually in the form of an invisible gas called water vapor. The air is warmed by the sun, and as the warm air rises, it expands and cools. Since cool air can't hold as much water vapor as warm air, the air becomes saturated (reaches its dew point) and can't hold any more water. The excess water vapor condenses onto tiny pieces of dust, ice, or salt that are floating in the air, which forms small droplets of water. When billions of these droplets come together, a cloud is formed.

  • Why Do Clouds Form At Different Heights?

The amount of water vapor available, the temperature at that altitude, the wind, and other factors determine whether clouds form, and also which types will form. The most basic factor, though, is at what height the air reaches its dew point and becomes saturated. As we'll see below, certain criteria must exist for each specific cloud type to develop.

Cloud Families

General Cloud Types

General Cloud Types

Clouds are divided into four families, with each family representing a different height in the troposphere.

The troposphere is the lowest portion of the Earth's atmosphere. This area contains 99% of the atmosphere's water vapor, which is what clouds are made of.

The four main cloud types are:

  • Stratus: Low level clouds (altitudes of 0-1 mi / 0-2 km)
  • Alto: Medium level clouds (altitudes of 1-4 mi / 2-7 km)
  • Cirrus: High level clouds (altitudes of 3-8 mi / 5-13 km)
  • Clouds with vertical development (altitudes of 0-8 mi / 0-13 km)

Low Level Clouds (Stratus)

Altitudes of 0-1 mi / 0-2 km (Up to 6,500 feet)

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Stratus Nebulosus

Stratus Nebulosus

  • Stratus Clouds (St)

Flat, hazy, featureless, evenly gray, low layer clouds that may produce fog, light drizzle, or snow

Variations and sub-species: fractus (frazzled); nebulosus (fog, veil-like); opacus (dark); translucidus (translucent); undulatus (wavelike); and praecipitatio (with precipitation)

Stratocumulus Perlucidus

Stratocumulus Perlucidus

  • Stratocumulus Clouds (Sc)

Large, dark, rounded clouds that form groups, lines, or waves

Variations and sub-species: castellanus (turret-like); duplicatus (multi-layered); lenticularis (lens-shaped); stratiformis (layered); lacunosus (perforated, round holes); opacus (dark); perlucidus (transparent); radiatus (parallel bands); translucidus (translucent); undulatus (wavelike); mamma (rounded growths on bottom side of cloud); praecipitatio (with precipitation); and virga (shaft of precipitation)

Medium Level Clouds (Alto)

Altitudes of 1-4 mi / 2-7 km (From 6,500 feet to 18,000 feet)

Altostratus Undulatus

Altostratus Undulatus

  • Altostratus Clouds (As)

Dense, uniform, gray sheetlike clouds that let the sun shine through either a little bit or not at all

Variations and sub-species: duplicatus (multi-level); opacus (dark); radiatus (parallel bands); translucidus (translucent); undulatus (wavelike); mamma (rounded growths on bottom side of cloud); pannus (with frazzles); praecipitatio (with precipitation); and virga (shaft of precipitation)

Altocumulus Floccus with line of Castellanus

Altocumulus Floccus with line of Castellanus

  • Altocumulus Clouds (Ac)

Gray, compound bundles, globular masses, or rolls of clouds in layers or patches

Variations and sub-species: castellanus (turret-like); duplicatus (multi-level); floccus (flaked puffy); lenticularis (lens-shaped); stratiformis (layered); lacunosus (perforated, round holes); opacus (opaque); perlucidus (transparent); radiatus (parallel bands); translucidus (translucent); undulatus (wavelike); mamma (rounded growths on bottom side of cloud); and virga (shaft of precipitation)

High Level Clouds (Cirrus)

Altitudes of 3-8 mi / 5-13 km (Above 18,000 feet)

Cirrus Uncinus

Cirrus Uncinus

  • Cirrus (Ci)

Thin, wispy, threadlike, white feathery clouds of ice crystals that resemble ringlets or hair curls

Variations and sub-species: castellanus (turret-like); duplicatus (multi-level); fibratus (fibrous); floccus (flaked puffy); intortus (interlaced); spissatus (dense); uncinus (hooked); radiatus (parallel bands); vertebratus (fishbone-like); and mamma (rounded growths on bottom side of cloud)

Cirrostratus at night

Cirrostratus at night

  • Cirrostratus (Cs)

Thin, uniform, translucent veil of ice crystal clouds that are difficult to detect, except when they form a halo around the sun or moon

Variations and sub-species: duplicatus (multi-level); fibratus (fibrous); nebulosus (fog, veil-like);and undulatus (wavelike)

