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What is Science? Branches of Science

What is Science? Branches of Science

What is Science? Branches of Science

What is Science?

Science is the study of the natural world. The term science derives from the Latin word scientia, which means "knowledge." Science is a practical activity that uses knowledge to understand and interpret nature. Science is systematic knowledge, gained through observation, experimentation and data analysis.

Scientists must observe, make predictions, experiment, test, and revise their theories, and they must communicate their findings. It is the process of getting answers from the natural world.

Science is based on evidence, and with evidence comes proof. Evidence is data or facts that support a theory or claim. Evidence can come from experiments, observations, and experimentation.

Some scientists use mathematics as a tool. Mathematics is a language that describes relationships within the natural world, such as the relationships between mass and volume, velocity and acceleration, or length and height. Mathematical equations and formulas can help scientists make predictions about how the natural world behaves.

Scientists also study living organisms, including plants and animals, and human beings. Scientists ask questions, look for evidence, and experiment to find the answers to questions. Scientists and engineers rely on each other to come up with new ideas. They also work together to test ideas and improve technology.

Science is an investigation into the way the world is. It is not a specific discipline or an academic subject; it is a way of seeing the world that is already present in everyone, and through which all people may communicate. Science is a human tool to understand, predict, control and improve the world, ideally for the benefit of all.

Difference between Science & Technology

Science and technology are closely related. But there are many differences between science and technology. Science is a body of knowledge. Science is a method for acquiring knowledge, through observation and experimentation and confirming or disproving hypotheses.

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge. Technology is the creation of tools, machines, procedures, systems, methods, and materials in order to solve a problem, improve a process or develop an item.

Science is concerned with the natural world. Science investigates the physical universe, including plants and animals, the Earth, the sun, stars, planets, moons, and all the objects in space, including the galaxies and the universe.

Technology is concerned with human-made objects. Technology includes tools, machines, procedures, systems, materials, and methods. Technology also refers to people, including the creators of tools and machines.

Science is objective. Science is based on experimentation and observation. The conclusions scientists reach are objective and can be verified or disproved by other researchers.

Technology is subjective. Technology is based on what the user needs. The creator makes the decision about what technology is practical and what is not, and what features are most important.

Science is logical. Scientists follow a logical process to reach conclusions. Scientists collect data, create a hypothesis, design an experiment, collect data, analyze data and draw conclusions.

Technology is creative. Technology is unpredictable. Technology often changes because of the people who use it. Technology also develops when users begin to invent new solutions.

Science is reliable. If scientists repeat the experiments, the outcomes will be the same.

Technology is unreliable. Technology does not stay the same. Technology changes when users begin to use it.

What is a Scientist?

A scientist is a person who uses the scientific method for discovering new facts about the natural world. The scientist's goal is to produce verifiable results that can be used to further human understanding.

Scientists are distinguished from other professional research workers, such as engineers, by their emphasis on logical reasoning and scientific method.

The scientific process consists of six steps:

1. Observation — Scientists observe the world in order to look for patterns and anomalies.

2. Hypothesis — Scientists formulate hypotheses that explain observed patterns.

3. Experiment — Scientists conduct experiments to test the hypotheses developed from observations.

4. Results — Scientists use the results of the experiments to draw conclusions and form new hypotheses.

5. Evaluation — Scientists evaluate the conclusions drawn from the experimental results.

6. Repeat — Scientists repeat the steps above until they are able to form reasoned judgments about the natural world.

Scientists accomplish this by gathering and analyzing data through observation, hypothesis and experimental results. Scientists may specialize within a field to conduct experiments that are effective at answering specific questions and that advance scientific knowledge. Scientists may also conduct basic research, investigating the relationship between phenomena, without a specific application in mind.

Scientists often publish the results of their research in order to advance the scientific community's understanding of phenomena.

In 1915, the Nobel Prizes were established to honor scientists who have made outstanding contributions to society. The Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, and Physiology or Medicine are awarded to researchers who have demonstrated "the greatest benefit to mankind."

How do Scientists Conduct their Research Studies?

Research studies are a systematic way of gathering evidence to answer questions or solve problems. Scientists conduct research studies to answer specific questions they have about the natural world and to answer problems that people or organizations care about. Research studies are often grouped into broad categories, but each category contains many different types of research.

Some of these research types are given below:

Experimental Studies: Scientists design experiments to test hypotheses, which they then use to gather data.

