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What is Philosophy
Philosophy is a discipline that investigates fundamental issues about the nature of reality, the human experience, the purpose and meaning of life.
Who are Philosophers
Philosophers are individuals who engage in the pursuit of wisdom. They are people who use their intellect to examine the fundamental Nature of reality, examine human experience, and examine the purpose and meaning of life.
The main topics of philosophical research are metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, and political philosophy.
Thomas Aquinas was born in 1225 AD in southern Italy, then became a Roman Catholic priest and taught philosophy until his death in 1274.His works were published soon thereafter, starting a renaissance period in European thought. He wrote five different Summa Theologiae, two of which remain highly influential today.As the first systematic textbook of Christian ethics ever written, it helped spread knowledge across Europe.
Thomas Aquinas wrote extensively on Aristotle's philosophy. He believed knowledge was gained through reason rather than experience, arguing against empiricism—that knowledge came solely from sensory experiences. His ideas dominated theology and church doctrine throughout Europe until Protestantism became widespread following the Reformation of the sixteenth century.His works were highly influential within European thought.
Aquinas' Arguments This is a good example of a hook He argued for both sides against alchemy, claiming that it could never produce gold but it could prove useful, making other metals useful too. He made two different claims about what nature teaches us. First, natural philosophers learned by studying nature and second, natural philosophy taught us how things worked (nature). Thomas did not believe that anything would come solely from God like the Aristotelians believed. He said, "Nature does nothing randomly.
Confucius was born Kǒng Qiū 551BCE. He lived from 551 BC–479 BCE. He wrote several books called Analects and The Book Of Mencius. He had an extraordinary insight into life's meaning, values, ethics and human nature. His ideas continue to inspire us today. We admire him because he encouraged personal integrity, goodness and loyalty, and emphasised harmony among people. His teaching helped develop morality and self discipline along with respectability and humility.
Who's Confucius? What's his argument? Confucianism began around 500 B.C., flourished in China and Korea throughout ancient times, fell prey to Western influences in Japan and became moribund as Japan grew independent again starting in the 17th century A.D.Confucius himself never wrote anything explicitly calling himself "a teacher," although later Chinese philosophers like Cheng Hao did. Confucius said: Every individual must serve the public well."What is right depends upon circumstances" and "Everything I desire comes from Heaven". He believed that moral behavior had little basis in written laws, instead preferring conformity within the norms of society established for every age group.
Confucius spent his whole life learning the ways of the Lord, teaching them to anyone willing to listen. He was concerned with ethics. What did confucius believe? He believed that in order to become a morally sound human being we needed three key elements :self discipline, benevolence & loyalty to family. How does Confucius argue his point about self discipline & benevolence & loyalty to family
He lived through the fall of ancient China to Qin Shi Huang (the first emperor). He was famous for his belief system based on ethics, values, morality, virtue, religion etc..His teachings were a set of rules on how life ought to be conducted. According to him, the purpose of learning is to change people's hearts and minds.
RALF WALDO EMERSON
RALF WALDO EMERSON is an American poet who wrote "Nature" which he later published in 1913, and has come to be regarded as one of America's greatest poets and writers. His poem "My Heart Leaps Up", written when he was 23, expressed feelings similar to Walt Whitman's. Emerson believed that the main aim of life is understanding nature and feeling deeply connected to it. He thought that poetry could unite humans together, unify different cultures, break down cultural barriers between nations, build trust among groups, heal wounded minds, and inspire human beings.
Emerson was born in Boston Massachusetts in April 19th,1803. He died in October 14th 1880.
Emerson was born October 15th, 1803. He had a deep religious faith in God and believed strongly in moral perfection. His philosophical beliefs were based heavily off Christian doctrine. Emerson thought his duty in life was to devote himself to the service of humanity and nature, with the ultimate goal to realize his relationship with God. His first book titled Representative Men came out in 1890 was written under three themes.