Cirrocumulus Floccus

Cirrocumulus Floccus

  • Cirrocumulus (Cc)

Small, fleecy clouds made of ice crystals, often forming large patches

Variations and sub-species: castellanus (turret-like); floccus (flaked puffy); lenticularis (lens-shaped); stratiformis (layered); lacunosus (perforated, round holes); undulatus (wavelike); mamma (rounded growths on bottom side of cloud); and virga (shaft of precipitation)

Clouds With Vertical Development

Altitudes of 0-8 mi / 0-13 km (Troposphere)

  • Cumulus (Cu)

Puffy, cotton-like, heaped white clouds with a flat base that may appear alone, in lines, or in clusters

Variations and sub-species: arcus (horizontal arc); congestus (huge, towered); fractus (frazzled); humilis (low); mediocris (moderate); radiatus (parallel bands); pannus (with frazzles); pileus (with cap); praecipitatio (with precipitation); tuba (funnel cloud or tornado); velum (with veil); and virga (shaft of precipitation)



  • Cumulonimbus (Cb)

Towering, tall, dense, vertical clouds often associated with thunderstorms, sometimes called a thunderhead

Variations and sub-species: arcus (horizontal arc); calvus (smooth); capillatus (haired, fibrous); incus (anvil shaped); pileus (with cap); tuba (funnel cloud or tornado); velum (with veil); and virga (shaft of precipitation)



  • Nimbostratus (Ns)

Gray, indistinct, dark, and formless clouds that produce precipitation

Variations and sub-species: pannus (with frazzles); praecipitatio (with precipitation); and virga (shaft of precipitation)

Special Cloud Types

These are cloud formations that are often rare, occurring only in very specific and narrow circumstances. They are often the most fantastic displays, as you will see below.

  • Arcus

Low, horizontal, arced clouds, including roll clouds and shelf clouds.

Shelf clouds are low, horizontal, wedge shaped, arced clouds that are generally associated with the front of a thunderstorm.

Roll clouds are long, tube-like clouds often associated with cold sea breezes or cold fronts.

Stratocumulus Undulatus Asperatus

Stratocumulus Undulatus Asperatus

  • Asperatus

This type of cloud formation is one of the most amazing and awe-inspiring cloud types, often resembling rippled cloth or intricately textured, highly unusual flowing patterns.

Undulatus Asperatus, as it's often called, is the newest cloud type to be classified. After 30 years of study, it was officially considered a new type of cloud formation in 2009.

They are common in the Great Plains of the United States, often following thunderstorms.

Circumhorizontal Arc

Circumhorizontal Arc

  • Circumhorizontal Arc

This is a type of cloud phenomenon that often makes people do a double-take to make sure they just saw what they think they saw.

Sometimes called Fire Rainbows, these are neither rainbows, nor do they have anything to do with fire. They are an optical phenomenon involving the reflection of the sun off of ice crystals.

The sun must be high in the sky, high level (cirrus) clouds must be present, and in addition, the cirrus clouds must contain plate-shaped ice crystals. When all of these factors combine, a rainbow-colored halo forms in the clouds.

Cumulonimbus Incus

Cumulonimbus Incus

  • Incus

Cumulonimbus Incus is a cloud in the shape of an anvil or mushroom cloud.

This is a cumulonimbus cloud that has reached stratospheric stability, meaning that it's reached a point where the air ceases to continue cooling as the cloud increases in height.

These are considered mature thunderstorm cloud formations, often producing dangerous weather like lightning, hail, heavy rain, flash floods, and gale force winds.

Altocumulus Lenticularis

Altocumulus Lenticularis

  • Lenticular

These clouds are stationary and take the shape of a rounded lens or almond; some would even say they sort of resemble a UFO.

They're often formed perpendicular to the wind direction and are associated with mountains.

Large standing waves sometimes form when moist air passes over mountain ranges. If the crests of the waves correspond with a drop in temperature to the dew point (the temperature at which water condenses to form clouds), the outcome is often a lenticular cloud formation.



  • Mammatus

Sometimes also called Mammatocumulus, the literal translation is "mammary cloud" or "breast cloud." The formations are rounded growths, or pouches, hanging on the underside of the clouds. The shape is similar to a human breast (or as close as clouds come, anyway.)

These cloud formations are associated with heavy thunderstorms, and most often are found under altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus, and cirrus clouds, in addition to volcanic ash clouds.

Polar Mesospheric

Polar Mesospheric

  • Polar Mesospheric

These are known as noctilucent (night) clouds and are most easily observed from space, where they can be seen "edge-on" against a darker background.

The peak season for this type of formation is 20 days after the summer solstice in both hemispheres.