Observational Studies: Scientists collect data about the natural world by observing things in the real world.

Surveys: Scientists ask people questions about their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and other things.

Interviews: Scientists interview people to learn more about their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and other things.

Inferential Statistics: Scientists use statistics to draw conclusions about data.

What are Scientific Method Steps?

The scientific method is a set of practices that scientists and mathematicians have used to formulate scientific theories and make scientific discoveries.

The scientific method has six basic steps:

1. Observation: Observations are the first step that a scientist will take in starting a research project. It is this part of the scientific method where observations are made and recorded.

2. Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a prediction made based on observations and data collected. It is this part in the scientific method where scientists test the hypothesis.

3. Experimentation: The experiment is the second step of the scientific method. It is where scientist test the hypothesis to see if it is correct.

4. Analysis: After the scientist has analyzed the experiment, they will decide if the hypothesis was correct. If it is, they will go on to the next step of the scientific research process.

5. Conclusion: After determining if the hypothesis was correct, scientists will decide to make a new hypothesis which will then lead to a new experiment.

6. Publication: Once an experiment is complete and a conclusion has been reached, scientists will have to make a report to the scientist's peers. This report will include all of the experiments conducted and conclusions reached.

As you can see, the scientific method is a very complex process but it is very important. Without it, no scientist would be able to do their research and come up with new scientific discoveries. Scientists use the scientific method to develop theories and make discoveries.

For example, when scientists first learned that the Earth was not the center of the universe, they developed a new hypothesis called the theory of relativity. When scientists tested the theory, they found that it was correct and the theory of relativity was a new scientific discovery.

What are the Characteristics of Science?

Science is a set of objective, testable procedures and theories that lead to verifiable explanations.

Today, science is the dominant paradigm for explaining the world around us. It is the one we study in school and the one we use in our daily lives.

Science is a systematic approach, one based on observation and research. Scientists gather evidence, hypothesize, and devise experiments to test their theories.

Scientists compare the results of these experiments and observations and revise their theories as necessary.

Scientists also publish their findings in scientific journals, where other scientists can read their work and comment on its importance.

Science is universal and objective, and its methods and theories are consistent and reproducible.

Science is reliable, because it uses an "error bar" to measure each experiment's results.

When scientists produce results that are less than the expected standard deviation, the results are assumed to contain error.

When results fall within an expected range, they are accepted.

Science is falsifiable, which means that scientists can verify their theories and predictions with experiments or observations.

A scientific theory cannot be proven or disproved; only its validity can be established. If an experiment produces results that contradict the theory, the theory must be discarded.

Science is self-correcting, because experimental results can be verified or disproved by others.

This last point is critical. If scientists do not cite previous experiments that contradict their own, the field is vulnerable to fraud.

Science is objective, but scientists do have their own opinions, and they sometimes have strong biases.

How does Science Shape our World Today?

The work of science is at the heart of everything around us. It affects our lives in innumerable ways, from food to medicine, from computers to the internet. Science is the driving force of the information age. It shapes our technology, our language, our ideas and, of course, our civilization.

Think about how science changed the world. From the Internet to mobile phones and GPS, science is reshaping our world.

At the same time, science is also changing us. Science moves faster than our languages, our ideas and our laws. As a result, our science and technology is shaping our civilization and our lives in ways we can't fully comprehend.

Today, we are living through one of the biggest scientific revolutions in human history. The scientific revolution of the 17th Century led to the Industrial Revolution. The scientific revolution of the 19th Century led to the foundation of modern science, including physics, chemistry, biology and medicine.

Today, we are living through another revolution in our science.

The scientific revolution of the 21st Century. The scientific revolution of the 21st Century is just beginning. It is reshaping our world. It will allow us to live longer, healthier and more productive lives. It will allow us to build great machines, create great works of art, explore space, and, hopefully, cure cancer. It will allow us to create cities in the sky, and new forms of energy.

But more than anything, it will allow us to understand our world. If only we could understand science better, we would not only understand how it shapes our lives, but also why it sometimes seems to go wrong.

As science advances, so do we. But science also has the power to destroy. Nuclear weapons, for instance, were once considered scientific discoveries. Science is either a force for good or for ill. It depends on how it is applied.

What are Different Branches of Sciences?