Emerson was concerned with the relationship between thought and life. He believed that we need some kind of moral agency within us, since otherwise we cannot act morally. We need to learn morality through practical experience rather than abstractly thinking about ethics. According to him, philosophy is just another name for love.We try to understand each other, we try to give help to each other. We are all responsible for the fate of ourselves
Immanuel Kant was born of German parents, Johann Gottlieb Fichter (1707–1763) and Maria Anna Thekla von Anspach(1713 – 1785). His father had moved to Berlin soon after marriage. Kant grew up in Stuttgart, Wittenberg and Halle which were three cities near Tübingen. Many countries now import crude oil from places in foreign lands.Oil prices fluctuate daily depending on what country produces it and how quickly we consume it.We need to conserve our energy sources by conserving fossil fuels.
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher. He is mainly famous for his Critique Of Pure Reason. The central thesis in Kant's critical thinking is transcendental realism, i.e., it argues that we cannot justify a judgment unless we presuppose universal concepts. Thus, although objects exist independently of us, they appear "to" us through particular appearances. These are called modes of intuition. We apprehend some phenomena via categories – rules governing relations within our experience.
Kant was born on May 28th, 1724, and spent most of his life writing philosophical works before he passed away on February 12,1804. He developed a theory called the Critiques, which dealt mainly with questions concerning reality and morality. His book ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ deals mainly with metaphysics i.e. rational thinking about human beings and nature.
He was an Austrian philosopher. Nietzsche was born Frederick William Richard Wagner in Röblingen, Germany, in 1844 and died in 1900. He wrote extensively on philosophy and literature at a young age and had great influence throughout Europe. Though he has not been universally recognized as a philosophical genius, he nevertheless contributed significantly to modern thought. Nietzsche, along with Sigmund Freud, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Albert Einstein, is regarded as a major precursor to existentialism.His main contribution lay in developing a theory regarding 'the eternal return' in which he theorized that existence is cyclical in nature.
Today's society places too much value on physical beauty, intelligence and wealth rather than character and virtues. Accordingly, Nietzsche advocated replacing conventional moral beliefs and attitudes with a new ethos of courage, self reliance and individuality and rejecting traditional concepts of morality based on duty and religion.Nietzsche said that "God was dead." He argued that religious values had lost sight of life's deeper truths and that Western civilisation itself was in decline due to political corruption, decadence and nihilism.It's easy to say we need recycling but what kind makes sense?
Nietzsche considered modernity to be nihilistic – meaning devoid of value.He believed there was nothing worthwhile except suffering and self-overcoming.Modern societies were based on the false assumption that reality existed independently of human understanding.To him, existence wasn’t real until interpreted through his own mind; therefore humanity had corrupted nature rather than created new forms.Accordingly, Nietzsche wanted to create a "new ideal" and hoped mankind could develop beyond
After reading Nietzsche’s writings, many thinkers became interested in him. They thought he was brave enough to question conventional thinking and challenge some beliefs. Nietzsche argued passionately against Christianity‘s belief in God and Christ.He felt strongly that religion had harmed humanity throughout history.Instead of blaming God for human suffering, he blamed humans themselves for creating false gods. He said we were now stuck believing in an idealised version of reality rather than confronting real problems head on.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who believed that man was born naturally good, and. John Locke argued against the idea of innate moral rights in human beings by arguing instead that humans had acquired basic natural freedoms via a process of gradual evolution. Rousseau's belief is that a child develops morality through its interactions with nature itself. Thus, he said that children naturally possess a sense of justice, generosity and benevolence, which they gain knowledge of throughout life. He claims that if children grow up interacting with nature properly, then that interaction is going to affect people positively and they wouldn't feel deprived of things like freedom, dignity, equality or security or of opportunities like employment and prosperity.
Rousseau was born in 1712 in Geneva. He developed revolutionary ideas about society and human nature based on his own experiences. He believed that humans were naturally innocent (nature made us free).Therefore, we need laws imposed on society to ensure justice among citizens.We cannot create true freedom unless we start regulating ourselves internally with respect to each other. Rousseau had strong feelings against inequality and believed in equality. He thought that we were born equal but then start becoming unequal due to inequalities resulting from nature and accidents. Therefore, the only solution to correct this situation was through revolution, meaning overthrowing current power structure to establish a new system. His ideas can be seen in different aspects of life today, including politics, economy and arts.