These formations increase in both brightness and frequency with increasing latitude (from 60 to 85 degrees.)

Vote for Your Favorite

© 2012 Kate P


Kate P (author) from The North Woods, USA on February 27, 2016:

Thanks so much for reading and enjoying this cloud hub! I remember driving one day and noticing some Circumhorizontal Arc clouds, which look like little wisps of rainbow. I thought I was going crazy, so looked it up when I got home and realized a whole world of clouds I didn't know existed!! :)

Ann Carr from SW England on February 26, 2016:

Great explanations and stunning photos. The cirrus clouds are often referred to as 'mares' tails' here in Britain; I think those are my favourite as they're whispy but sadly they often herald rain!

I enjoyed reading this fascinating lesson.


Mel Carriere from Snowbound and down in Northern Colorado on August 27, 2015:

Great summary of the cloud types. I learned a lot.

ratnaveera from Cumbum on October 28, 2012:

Really Great Informative Hub on Clouds! It is amazing to know about various types of clouds that we could see in our daily life. You have given great definitions for them with lovely photos. I think this could be an ultimate article to know every thing about clouds. Thank you so much for this wonderful work! Faceless39

Kate P (author) from The North Woods, USA on September 24, 2012:

My ignorance of clouds is exactly what got me researching what they're all about. They're such amazing, ever-changing works of art. It's astounding how people flit here and there every day and never once look up. Thanks for looking!

Greensleeves Hubs from Essex, UK on August 19, 2012:

Great collection of photos Faceless, with explanations of the clouds' names and the weather patterns associated with them. Isn't it strange how we are so ignorant of clouds - we see them every single day and yet how many of us know anything much about them? We just take them for granted I guess. For this reason, thanks for this article. Voted up. Alun.

Kate P (author) from The North Woods, USA on July 31, 2012:

Weather is an awesome and awe-inspiring phenomenon. Even when I understand the science, it seems magical and mysterious.

I'm so glad you liked reading and learning more about clouds. They're a fascinating part of this planet, and are so often overlooked. It's good to stop and smell the flowers (or watch the clouds go by!)

Thanks for the wonderful comments!

aHappierLife on July 21, 2012:


I had never thoughts that there are so many different clouds formations, I have never seen the rainbow, neither the mushroom ones.

Very well written science in elementary and easy understandable terms!

Finally I know now all steps, from water to clouds, I am glad I read this hub

I vote it awesome and cool!!

Thanks Kate

Richard Ricky Hale from West Virginia on July 14, 2012:

Kate, voted up and all across but funny. Awesome article. I was going to study the weather at one point in my life. I love the weather, everything about it. I can appreciate the research and hard work on this article of yours. Great job Kate! Loved all the pics and vast useful information. Will share with a tweet.

Kate P (author) from The North Woods, USA on July 04, 2012:

I remember laying in the grass as a kid, not a care in the world, no concept of time, looking up at the clouds and watching them go by. I've never lost touch with that slow, meditative sky watching--day and night.

Thanks so much for your kind comments. Nature is truly amazing and awe-inspiring!

Peter V from At the Beach in Florida on July 04, 2012:

Wow, what great info! Brought back memories of learning about clouds in high school! Voted up!

Sueswan on July 04, 2012:

I didn't know there were so many types of clouds. I find watching clouds very relaxing.

Voted up and awesome.

Kieran Gracie on July 01, 2012:

Here in Madeira we often see the arcus roll cloud formations. Very impressive sight, stretching miles out in to the Atlantic from the eastern tip if the island. Loved your Hub, Faceless39, and thank you for all this interesting information. Voted accordingly.

Parks McCants from Eugene Oregon U.S.A. on June 30, 2012:

Thank you. Very informative as well as well written. Great for us lazy sky watchers...

Kate P (author) from The North Woods, USA on June 28, 2012:

Thank you all for your enjoyable comments!

@Georgie, I've always called them popcorn clouds as well. And honestly, I'll probably continue lol.

What's amazing is this is barely the tip of the iceberg; there appears to be hundreds of cloud types and variations. Amazing!

breakfastpop on June 28, 2012:

Thanks for a very comprehensive refresher course. I used to know all about clouds.

krosch on June 27, 2012:

A nice read, cool to know a little more about clouds as we gaze up in the sky! :)

Georgie Lowery from North Florida on June 27, 2012:

Altocumulus clouds! I never knew what they were really called. When I was a little girl, I called them popcorn clouds and it just stuck. Thanks for a great Hub!

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on June 27, 2012:

Well, I was a science teacher so naturally I am going to read this hub! Great job; you presented the information in a clear and concise way that anyone could understand.

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