I am a Chemistry lecturer and have taking time to discuss some of these intriguing terms and concepts about Nano–research and Nano–studies.
Twelve Essential Nano Terms and Concepts that is common and Popular
The current emerging and cross disciplinary area of science and technology, and engineering called “Nano” is an interesting area that affects every other area of our lives. It is an interesting area that brings together many disciplines of science and technology into harmony to find a common solution; hence I want to share some of these intriguing terms and concepts with you in this article
- Nanometer or nanoscale: defined as one millionth of a millimeter. Approximately 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. If substances become nanometer size, many properties can be modified and improved.
- Nanoparticle: they are particles in the nanoscale being studied for a number of nano applications. Nanoparticles are undetected to the naked eye and have a very large surface area to volume ratio when compared to bulk materials.
- Nanomaterials: they are defined as a set of materials where at least one dimension is less than approximately 100 nanometers. Nanomaterials demonstrate brilliant properties such as excellent chemical and physical stabilities, lower density, and large surface area. Nanomaterials are popular in the design and development of novel functional materials.
- Nanostructure: they are structures with one or more dimensions existing in the nanoscale (< 100 nm). They are classified as Zero dimensional, one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional nanostructures. Nanostructures can comprise of multiple materials or singe material.
- Nanocomposites: nanocomposites are composites wherein at least one of the phases shows dimensions in the nanometer range (1 nm = 10−9 m). It is synthesized by adding nanoparticles to a solid to create a multiphase material with improved properties.
- Nanoscience: it is the study of structures and its manipulation on the nanometer scale. It also studies the study of matter and its properties in nanoscale. It is a cross disciplinary study that involves chemistry, physics, biology, medicine and architecture/computing.
- Nanotechnology: nanotechnology is defined as the design, production and application of nanostructures, nano–devices and nano–systems. In another definition, it involves the processing, separation, and deformation of materials by one atom. It focuses on studying nanomaterials and properties to create something new and different
- Nanochemistry: it is the study and synthesis of new materials with nanometer size. It emphasizes on solid state chemistry. It employs tools of synthetic chemistry and materials chemistry to understand new “synthetic degrees of freedom” of size, shape, surface, and self‐assembly.These properties mainly define nanochemistry in an area of research
- Nanobiology and nanobiotechnology: nanobiology studies biology with nanotechnologies. Nanobiology was not defined as a discipline until researchers started making a focused effort to use nanotechnology to tackle biological problems. It focuses on the interactions between molecules, cells and organisms, based on fundamental principles of physics. Nanobiotechnology studies the unique physicochemical and biological properties of nanomaterials and structures and their applications in pharmacy, medicine and agriculture. It deals with the synthesis, control, manipulation, and bio–functionalization of structures at the nanometer scale.
- Nanophysics: nanophysics use theoretical and experimental methods to determine the physical properties of materials in the nanoscale range. It is halfway between quantum mechanics and macroscopic physic that studies materials and structures with nanometer dimensions or existing in nanoseconds.
- Nanoengineering: it is defined as the development and refinement of materials that deals with all aspects of design, building, machines and structure in the nanoscale. Nanoengineering is also the atomic scale engineering which embraces all fields of engineering operating on nanoscale and how they are applied in making new systems, structures, materials and devices
- Nanomedicine: it is the application of nanotechnology in medicine. It includes a wide range of nanomaterials and biological devices. It comprises of the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in monitoring, diagnosing, treating and prevention of diseases. Nanomedicine is able to create new and innovative medical solution to address previously unmet medical needs
Nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely bolstered by the increasing research in disciplines involved in nano-research. Moreover, several ongoing researches will lead to the emergence of more sophisticated and cleverly crafted materials, structures and devices. Therefore I'm recommending that it is necessary that everybody becomes acquainted with the terms and concepts associated with nano-studies and nano-research so we are not left behind. For more information consult nanoscience and nanotechnology textbooks
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2020 Amarachi Nkwoada
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Amarachi Nkwoada (author) from Nigerian on December 20, 2020:
Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on December 19, 2020: