"A true friend whom you trust well and wish for his good will, go with gifts and keep company with him".
Mysteriously, when the Danes and Norsemen were so close in Ireland, why was Wales never colonised to the same extent as the rest of the British Isles?
Norse settlement of Wales was sparse
They settled in small numbers around St. Davids, Haverfordwest, Milford Haven and Tenby. The obvious names such as Skokholm, Skomer and Tenby reflect evidence of Norse settlement. Less obvious with its modern-sounding name is Swansea, which would have then read as: Sveins-ey, Swein's Island established in the early years of the 11th Century by Svein Haraldsson, 'Forkbeard' (Tveskegg in Danish, 'two-beards') ostensibly at a time when Svein met with ship trouble, i.e., either coming to grief on the skerries or storm damage. From there he followed the coast round to Chester during his campaign against Aethelred II, 'Unraed'.
Norse settlement was limited by the power of the Welsh princes. Following a successful Viking alliance with Brittany in AD865 the Britons (Cwmran) made peace with the Danes and a Danish-Welsh alliance defeated an Anglian army from Mercia in AD878. There were still skirmishes with the Welsh, however.
Svein 'Forkbeard' was by AD1013 accepted as king in parts of Aethelred's kingdom, albeit briefly, as well as Denmark and Norway. 'Sveins-ey' was at the estuary of the River Tawe. The Gower Peninsula had Norse place names such as the Great Orm's Head (Orm being the Norse reference for Serpent, or Dragon; it could also be a man's first name). Twenty miles west of Cardiff is Tusker Rock, from Toske, who settled the area with hos followers.
The first recorded raid on Welsh shores was recorded in AD852. Random attacks were made up until about AD919. Rhodri 'Mawr' (Rhodri 'the Great'), the ruler of Gwynedd from AD844 led the initial counter-attacks. In AD903 Dublin Danes led by Ingimund went on to Anglesey after being expelled from Ireland, only to be repulsed by the Welsh and sailing on east to Chester. The next stage of raiding came around AD950, after the death of Hywel Dda, the 'king' of Gwynedd, and Deheubarth in the south-west. There were numerous raids in coastal lowlands, and in particular on religious sites such as Penmon and Caer Gybi on Anglesey and Clynnog Fawr in Caernarfon (Caernarvonshire). St Davids was attacked eleven times between AD967 and AD1091. Yet Wales suffered lightly compared with Ireland - this may yet prove misleading due to poor documentary records. A third era of raids took place in the second half of the 11th Century linked to events leading up to the Norman invasion of England.
Sometimes the Welsh and West Saxons combined against the Danes, setting their differences aside. In the AD890's a large army landed in Wessex with reinforcements from the Danelaw, ravaged Mercia and headed for the Welsh border. A West Saxon army caught up with them, defeating them at Buttington in AD893 (near Welshpool, Gwent/Monmouthshire.). The Saxons were supported by a number of the Welsh. In AD914 again a Viking fleet from Brittany raided in southern Wales and entered the Wye Valley, taking captive Cyfeilog the Bishop of Llandaff. King Eadward 'the Elder' paid the £40 ransom on him. Thrown back by by the garrisons of Hereford and Gloucester, the Danes left for Steepholm in the Bristol Channel where many died of hunger.
The Norse tongue made little impact, if anything, on the Welsh. Some prominent coastal features, navigational points such as those already named above have Norse names but there are no 'linguistic incursions' on Welsh. There are burial sites - such as one by the shore on Anglesey. This is the best area for Viking finds, being an easy day's sailing from Dublin or the Wirral - or Man. A few high status burials are also located on Anglesey who migrated from Dublin. At Llanbedrgoch near Red Wharf Bay there was a 7th Century settlement built up into a 10th Century stockade or fortification which might have been the hub of several smaller Norse settlements. There is a Viking interment at the head of a beach nearby, and there are other non-Christian burials outside the settlement walls.
Displacement of Viking leaders from Ireland in the early 10th Century created 'ripples' around the Irish Sea. By the middle of that century its shores had been turned into a Scandinavian community of traders and craftsmen. No evidence for its equivalent in Wales of a Dublin-styled city exists, but some Norse leaders had Welsh connections and some - like Olaf Haraldsson (killed at Stiklestad in AD1030) in the early 11th Century - may have ruled for a short time on Anglesey and mainland Gwynedd. Some of the grave finds point to inter-marriage and scattered individual Norse settlement.
It seems that Wales was a 'closed shop' to the Norsemen, much better defended than much of England, Ireland and Scotland. However, there is also an 'ethnic' pointer in that Wales was not as open to the Danes - for example - as East Anglia, the East Midlands, Yorkshire and Kent. There the people already had a linguistic link and widespread Danish settlement was effected through trade, as was Ireland. Wessex and Wales did not enter into alliances with the Danes, and although trade was entered into with the Norsemen from Dublin and other Norse-Irish centres, these areas were more often attacked by Viking raiders.
In the 11th Century Gruffyth ap Llewellyn allied himself with Aelfgar, Earl Leofric's rebellious son. When Aelfgar went to ireland he came back with a Dublin-Danish fleet and raided the Wirral and Mersey coast with the aid of Gruffyth. Parts of the area were still recorded by Domesday in AD1086 as 'waste', even though they had been raided well over thirty years before.
Long afterward, in the late 15th Century Henry, Earl of Richmond landed at Milford Haven with an army from France and met Richard III at Bosworth Field in 1485. Henry was later crowned King Henry VII.
Next - 6: Vikings in the pay of the Eastern Emperor
Norse and Danish name connections
Less pressed than most parts of the British Isles, Wales hardly noticed a Danish or Norse presence. Safe havens were important and the extreme south-west of the principality was not short of anchorages for raiders who saw little reason to push inland. Tom Ridd gives you the reasons behind the relative lack of Viking incursions here.
Where Danish and Norse settlement was felt in Wales
© 2012 Alan R Lancaster
Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on August 24, 2017:
Hello Livetech, I have my sources. The Norse occupation around Britain was never as intense in Wales for some reason, although trade went on with the Danish-Irish settlements on the east coast (Dublin, Waterford and Wexford). Seen the rest of the series? There's quite a few that include Norse exploration of the New World, Norse settlement of Russia and the Ukraine etc., Varangian Guard, the gods... They'll keep you quiet for a while before you go on to the DANELAW YEARS series and the Saga of Hrolf Kraki (a Danish king of the Skjoldung dynasty in the 7th century. Good hunting!
Paul Levy from United Kingdom on August 24, 2017:
A very informative article, you seem very knowledgeable on this. So much history in Wales to learn about!
Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on April 16, 2012:
Thanks Trish. Have you read the ones on Scotland and Ireland? There was more interplay between the Norsemen in England, Ireland and Scotland than betwen any of them and Wales except for raiding, as you've seen. I'm in the process of charting them in Greenland and the 'New World' and the next one will look at the relationship between Norway, Orkney and Shetland in legend - the greater source of information on the colonisation of the islands.
Tricia Mason from The English Midlands on April 14, 2012:
Another very interesting piece of history!