10 BC - 54 AD
Full name Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. Born Lugdunum (now Lyons, France) in 10 BC.
A scholar, historian and writer, who had escaped assassination only because he was universally regarded as an imbecile. The nephew of Tiberius, Claudius was made Roman emperor by his troops in AD 41, after the murder of Caligula.
The son of Nero Drusus and Antonia, Claudius was the grandson of Emperor Augustus. Nevertheless, he was an unlikely ruler and was shunned by his clan, the Claudii, because of a minor physical deformity and speech impediment.
He was sickly and neglected as a child; but despite undoubted eccentricity, he was not, as is commonly alleged, an imbecile. Claudius had first become a consul in AD 37.
His early life was spent in historical study and writing. Encouraged by Livy, he wrote many volumes, including a defence of the republican orator Cicero. He married three times and fathered five children before he became emperor.
Found hiding in the palace by a soldier the day that his nephew, Emperor Gaius Caligula, was assassinated, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus (10 BC - AD 54) was proclaimed emperor by the Imperial Praetorian Guard on the following day, 25 January 41.
Claudius was the first Roman emperor to assign important executive duties to freedmen. His four chief assistants all were former slaves. In time they became powerful and strongly influenced Claudius, for which the emperor was severely criticized by his enemies. In making use of imperial freedmen, Claudius restricted the freedom and functions of the senators, many of whom were hostile to him. He increased the authority of the equestrian officials, but the chief tendency of his reign was toward greater centralization of power. He was also the first Caesar to secure the support of the army by offering a bribe to each man.
Under Claudius, civil administration saw detailed improvements in the judiciary, increased imperial control over the treasury and provinces, and the creation of a cabinet of freedmen.
Claudius extended the rights of Roman citizenship to many Gallic leaders, and he enlarged the senate to include a number of prominent men from the western provinces of the empire.
He put down a revolt by the governor of Dalmatia and many senators and knights in AD 42. In all, 35 senators and several hundred knights were executed throughout Claudius' reign. However, compared with his infamous predecessor and also his successor, Nero, Claudius' rule was mild, even enlightened.
A port was built at Ostia (the port of Rome), and the grain supply of Rome was streamlined.
Games and public ceremonies were staged and old religious traditions revived.
Introduced internal reforms, reorganized trade, extended civic rights to communities outside Italy, and built two great aqueducts, improving Rome's water supply.
During his reign the Roman empire was considerably extended, and in 43 he took part in the invasion of Britain.
Claudius added Mauretania and Thrace to the Roman Empire.
He extended Roman rule in North Africa and Asia Minor, establishing client kingdoms with little use of arms. Although later revolts were led by the client king of Iceni and the queen Boadicea, the settlement established at Camulodunum was secure. He received honours from the Senate upon his return.
His rule was marked by the increased political power enjoyed by his private secretatirs who exercised ministerial functions. Claudius was dominated by his third wife, Messalina, who he ultimately had executed,after he discovered her plot to depose him.
Her successor, Agrippina, his niece, persuaded him to pass over his heir, Britannicus, whom she later poisoned, in favour of her own son, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.
Claudius himself died by poison, which, according to Tacitus, was administered by Agrippina. Claudius was deified during the reign of his step-son Lucius, who ruled as Emperor Nero. His subsequent deification is satirised in Seneca's Apocolocyntosis.
Claudius died in Rome in 54 AD.
- Roman Empire Capstone Hub
- A Chronicle of the life and times of the physically challenged Roman Emperor
superturk on April 02, 2013:
thnx i got all the info for project loool coool maaade niceeeeeeee
Chase on September 20, 2012:
thx..got me 10 xtra credit points.
Taff on May 15, 2012:
Helped tremendously on my report, thanks! (:
Taff on May 09, 2012:
What would you say is his greatest achievement?
!!!!!! on April 05, 2012:
thanks for helping me with my report
g on February 08, 2012:
big sausage on January 10, 2012:
he was a nice emperor
kate on January 02, 2012:
didnt really help me with my project...but i guess its pretty good
Bryce from Northern California Coast on November 18, 2011:
Thanks for this detailed background. This era fascinates me. The aqueducts were a feat. Glad I found this.
Students -- Because the first comment is from two years ago, I'd use 2009 as the publication date.
Jim Henderson from Hattiesburg, Mississippi on August 16, 2011:
I enjoyed this. Just getting interested in learning more about the Roman culture and form of government and how much we adopted from them.
Roman on June 10, 2011:
I have to write up a bibliography for this site and need to know the date for when this article was published, would you be able to help me with that?
none of your buisness on May 31, 2011:
Thanks for helping with my report I am sure I'll get an A
now!!!!! By the way why does everyone keep on saying great hub???? What is that?? From now on that is what I am calling my miidle toe on the left foot until someone tells me what it means!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1
Sembj on February 19, 2011:
Great Hub. I was introduced to Claudius in Graves two brilliant books. Any history I've read has helped reinforce the view of him being as good a man and leader bring many benefits to both Rome and its provinces.
I will be back to read more hubs - thanks.
dumbo on January 02, 2011:
very interesting, just listened to bbc i[player dramatisation of I claudius - did claudius really get dominated by his wives?
Glen (author) from Australia on December 19, 2010:
You can put what date it was 'retrieved'. Which is today's date. Or whatever date you used it for reference.
a.cook on December 19, 2010:
i am doing a report for school and i needd to know what the date of this was written. pleaase help , thank you
Juliet on October 21, 2010:
Just what I needed 4 this report
Dean Higgins on July 23, 2010:
It is interesting to read and learn things about men who made changes that are noted in the bible like his decision when the apostle Paul was being persecuted by the Jews for working with gentiles as is noted in the book of Acts.
spam4brains on April 22, 2010:
I'm trying to imagine a democratic emperor.I don't think the slaves where allowed to vote like they are here.
electricsky from North Georgia on March 25, 2010:
Thanks for the great Roman history lesson.
Janet Maday on February 25, 2010:
Claudius was fascinating. His history of his family is spellbinding to say the least. Yes, he was a Republican at heart and seems as history notes to have ruled wisely and without the bizarre behavior of the two emperors who preceded him (Caligula and Tiberius). Never can seem to can enough of this information!
k on December 03, 2009:
Michele from Reno, Nevada on October 22, 2009:
I Claudius, the book and PBS Series turned me onto the Roman Empire. Good hub.
Gin G from Canada on October 19, 2009:
Love hearing about Rome :) great Hub, DS
heyju on September 19, 2009:
Loved the story, thanks again, can't get enough of the romans!!!
vivekananda from India on April 05, 2009:
Interesting piece of history. It's good to read about Claudius and his achievements.
Glen (author) from Australia on April 05, 2009:
I'll be skipping the next 3 emperors and working on Vespasian next. But I'll cover them much later, though the information on them is a bit thin.
J Mockridge on April 05, 2009:
Interesting hub on Claudius.
Iphigenia on April 05, 2009:
I've been waiting for this one ! Despite his physical deformities it seems to me that Claudius was the best of the Emperors. Ironically, he was a republican ! The scholarship of his early years no doubt informed the achievements and reforms that he instigated as Emperor.
Another great read on one of my favourite subjects - thanks