There are so many different types of science. Some people assume that there's not much of a difference between the subjects, but this is certainly not true. They're all different and they're all fascinating in their own right. There are 03 main branches of science:

  • Natural Sciences
  • Social Sciences
  • Formal Sciences

What are Natural Sciences?

Natural sciences teaching encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology to chemistry to physics to astronomy, and the study of anthropogenic processes and natural systems. It encompasses both physical and biological sciences, and it includes both theoretical and practical studies.

Natural sciences are an essential part of science education. From the earliest ages, the main objective of science is to understand the natural world and how it works. Biology, chemistry, and physics are the three primary branches of science.

Biology: Biology is the study of living organisms. Biological science includes the study of taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, genetics, and evolution.

Chemistry: Chemistry is the study of matter and energy. Chemistry can be broken down into several subfields, including physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.

Physics: Physics is the study of matter and energy and its relationship to other natural forces, such as gravity and electromagnetism. Physics includes the study of mechanics, optics, acoustics, and thermodynamics.

Natural sciences are at the core of many scientific disciplines. For example, physics is often considered a core science because so many of the natural sciences rely on its theories. The scientific method, which relies on observation and experimentation, is at the core of the natural sciences.

Many natural scientists conduct research and experiment at universities or at private research institutes. Others conduct research at government agencies or at private companies. These scientists often collaborate with scientists from different academic disciplines.

Natural sciences are a diverse field, and many scientists specialize in just one aspect. For example, geologists study rocks, earthquakes, and volcanoes.

Natural sciences play an important role in the development of technology. For example, natural scientists study how materials respond to heat and cold, and this knowledge informs engineers who develop materials for use in the construction of buildings, vehicles, and many other everyday objects.

What are Social Sciences?

Social sciences are the sciences of human society and their interrelationships, including economics, political science, sociology, anthropology, geography, and psychology. The social sciences are general academic disciplines that study human society and human interaction. These disciplines are distinguished from the natural sciences, which study the physical and natural world.

The social sciences include sub-disciplines which focus on specific topics within society, such as economics, political science, sociology, anthropology, geography, and psychology. More generally, the social sciences include numerous fields, including socionics, criminology, demography, history, linguistics, political science, psychology, sociometry, and statistics.

The social sciences share many methods with the natural sciences, such as historical research, statistical analysis, and the use of models. However, the social sciences have an emphasis on methods that emphasize policy, analysis, and interpretation.

The social sciences include many perspectives or schools of thought, such as behaviorism, Marxism, feminism, postmodernism, and semiotics. These schools have different approaches and methodologies, such as positivism and constructivism. The social sciences are distinct from the humanities, which study literature, art, languages, philosophy, and religion.

The social sciences are distinguished from the social sciences of economics, political science, and sociology.

The social sciences are prevalent among formal higher education. Universities and colleges with political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, geography, and psychology departments include such prominent institutions as Harvard University, University of Berkeley, and Stanford University.

What are Formal Sciences?

The formal sciences are those branches of science that are concerned with the formal study of nature and of manmade phenomena. It includes mathematics, logic, and linguistics.

The term "formal" here does not refer to a non-logical universe, but to a lack of concreteness. The formal sciences deal primarily with abstract concepts and ideas, not with concrete objects.

The formal sciences began with the Ancient Greece, and existed independently to the natural sciences, which study the natural world.

The formal sciences were initially developed to answer certain philosophical questions, such as What is real? What is truth? What is beauty? What is knowledge? What is justice? What is beauty? What is the ideal society?, along with more practical questions, such as how to construct a proper mathematics, or what is the philosophical justification for philosophical reasoning.

However, the formal sciences soon became separated from philosophy, and, as time passed, absorbed the philosophies that they had been developed to answer.

Some philosophers (and mathematicians) also often use the term "formal" to mean "exact", which differs from the way that the term is used in the sciences.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2021 Muhammad Rafiq

Comments

Muhammad Rafiq (author) from Pakistan on October 12, 2021:

Thank you for taking the time to leave a comment. I agree with you! It's only natural that we enjoy things that we used to despise as children.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on October 12, 2021:

What is science? It is something I hated as a student, but something I loved as an adult. :)

Muhammad Rafiq (author) from Pakistan on October 12, 2021:

Thank you for taking the time to comment, Umesh Chandra.

Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on October 12, 2021:

Well written article. Thank you for sharing.

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