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Uses of Freeze Drying

Lyophilization in Industry

A scientist observes product frozen in freeze-dryer trays.

A scientist observes product frozen in freeze-dryer trays.

Lyophilization Equipment

Lyophilizers, or freeze-dryers, may be used to desiccate everything from pharmaceuticals to flowers.

Lyophilizers, or freeze-dryers, may be used to desiccate everything from pharmaceuticals to flowers.

What is Freeze Drying?

Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, is the removal of water from a substance using controlled temperature cycles and a vacuum. The product is frozen, and slowly warmed under vacuum: the frozen water molecules in the item are then sublimed – they pass directly from the solid “ice” phase directly to the gas “vapor” phase, completely bypassing the liquid phase. The vacuum pulls the water vapor away from the product and onto a frozen condenser coil, where the vapor re-freezes. This part of the process is termed “primary drying.”

After the primary drying process is complete, a secondary drying process is initiated. Secondary drying involves the removal of any residual, non-frozen water molecules that remain in the product. The temperature is increased – a different lyophilization cycle is used for different products (the adsorption isotherms, or temperature at which the water molecules remain bound to a material, will vary by the product being dried). The amount of vacuum is increased (pressure reduced) to further drive water off the product.

Once the freeze-drying process is complete, the freeze-dried item may be sealed under vacuum or in the presence of an inert gas (usually Nitrogen) to prevent moisture from contaminating the final product.

Freeze-Dried Food for Backpacking

A freeze-dryer is used to preserve strawberries. Lyophilization is an important part of food preservation.

A freeze-dryer is used to preserve strawberries. Lyophilization is an important part of food preservation.

Freeze Dried Food

Many food products are lyophilized as a preservation method. Once a food product has been freeze-dried, the shelf life is extended for an extremely long time. Some food products may have a shelf life of up to 25 years! Freeze-dried food may be used for:

  • Emergency preparedness kits
  • Backpacking and hiking
  • Long term food storage

Since the water has been removed, lyophilized food is extremely lightweight. This makes it extremely useful for camping and hiking, as it is easier to carrier a greater amount of food when it is freeze-dried. The long shelf life is great for storage in an emergency kit or food pantry. The military uses freeze-dried food for MRE’s (“Meals- Ready to Eat”) and NASA uses it for expeditions to space. Water is added when it is time to eat.

Document Restoration and Preservation

Flood and fire damage are terrible tragedies that can occur to any homeowner or business. Often, the water damage from fire sprinklers causes significant damage to property, including documents. Freeze-drying is one method to rescue water-logged books, documents, or even X-rays from damaged hospital labs.

When water-logged paper is lyophilized, the water is removed from the fibers without causing any warping or fading of the document. Rare books and legal documents are usually restored in this manner, as the process causes no damage to the delicate paper.

As a hypothetical example of this use, imagine that several saturated books and wooden toys were found in a 19th century time capsule. A freeze-drier could be used to return the books to their original state, along with the wooden toys.

Freeze-Dried Flowers

Preserving floral arrangements is another commercial application of lyophilization. Many brides wish to preserve their bouquets indefinitely, and will contact a freeze-drying company to perform this service. While expensive, freeze-dried flowers retain their color better and last longer than conventionally dried arrangements.

Another popular modern wedding tradition is to obtain freeze-dried rose petals to toss as the bride and groom leave the ceremony. Unlike fresh rose petals, the freeze dried version will not rot or stain. They are also completely biodegradable, which makes them an environmentally friendly option.

Freeze Drying Pets


Hunters often want to preserve a trophy of the game they catch, and freeze-drying is one of the best ways to create a lasting mount. Fishers sometimes have their catches processed and mounted. Smaller animals and fish are easier to process than larger specimens: most deer and bear are preserved according to more traditional methods (placing the tanned skin over a mount).

As an alternative to burial or cremation, some pet owners have their pets freeze-dried. This is an expensive option for preserving a pet that has passed on, but the animal’s body will be preserved for a very long time. In essence, freeze drying an animal is a form of mummification – the water molecules are removed, preventing any decay.

Freeze-drying cycle time increases with time, so lyophilizing a pet will require a significantly longer period of time than freeze drying a floral bouquet. A small cat can take as long as 3 months, and a larger dog may take six full months to freeze dry!

Pharmaceutical Freeze Drying

Pharmaceutical and Laboratory Use

Lyophilization is used to preserve many different drugs and laboratory reagents. Bacterial strains may be freeze-dried to preserve the strain for future use, or a drug may be lyophilized to improve its stability and shelf life.

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Freeze drying pharmaceutical products reduces shipping weight, improves shelf life, and often removes the requirement for refrigeration. As an example, blood plasma is not particularly stable in liquid form, as clotting factors and other blood enzymes will deteriorate rapidly, despite cold storage. Lyophilized blood plasma is extremely stable, lightweight, and will remain stable for a longer period of time than liquid plasma.

While some freeze-dried vaccines and biological will still require refrigeration, the storage at 2-8°C is preferable to storage of a liquid at -20°C. The ability to lyophilize vaccines and other drugs makes shipment to developing countries possible.

Lyophilization Equipment

Lyophilizers are not only used by large pharmaceutical companies. Many small businesses thrive by selling lyophilized flowers, food products,and performing restoration work. Freeze drying equipment varies in size and may be purchased according to the specific application in mind.

All freeze dryers have the following components:

  • A vacuum chamber
  • Heat-controlled shelves
  • An ice condenser
  • A vacuum pump
  • Refrigerator
  • Vacuum gauge
  • Temperature gauge

Additional useful equipment includes the use of product temperature monitoring probes, and trays to place the product on while it is in the lyophilizer. Lyophilization trays must remain unbent and be made of a conductive material, such as stainless steel. The product must maintain good contact with the shelf during the lyophilization process, as the shelf temperature controls the product temperature.


Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on July 12, 2012:

Dehydrating food via a regular dehydrator is a great way to preserve food, Dehydratedfood. - freeze drying takes it a step farther by completely removing all moisture. Once sealed, the food is good for a VERY long time!

dehydratedfood on July 11, 2012:

Interesting and informative read. I do a lot of dehydrating and this article taught me a lot about another area, freeze-drying. Thanks

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 11, 2012:

Freeze-drying is really useful in many fields - from wedding favors to document restoration. I don't think I could freeze-dry my pet, either, Lindacee. I'd cry all the time - but it must be a comfort to some, as there are several businesses that cater to it. I am so used to saying "lyophilization" that I forget other people have no idea what I am talking about, haha!

Linda Chechar from Arizona on June 11, 2012:

Excellent Hub! Leah, if you don't mind, I'm going to stick with saying 'freeze dried' instead of the scientific term! ;) We take for granted how much we rely on freeze drying in our daily lives. I didn't know documents and xrays could be freeze dried to restore them after flood damage. The info and video about freeze drying pets is fascinating. Don't think I could do it, though. I would cry every time I looked at my freeze dried pet!

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 10, 2012:

Thank you, Om! It has many uses - most of the time we think of "freeze dried ice cream" or other novelty applications, but it has a real place in biotech companies and in document restoration!

Om Paramapoonya on June 10, 2012:

Leah, I've learned so much from this hub. Never thought freeze drying could be useful for document restoration. Thanks for sharing this fascinating info :)

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 09, 2012:

It is definitely possible to freeze-dry vegetables, Chemistry Book. I only used to lyophilize reagents for use in in vitro diagnostic kits. I actually saw the public domain photo featuring the hallway of lyophilizers and had to do a double take because it was so similar to my old lab. The photo above has two Stokes lyophilizers, though, and we only had one. I had a sense of Deja Vu!

Chemistry Book on June 09, 2012:

This is an expert opinion! Am wondering if it's possible to apply freeze drying techniques to the preservation of vegetable products.

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 08, 2012:

SidKemp, the restoration work is fascinating, isn't it? I read one article about an ancient leather artifact being found and restored via lyophilization. Some trophy fish are freeze dried, but others are prepared according to more conventional taxidermy. Still others are merely plastic - some catch-and-release fishermen will have a plastic model made of their fish.

Sid Kemp from Boca Raton, Florida (near Miami and Palm Beach) on June 08, 2012:

Interesting stuff! I've been around the library field for over 20 years, and the new one for me was repairing water damage for library books! I also didn't know that those trophy fish people hang on plaques were freeze-dried!

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 08, 2012:

It is a good idea to keep emergency rations on hand - we don't get hurricanes, but I should have a blizzard "emergency" pack - you never know when we'll get massive snowfall amounts, and it can be hard to get to the store.

Dianna Mendez on June 07, 2012:

Good hub article and with lots of interesting information on the types of freeze drying. You have reminded me of the option of keeping this type of food handy through the hurricane season. Voted up.

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 07, 2012:

They make fairly small freeze dryers that work well with small projects like flowers - freeze dryers are pretty expensive, so a frugal bride would be better off drying her bouquet in a box of silica gel - but freeze dryers do give a superior "look!" Thanks for the comment, Simone!

Simone Haruko Smith from San Francisco on June 07, 2012:

Wow, I hadn't known that flowers are sometimes freeze-dried. That's fascinating! I love the technical term for it, too: lyophilization- how fun is that??

Thanks for the great explanation!

Leah Lefler (author) from Western New York on June 07, 2012:

Thanks, Riverfish! I used to lyophilize all sorts of things when I worked for an in-vitro diagnostics lab. Most of them were not very.. "palatable," haha!

Riverfish24 from United States on June 07, 2012:

So very interesting.

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