Reaching freshwater, there are ways to refresh the water, ways to come out of global water problems, pollution, ecological issues
The global water problems, pollution, and ecological dilemma
Wonders of Water formula
73% surface of the Earth is covered by water and also water makes above 60% of our human body. In reality, water pollution creates very drastic and harmful effects, affecting wildlife health, the marine ecosystem, and human health. There is only one answer to solve this acute water pollution problem, and that is to educate people and make numerous changes in everyone’s daily habits to pay an added attention to the system and understand the process we adopt to discharge water and kins of products we normally consume. There are various systems presently followed, which display the water pollution causes and the effects they make on the environment and human health.
Human activities like agricultural practices and industrialization have vastly contributed in a large measure to the environmental degradation and pollution and that is adversely affecting the rivers and ocean water bodies. Basically, it is necessary to understand what is water pollution, its source, and the introduction of effective control and influence of environmental education and management.
Nowadays, water pollution has turned out to be an ongoing global problem. Therefore, a policy is required to evaluate the water resources needed to counteract this problem. Diseases and deaths are caused globally, due to water pollution. Around, 15000 people die each day because of water pollution.
Water gets polluted by several factors, and industrial wastes cause the maximum damage. Besides that, there are many other reasons to cause water pollution, that involve pesticides, herbicides, pathogen, chemical and sediment pollution, Saltwater intrusion, and atmospheric pollutants are the prime reasons for polluting water to cause serious diseases in human beings. The entire ecosystem of water bodies creates damage because of water pollution.
When pollutants on the ground, come in contact with under earth, water bodies, they generate groundwater pollution. When fecal water, including pathogens, penetrates through the earth’s surface, it becomes unsuitable for drinking. The groundwater polluted by pathogens may contain bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, and in certain rare cases helminth eggs. Drinking such water can cause diseases like cholera and diarrhea.
The highly populated city homes and offices, urban and suburban area buildings, and pavement cover the maximum land surface. The rainwater does not penetrate into the ground. However, the stormwater transfers pollutants like chemicals, lawn fertilizers, oil, dirt, and so on directly to river waters and streams to cause intense water pollution. These pollutants, in the case of the natural landscape, get trapped and penetrate the soil pores, while the water gets filtered. However, in cities, water does not penetrate the cemented ground, hence, it washes away pollutants to enter water bodies. There is an urgent need to investigate and rectify these problems.
Hence, the major Water Pollution causes are, sewage water from residences, domestic households, commercial buildings, industries, and factories and when they are treated and processed in water treatment plants, they finally disposed into the sea.
Causes of Water Pollution
Sewage coming from factories, domestic households, and commercial buildings. They are picked up and treated in a specific water treatment plant or mostly disposed into the seawater. Sewage can generate severe problems when people flush pharmaceutical and chemical substances in the toilet.
They dump solid wastes and human littering in lakes, rivers, and oceans. This Littering item involves Plastic, Styrofoam, cardboard, glass, and aluminum.
Out of industries and factories, the addition of chemical waste matters to freshwater carries waste materials from the industries into rivers, contaminating water with toxic pollutants like lead, petrochemicals, asbestos, and mercury.
Oil is the major cause to pollute water sources. Oil spills from ships and oil tankers form a thick sludge because the oil gets mixed, but fails to dissolve in water.
Fossil fuel burning causes air pollution, forms acidic elements and constituents in the atmosphere. Such airborne particles get mixed with mist, dew, and water vapor, resulting in acid rain.
The rise in water temperature is mainly caused due to thermal plants resulting in global warming. Hence, rivers, water reservoirs, and lakes use mechanical equipment to cool down the atmosphere.
Water Pollution Effects
1. The pesticides and fertilizers from farms cause groundwater contamination, which is reproductive damage to the ecosystem and wildlife;
2. Fertilizers, sewage water, and agricultural run-off residual matters include many organic chemicals and materials. They get discharged into rivers, increasing the algae growth. It causes atmospheric oxygen depletion. The low level of oxygen cannot support several indigenous organisms, and hence, they disturb the balance of natural ecology in lakes and rivers.
3. Hypoxia means depletion of the oxygen dissolved in aquatic settings. Normally, the atmosphere contains 20.98% oxygen, and the barometric pressure is equivalent to 760 mm Hg;
4. The oxygen level in water is around 7 ppm or 0.0007% in water, and fluctuates depending on the photosynthetic organism presence;
5. When oxygen in the water depletes, aerobic harmless microorganisms get destroyed and harmful anaerobic microorganisms start thriving. They are harmful to animals, people, and also the environment because they create sulfides and ammonia-type harmful toxins;
6. Depleted oxygen creates water pollution. The microorganisms living in water eat biodegradable substances, which get added to water sources. When the microorganism level increases, it absorbs atmospheric oxygen, the process is known as oxygen depletion.
7. Ozone depletion in the atmosphere happens in the instance when the atmospheric atoms of bromine and chlorine destroy the molecules of ozone. One chlorine particle destroys 100,000 ozone molecules;
8. Swimming in contaminated water rivers and lakes causes health problems, skin itchiness, reproductive problems, typhoid, stomach problems, and so on.
9. The ecosystem is destroyed by a rise in water temperature, coral reefs get affected, causing ecological damage;
10. Water pollution ultimately results in oil and solid waste accumulations in water streams, resulting in soil erosion, causing floods;
Facts regarding water pollution
1. Every year, the garbage, mostly plastic, 3 billion tonnes, is sent to the ocean water;
2. Indian Ganges River is extremely polluted, carrying trash, sewage, animal remains, food, and so on;
3. The EPA of the USA predicts 1.18 trillion gallons of industrial waste, stormwater, untreated sewage, are sent to their waters every year;
4. Globally, almost 760 million people drink dirty and contaminated water;
5. Aquatic animals are destroyed five times faster than terrestrial animals.
6. Urban sewage around 32 billion tons is discharged into rivers, lakes, and oceans each year.
7. The extensive oil spill caused almost 1,200 animals to die in 2010.
8. UNICEF confirmed that above 3400 children die every day by drinking contaminated water.
9. Water pollution affects nearly 100 million global people;
10. Lack of effective water, sanitation leads to diarrhea, malaria, cholera-type diseases. Water pollution is the major contributor to health issues and the ecosystem.
This is mainly because of chemicals and trash thrown into drains and water supplies, creating health hazards. Our Earth is primarily covered by pure and edible water.
Freshwater intake provides the Water of Life.
Therefore, it is imperative to do your part to keep the river and sea waters clean.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2021 Shyam Gokarn
Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on March 28, 2021: