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Viking - 29: The Saga of Man, Manx Crosses and the Kings of Man

"He is lucky who is looked up to for good counsel. That given unasked by others is often not so wise".

Havamal

Ballaquayle Hoard, Douglas

Part of the Ballaquayle hoard from the Isle of Man,     uncovered in 1894,on show in the Manx Museum

Part of the Ballaquayle hoard from the Isle of Man, uncovered in 1894,on show in the Manx Museum

More of the Ballaquayle hoard - the finds include 78 coins minted in England

More of the Ballaquayle hoard - the finds include 78 coins minted in England

At its height in AD1095 the Norse kingdom of Man held sway over the Hebridean islands to the west of Scotland.

The graves say it all, with pagan memorials pointing to Norse settlement from the later 9th Century. The Christian Erse-Gaelic population was ruled and not wiped out by the newcomers. The Norsemen were eventually converted in the 10th Century, as indicated by a fine array of carved memorial crosses that demonstrate a crossing-over of Norse and Gaelic art-forms.

Nineteen silver hoards that date from between AD960-1070 show Manx prosperity rested on its links with the Dublin Danes. From the 1030's coins were minted, modelled on the Dublin style. Although the names of a few earlier kings are identifiable, the chronicled history of Man begins with the reign of Godred 'Crovan'. King Godred won control of the island from the time of the battle of Skyhill in AD1079. He welded Man and the Hebrides into a single entity, ruled Dublin for a short time and received tribute from Galloway on the mainland of Scotland.

The administration of the kingdom of Man and the isles was broken down into five districts, which altogether sent thirty-two delegates to the annual assembly, the Tynwald. After Godred's death in Ad1095 fighting broke out within the kingdom and the Norwegian king Magnus 'Barelegs' Olafsson wrested control of Man from its rulers in AD1098. Godred's son Olaf I ruled from AD1113 to 1153, but he was forced to acknowledge Norway's right over the islands. Godred II ruled from AD1153 but lost his hold on the Southern Hebrides to the Scots-Gaelic chieftain Sumarlidi (also known as Somerled). The kingdom was weakened from then on and the rest of the Hebrides were taken into direct Scottish rule by AD1263. Man itself was yielded up to Scotland by Norway after the death of Magnus Olafsson in AD1266. The Treaty of Perth was agreed with Alexander III. In return for the cessation of sovereignty over the Hebrides and Man a lump sum of four thousand marks of refined silver was agreed, in four yearly payments. Furthermore, a yearly tribute of one hundred marks was to be paid in perpetuity. Norway's sovereignty over Orkney and Sheltand was to be respected and they remained a Scandinavian dominion (under Danish rule at the time they were given over by King Frederik II as his daughter Anne's dowry to James VI of Scotland [James I of England] in the mid-16th Century because his coffers had been cleaned out fighting the Swedes and Prussians).

Manx Crosses

Almost fifty carved stone memorial crosses were erected from the mid-10th to early-11th Centuries by its Norse rulers on the Isle of Man following their conversion to Christianity. Many take the form of rectangular slabs of local slate on which wheel-headed crosses were laid. These wheel-headed crosses were carved in low-relief. A few free-standing Celtic-styled crosses are also known. Ornament of the earliest crosses reveals strong Celtic and Anglian influence, yet Scandinavian decorative styling - after the Danish Jellinge and Mammen pattern - dominated later examples. Several crosses show scenes from the legend of Sigurd 'Fafnisbane'. Others, like Thorvald's cross at Andreas, show images of Ragnaroek and other Norse mythology. Purely Christian scenes are rare. Although memorial inscriptions are in Norse or carved runes, a number celebrate community members with Celtic names, showing inter-marriage between the Norsemen and Gaelic women to be commonplace. The crosses are likely to have been made by Norse sculptors, one being Gaut Bjoernsson around AD950 identified by name from inscriptions on two of his crosses.

Chronicles of the kings of Man and the Isles

[Cronica regum Manniae et insularum].

The one most important source for the lives of the Norse kings of Man and the Hebrides from AD1016 until the kingdom was ceded to Scotland in AD1266; the chronicles - written in Latin - also cover events on Man up to AD1377. Being the work of various authors the earlier entries were set down from Manx oral tradition, eye-witness telling as well as Scots and English chronicles. There are serious errors in their chronology but these accounts are seen as broadly reilable for their coverage of events.

Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Isles ed. and transl. G Broderick (Douglas, IOM 1995)

Norse kings of Man

Harald (d.AD940) King of Limerick, a shadowy figure about whom several conflicting stories have been told, none substantiated

Godfred (d.AD989) King of the Isles

Ragnald/Ragnall (d.AD1004/5) King of the Isles

Lagmann (ruled.around AD1014) King of the Isles

Olaf (killed Clontarf April 23, 1014)

Ragnald/Ragnall - ?

