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World War 1 History: Maria Bochkareva—Commander of 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death

I try to make history readable and interesting, warts and all. We must look to the past to understand the present and confront the future.

Maria Bochkareva

WW1: Maria Leontievna Bochkareva (Yashka), earlier in the war.

WW1: Maria Leontievna Bochkareva (Yashka), earlier in the war.

War Is Not For the Fairer Sex

Throughout the history of war, there have been stories of women posing as men in order to fight the enemy. War was a man's domain and women, considered the weaker sex, had duties at home. They needed to be protected and had no business participating in the bestiality of war. However, when the very scale of the First World War forced millions of men to leave their homes and jobs to fight, industry begrudgingly allowed women to work men's jobs in their factories. Very little mention was made that some manufacturing conditions were almost as vile as those at the front, minus the shooting and shelling, of course. Women who wanted to serve in the armed forces basically had one recourse at the time: become nurses. Even then, their arrival near the front was viewed as “improper female interference in army life.” That changed when the casualty lists grew, and statistics (there were plenty of statistics) showed that speedy medical attention could make the difference between life and death and, more importantly, a shorter recuperation period, allowing wounded soldiers to return more quickly to the trenches. Toward the end of the war, women were even allowed to join military units in administrative positions to free up more men to go down into the trenches. But women were absolutely not allowed to fight— except in Russia.

An Exemption For Maria

Now, even Russia had rules forbidding women joining the army, but some did fight. For the first few years of the war, the few women who actually fought in the front lines required the complicity of military officials-- except one. When Maria Leontievna Bochkareva (1889 - 1920) wanted to join the army in 1914, the government, for unknown reasons, issued her an exemption. She was allowed to join and fight in a combat unit as a woman. Having endured life as a peasant in Siberia, first with an abusive father and then with two successive abusive husbands, she channeled her hatred into a desire to defend her country against the Germans. She sent a telegram to Tsar Nicholas II "Emperor of All the Russias" asking for permission to enlist and, to everyone's amazement, her request was approved.

Commander Bochkareva

WW1: Commander Maria Bochkareva, photo taken some time around 1918

WW1: Commander Maria Bochkareva, photo taken some time around 1918

Wounds and Medals

Initially, her fellow soldiers were rough on her, but she was already hardened and a quick learner. She soon established “proper relations with the men” and they even came to respect her. After training, her unit was sent to the front in 1915. During their first battle, she slipped into No Man's land and retrieved dozens of wounded men for which she was awarded a medal. She was also wounded in the leg. After recuperating, she went back to the front lines and was wounded in the hand and arm. Again she was put up for a medal, but this time it was denied simply because she was a woman.

Promotions, More Wounds, and More Medals

In the winter of 1915, she was put in charge of 12 stretcher-bearers and, after a terrible battle, worked two weeks to extract 500 corpses from the battlefield. For this, she was awarded another medal and promoted to Corporal. She then volunteered to lead a thirty-man scouting team and, during one of her patrols, bayoneted a German.

In March 1916, Bochkareva's right leg was shattered by a bullet. After recuperating and once again returning to her unit, she was paralyzed three months later when a piece of shrapnel struck the base of her spine. Miraculously, she recovered the use of her legs, learned to walk again and returned to the front six months later with a new medal and a promotion to the equivalent of sergeant.

In another battle, she was captured with 500 other soldiers but escaped when reinforcements came to their rescue. During her escape, she killed ten Germans with grenades. She received another medal.

Women's Battalion of Death

WW1: 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death

WW1: 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death

Maria Forms the Women's Battalion of Death

After the Tsar abdicated in March 1917, Bochkareva was asked to form an all-female combat unit by the Provisional Government. Maria had already proved a woman could fight and the government wanted to shame the men at the front into fighting by seeing women fight. Her 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death attracted 2,000 female volunteers, but Bochkareva's strict harsh discipline reduced this to 300. After the women were trained, she was promoted to Lieutenant and given a revolver and saber with handles of gold. They were then sent to the front to fight in the June Offensive of 1917. While waiting for orders at the front, Bochkareva was promoted to captain. When their time came, the Women's Battalion of Death went over the top as a unit while many other battalions hung back or only mustered some of their men. It appears, however, that seeing women crossing No Man's Land did galvanize many men to action and soon most of the troops advanced. The women managed to cross three German trench lines before being repelled. Many men trailing behind found stashes of vodka and got drunk and were of little help. Finally pushed back, the 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death returned to their original postions with 200 prisoners and minimal casualties. Bochkareva was wounded once again and sent to Petrograd to recuperate.

1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death's Officers

WW1: The officers of the 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death with Bochkareva bottom left.

WW1: The officers of the 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death with Bochkareva bottom left.

October Revolution

Bochkareva was involved, though only marginally, with setting up three more Women's Battalions during 1917. She was back at the front when the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government in October 1917. Shortly thereafter, her unit was disbanded as the Reds (Bolsheviks) and the Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) fought for control of Russia. She was arrested by the Bolsheviks for supporting the Provisional Government and sentenced to execution, but an old comrade intervened and she was allowed to leave the country.

Petrograd 1917

WW1: Volunteer "1st Women's Death Battalion" of Russian Army of Mariya Bochkareva (Yashka). Petrograd. Summer 1917

WW1: Volunteer "1st Women's Death Battalion" of Russian Army of Mariya Bochkareva (Yashka). Petrograd. Summer 1917


By this time, Bochkareva was famous. She went to the United States where she was sponsored by wealthy socialites and met with President Woodrow Wilson. She dictated her memoirs Yashka: My Life As Peasant, Exile, and Soldier (“Yashka” was her nickname). She then went to Great Britain where she had an audience with King George V and the British War Office funded her return to Russia. She had come a long way-- from an illiterate peasant girl to meeting with generals, presidents and kings.

Execution Paperwork

Execution notice for Maria Bochkareva 1920

Execution notice for Maria Bochkareva 1920

Captured Again, Executed

While trying to form a women's medical unit for the White Army in 1919, she was again captured by the Bolsheviks. She was interrogated for four months before being found guilty as an enemy of the people. She was executed by firing squad on May 16, 1920.

© 2012 David Hunt


The60life from England on April 27, 2012:

UnnamedHarald- Me neither! All the Best

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David Hunt (author) from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on April 27, 2012:

Thanks for the comment and vote up, 60. You're right-- considering she joined in 1914, lived through the war, the revolution(s), etc, as well as all her wounds. A remarkable woman indeed-- but I don't think I would have liked to get on her bad side.

The60life from England on April 27, 2012:

Hi UnnamedHarald What a remarkable woman, and a fascinating piece of history.So sad that she should eventually die in the way she did;but perhaps she was lucky to have lived as long as she did, frequently placing herself in the frontline, as it were. Really enjoyed your piece.It's a vote-up from me.

David Hunt (author) from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on April 12, 2012:

aethelthryth-- Maria was not the type to "have the vapors" and, while the rest of her male comrades were tired of fighting for whoever seemed to be in charge, she wanted to lead her troops into battle. Thanks for commenting.

rlbert00-- yeah, don't let a little thing like shrapnel paralyzing me, get me walking so I can go back. thanks again for reading and commenting.

old albion-- I hadn't heard of Maria either, but that may be because I know less (so far) about the other fronts of the war. I plan on rectifying that. thanks for commenting and voting.

Graham Lee from Lancashire. England. on April 12, 2012:

Hi UH. nother informative hub. I had never heard of Marie before. voted up / interesting.


rlbert00 from USA on April 11, 2012:

The first thought that crossed my mind while reading this was "good night", this woman and the ones that joined her in the Women's Battalion of Death had no quit in them. The resilience that she showed fighting off all of those injuries is really quite miraculous. Excellent article on another topic that I was completely ignorant about. Nicely done.

aethelthryth from American Southwest on April 11, 2012:

There are always exceptions both ways, but in my experience, overall it is harder to get women to start fighting than men. But it is also MUCH harder to get them to stop. Both qualities complicate trying to command them as troops.

But that's women who have had a normal life. A woman who has had an abusive father and two abusive husbands has not had a normal life, and I can imagine she did very well what she did.

Thank you for another interesting Hub.

David Hunt (author) from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on April 11, 2012:

Hi, Natashalh. I'm afraid I haven't heard of Maria Oktyabrskaya. It's my understanding that many women served in the Soviet Army in combat during World War Two. I have to believe that Maria Bochkareva had some influence even though she became a non-person. Thanks for the comment.

Natasha from Hawaii on April 11, 2012:

Are you familiar with Maria Oktyabrskaya? She was a T-34 driver. Though, she was posthumously awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union medal, so I don't know how good at it she was...

David Hunt (author) from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on April 11, 2012:

Thanks, Alastar. Yes, it was a surprise and Marie, in some circles, was considered for a time to be one of the most influential women of her era. The Stalinists, however, erased her from history (as best they could) because she supported the Whites and it's my understanding that Russians still don't know much, if anything, about her.

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on April 11, 2012:

Always wanted to read more on the WBD and you've done that just fine here UH. Surprised some about the Tsar's approval of Maria. Talk about notable women in military history, Marie was something else no pun intended. An ignominious end but a historical female notable for sure. Up and interest UH.

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