Nicolas studies social events in holistic manner. He is interested in the unity of genetic and environmental factors for understanding it
Conditions of Work
- In any sphere of human activities the conditions of work are not as dangerous as in the mining industry. Just here the greatest number of non-favorable productive factors for man is concentrated. There are over 200 phenomena; among them it considers 18 as main ones. Miners work without day light and fresh air, in compressed working space, with the highly explosive environment, and at the great depths. To add, they risk being crushed under tons of mined rock. Shredding of coal while excavating, mechanical loading of it and solids arouse the significant dustiness of air.
- For example at the mine “Pershotravneva” VO “Pavlogradvugillia” during work of miner combines dustiness was reaching 340-380 milligram per square meter, while passing opening composing 770-2860 milligram for square meter. Streams of air spread dust all around the underground space.
- At the mine “Shahtarska Glyboka” at the depth of 1200 meters temperature of air was 42C. It is not surprising that the dust pathology among professional diseases was occupying the first place.
- 60% of professional diseases were connected with ones of lungs. Diagnosis pneumococcus was composing 44% from total number of professional diseases, the dust bronchitis doing 15,7 %.
- In social plan, situation wasn’t going better. In 1961 the USSR signed the Convention N49MOP, which provided limitation of the miner’s work. The working time must be lasted not more than 7 hours, 15 minutes. Only with the agreement of the worker, he could work 8 hours, including the time of moving in the mine shaft. In 1967 the Soviet State accomplished out the very important social step and arrangement. Plants and factories of popular economics were transferred in 5 days’ regime of work in 1967. This transition was lasting till 1985. The practice when miners were working without rest, ceased. The enterprises introduced the unified day of rest — Sunday. The common decision of administration and trade-union determined the second day of rest. The miners received 6 hours working day and 30 hours working week without accounting the time necessary for coming to the working place and coming back. Miners seemed to receive care of the State.
- In contrast, the planned tasks of coal mining couldn’t be accomplished out with 6 days of a week. The working day of miners including re-clothing, time for receiving tasks, moving in and back the shaft, bathing composed 9-10 hours. This time wasn’t paid. According to calculations of miners, themselves, in 80s Minvugleprom of the USSR (Ministry) didn’t pay 80 milliards roubles (1rouble=1dollar). It was necessary to a certain number of miners, for coming to mines, to overcome distance in 40-60 km. In that case, the working day, including way home composed 11-13 hours.
The Free Time
- The free time was reduced to two hours. With that organization of work 8-20% of miners, that had the shift, didn’t feel rested. Delayed physical reactions in the tired organism were causes of traumas, especially in holidays, and last days of a month. Incidence of mining coal in the second part of 70s pushed the Government to the change of regime in work of enterprises. A number of appearances at work left as early, but days off were coming to week-days in general. Moreover, if in 1970 the miner of Donbas worked 9 days off and holidays, in 1980 there were 40 ones. Miners must work above the planned rate of out-put.
- Every year there were days and decades of shocked work in the honor of important political events and famous dates. At the end of each month the days of increased mining were passed. Above our puts in mining industry were biggest among other industries. As a result such combination of heavy natural and working factors lead to that the men, came to this branch, became exhausted, and lost their health fast.
The Work of Miner
Let Us Compare the Donbas Miners' Life With Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Kochura I.V. (2018). The analysis of the economic potential development of the Donbass coal industry in the current economic conditions 200 UDK 622.33 (477.62) ISSN 2519–2019 Vestnik Instituta Ekonomicheskih issledovaniy. 2018, № 4(12)
Triandis & Suh, (2002); Harry C. Triandis and Eunkook M. Suh.(2002). Cultural Influences on personality. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135