Norse-Gaelic kings of Man

Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (d.AD1065) King of Dublin, Galloway and Man

(mor md.) Tadg Ua Briain (d.AD1086) King of Munster

This king had several sons, one being Amlaib (Olaf) mac Taidg (d.1096)


Norse Man

The Isle of Man, situated halfway between England and Ireland, and the same distance from Scotland, the isle is handy in the centre of the Irish Sea for tourists

The Isle of Man, situated halfway between England and Ireland, and the same distance from Scotland, the isle is handy in the centre of the Irish Sea for tourists

Norse early stone tomb carvings on the Isle of Man

Norse early stone tomb carvings on the Isle of Man

Hammered pewter Thor's Hammer - Mjoellnir - pendant

Hammered pewter Thor's Hammer - Mjoellnir - pendant

The north coast of Man with some of the multi-horned Loaghtan sheep brought by the Norsemen in the 10th Century

The north coast of Man with some of the multi-horned Loaghtan sheep brought by the Norsemen in the 10th Century

The Balladoole ship burial site, the shape 'drawn' in stones around the corpse interment

The Balladoole ship burial site, the shape 'drawn' in stones around the corpse interment

The Braaid longhouse foundation remains

The Braaid longhouse foundation remains

Not as straightforward as it might seem. Norse settlement here was not as on Orkney or Shetland, for example, in the lee of Scandinavia. [The Isle of] Man has a strong Celtic heritage. Many of Norsemen 'went native', their women being of Irish descent their offspring were given Gaelic names. Culturally Man is at a crossroads between the Gaelic Irish and Scots culture and that of the Norse. Government was of a strongly Norse character, the place of assembly being the Tynwald, related to the 'Thing', the three-legged emblem symbolising the Manxmen's ability to land on their feet despite all drawbacks or setbacks.

Commemorating the Manx Norse connection

Manx Post Office 1983 stamp marks the arrival in AD 938 of the first permanent Norse settlers

Manx Post Office 1983 stamp marks the arrival in AD 938 of the first permanent Norse settlers

Craftsman repairs tools at the 2006 Viking Festival

Craftsman repairs tools at the 2006 Viking Festival

Maughold early stone ship carving illustrates the means of arrival by the Norsemen in the first half of the 10th Century

Maughold early stone ship carving illustrates the means of arrival by the Norsemen in the first half of the 10th Century

Man's location in the Irish Sea - almost equidistant from Heysham on the Lancashire coast in England and Dublin in the ROI

Man's location in the Irish Sea - almost equidistant from Heysham on the Lancashire coast in England and Dublin in the ROI

IOM Travel Guide shows all the island's historical attractions in its links with Scandinavia and the Industrial Revolution on mainland Britain

IOM Travel Guide shows all the island's historical attractions in its links with Scandinavia and the Industrial Revolution on mainland Britain

© 2012 Alan R Lancaster

Comments

Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on December 08, 2019:

There were several covers for the IoM 1000 years' anniversary, I think I might know the one you mean, a romanticised Victorian era Viking image. The emblem, the three legs means whichever way you threw it, it would land on one foot, meaning the Manxmen are resilient.

Glad you enjoyed it Robert. Going on a 'tour' of my Hub Pages? Try the STORYLINE account of the 'Codfather'. I've been given several reviews for that, including one about the way the dialogue was handled. Happy reading..

Robert Sacchi on December 07, 2019:

A rich history. Thank you for sharing. Among the items I picked up over the years was an Isle of Man stamp I got in New York. It celebrates the Viking Heritage also.

Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on April 07, 2013:

Welcome in, Becca. There's a whole range of these Hub-pages under the heading 'VIKING'. There are also a number under the 'DANELAW' heading - and don't forget to visit the 'RAVENFEAST' and 'NORTHWORLD SAGA SITE' page with its link to my Webeden site.

Take your place on one of the long benches near the hearth, hold your cup out to be filled and let the skald spin you a tale or two. Learn of Viking deeds, Angles, Saxons and Jutes before the coming of another Viking nation, the Normans. A veritable feast for early mediaeval history lovers!

Rebecca Furtado from A Cornfied in the Midwest on April 06, 2013:

Really interesting hub. Helps us understand the ties of Norse and Celtic Culture.

Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on July 23, 2012:

Hello UnnamedHarald. Man is on the margin, that's why it's not at the forefront of your thoughts. It's been on the margin since 1266, I think. Before that it was just off-centre of an Irish Sea Empire. Orkney and Man battled for supremacy against the Gaels and amongst themselves from time to time; extended sea empires that were taken over by the Norwegian crown and reached up from between the bigger landmasses of Britain to the western isles and Iceland by way of the Faeroes.

David Hunt from Cedar Rapids, Iowa on July 21, 2012:

Very interesting article. So the Vikings ran Man even after William and the Normans conquered the Anglo-Saxons! I didn't realize that. Though I'm not all that familiar with the Isle of Man, I often wondered at it's relative independence.

Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on July 20, 2012:

Sorry about that Nell, it was Sigtrygg 'Caech' ('Squinty') who came over to be king in Jorvik and agreed a treaty with Aethelstan in AD926 at Tamworth.

Sigtrygg 'Silkbeard' on the other hand was defeated in AD1014 at Clontarf and later founded Christ Church cathedral in Dublin in AD1030. He only left Ireland to visit Rome (twice, second time he was murdered on his way there).

Alan R Lancaster (author) from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on July 20, 2012:

Hello Nell! Why don't you visit my Hub page about the Earls of Orkney in the VIKING series? There's also a Penguin Paperback titled ORKNEYINGA SAGA translated from the Old Norse by Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards. There's also the piece about the Vikings in Ireland that cross-references with that as well as Sigtrygg 'Silkbeard'. He was the Danish king of Dublin thrown out by Brian Boru in 1014 and went to Jorvik, only to be defeated by King Aethelstan. Aethelstan led an English-Danelaw force at in the Battle of 'Brunanburh' (NW England), in which several kings from Wales, Ireland and Scotland were defeated. It all 'knits' together like a tapestry.

Nell Rose from England on July 20, 2012:

Hi alan, I never realised that the Norse had gone to the west of scotland, I knew a little about the isle of man, the name being taken from the norse, but nothing else. I love watching programmes about the hoards they find, it tells us so much about the history of who went where and when they converted to christianity, fascinating stuff, thanks, and voted up! cheers nell