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BIOMATERIALS IN TOTAL JOINT REPLACEMENT

We all know that Joint damages and replacements are increasing day by day in the present world. This may be due to lack of exercises and also because of accidents and displacements. This type of acccident causes permanent damage for the joints and replacement of joint is the only option.

Biomaterials can help in effective joint replacement with permanent cure and fully functional joints. Biomaterials like polymers helps for the replacement of hip joints and these biomaterials has converted the joint replacement field to a higher and effective way of surgery.

BIOMATERIALS

A biomaterial is a substance which is designed to interact with biological systems and it is widely used for effective medical purposes. Joint replacement is an important field where biomaterials are effectively used to replace the damaged joint using variety of biomaterials.

JOINT REPLACEMENT

Polymers, metals, composites and ceramics are designed in a specific manner for joint replacement such as hip joint replacement. They are used as various implants in the joint replacements. Researches are going on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites which can be used as a novel material in joint and bone replacement mechanism. Clinical and orthopaedics suggests that new biomaterials with advanced uses and effective interaction with the tissues and bones and needed which need to satisfy the minimum requirements and it helps the medical field by great extend in joint replacement and advanced surgeries using biomaterials. They suggest that an ideal and effective biomaterial should succeed its minimum requirement, especially the interactive property with bones and tissues. The implants produced by the orthopaedics should be well interacted with the tissues and biological systems without any harm and another criteria for an ideal biomaterial is, it can be used for a long time without damage or destruction or any other problems. It needs to act like a natural joint after replacement and need to avoid and minimize further damage and replacements.

IDEAL DESIGN OF A BIOMATERIAL IMPLANT

As we all know, an ideal design of a biomaterial implant should require a minimum condition like it need to effectively interact with the human body parts like bones, joints and tissues. It also needs to be effective for a long time without any damage and issues. Finite element analysis is the powerful analytical tool which is used for designing the joint replacement implants.

BIOMATERIAL IN HIP JOINT REPLACEMENT

Construction and development of biomaterial implants for hip joint replacement has been a great challenge for the medical engineers and scientists nowadays. Polymers like PTFE , and metals like 316L steel, Ti alloy and ceramic materials such as Zirconia, alumina, Titanium coated ceramic alloys, high pressed Al2O3, composite are some of the successful biomaterials which become effective in hip joint replacement. Hydroxyapatite was one of the material which was used by orthopaedics in older time for effective hip joint replacements.

There are 2 types of hip joint replacements;

  • Semi-hip arthroplasty.
  • Total hip arthroplasty. (THA)

The lower friction Metal on polythene technique was one of the great challenges faced by the orthopaedics during total hip arthroplasty. Total hip arthroplasty was also known as Modern Charnley hip prosthesis.

Human knee is the most weight bearing part of our body part, probably have a lot of chances to get damaged and dislocated. That’s why human hip joint replacement has a significant role among the joint replacement. This type of surgeries and replacement therapy are mainly seen in old people because hip joint become wear and tear due to large weight bearing for a long time. So this type of replacement is more relevant in older peoples than younger people. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteolysis, avascular necrosis, other inflammatory arthritis, femoral neck fracture and tumour, developmental are some of the hip joint problems faced by human beings.

In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the acetabular part of the hip is fixed and femoral heads moves. The prosthesis looks like a hollow hemisphere. The hip joint was artificially replaced by an Orthopaedic surgeon Carnochan in 1840 and Dr . Marius Smith-Petersen, introduced the mold arthroplasty in 1925. He used the reactive synovial membrane which he found in the workers backyard.

CONCLUSION

Total hip joint replacement (THA) become more and more effective because it provides great extend of pain relief and improvements of activity levels. The expectations continue to increase with more and more young patients undergoing hip replacement and most of them seeking higher activity level as well as longevity of the prosthesis. Ongoing research and the future of biomaterials in the hip are anticipated.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2021 Siddharth CH

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