Karl Marx was born in Germany in Europe and he was known for writing The Communist Manifesto, which explains Marxist economics theory in detail. He also wrote Das Kapital, which helped him gain respect among intellectuals and provided him an opportunity to start the political movement called Communism
Communist societies lack political freedom and equality. Some communist countries had famine and starvation. Marx wrote extensively about the exploitation capitalist owners who were creating poverty for workers. Many philosophers agree that Karl Marx did a great job explaining the problems associated with capitalism and socialism. His ideas greatly influenced thinkers throughout history.Many parents wish to send their child(ren) to private schooling to learn in a disciplined environment with qualified teachers and no peer pressure.
Marx thought that capitalism had come to dominate the whole world system due to its inherent nature of concentrating wealth within itself. He stated that capitalist economic systems create inequality between rich and poor that lead people to look for ways of gaining power that could improve their lives. Marx believed that socialism was inevitable and would eventually win and achieve complete equality among humans. Capitalism did indeed become dominant throughout the entire globe in recent years and it created inequalities everywhere.It was inevitable that other kinds of societies like socialist ones might arise and replace the existing order.
Many people believe that Karl Marx was trying to destroy capitalism and change the whole world. Karl Marx believed that human beings cannot create wealth because humans did nothing except produce goods through labour. Marx then went on the attack against modern economics and saw things differently. He thought that capitalists were exploiting workers under conditions where wages weren't fair, and he thought that these two groups shouldn't be separate anymore.Capitalists should instead share profits among employees fairly equally.
Marxism is based on two principles – 1)that history moves forward as communism develops and 2)social revolution occurs before a communist utopia.
Lao Tzu, the founder of Taoism. During the early dynasties, China's political system had evolved based on the philosophy known as Confucianism.The philosophers associated primarily with Confucianism believed Chinese political life could not function well unless everyone behaved morally. Those who did immoral deeds suffered punishment. People needed to follow ethical rules set forth by sage kings. Confucius taught ethics and moral standards. He insisted upon loyalty between ruler and ruled, and made it clear that the individual must serve the whole nation by doing whatever the sovereign asked without question or complaint.
Throughout history, Lao Tzu was regarded as China's supreme thinker. His teachings consist mainly of advice regarding life and relationships. He believed that humans should pursue enlightenment and harmony so as live happy lives without having to worry about worldly desires such as power, status and wealth. By following his path, individuals live harmoniously with each other, and strive to eliminate selfishness from human interactions.
An important part of Lao Tzu's teachings is that "virtue is power". He believed that we need to develop inner strength in order to face life events successfully and achieve goals. One thing that helps us to build confidence and achieve success is to believe that everything happens for a reason. The more one practices selflessness and goodness toward himself and others, the stronger he becomes mentally and physically. This kind of attitude helps him become one with nature and overcome challenges faced.
In Lao Tzü's book "Tao Te Ching", it is explained clearly that one should avoid harming fellow beings. He said that we should act to meet each situation with wisdom and compassion instead of reacting out of anger. It shows us that life isn't just full of pain and problems; it also holds wonderful opportunities - such as life.Life offers many challenges that test us..
Ludwig Wittgenstien is one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. He was born in Vienna, Austria in 1889 His parents had separated shortly before his birth and later divorced. His father gave up teaching philosophy to live like a farmer until Wittgenstein enrolled in Cambridge University in 1911 where he read Heidegger, Husserl, Frege, Russell, Moore, Dewey, and Waismann among other notable figures. He became increasingly interested in logical investigation and came upon Bertrand Russell's idea concerning 'logical positivism', namely that all propositions can be reduced to facts.Russell later changed "positivistic" and referred to himself as simply a "verificationist".
Wittgenstein influenced philosophers such as Bertrand Russell and John Austin. He spent his life trying to find ways out of philosophical jargon. His aim was to bring clarity to concepts and meaning. As we shall see, Ludwig Wittenstein thought through different possibilities regarding how to understand philosophical terms such as ‘meaning’ and “sense” of expressions. He then tried to understand whether these words were really meaningful when we try to communicate ideas clearly and precisely.
Wittgenstein changed the field of linguistics drastically by rejecting the traditional philosophical position in favor of his own views. He proposed that meanings should be attributed based on psychological processes rather than linguistic objects. By focusing on internal states of mind, instead of external features of words and sentences, he created new ways of looking at philosophy. While previous philosophers had believed that language was logically connected to reality, Wittgenstein claimed that ideas were purely dependent on language games humans play in everyday life.
His contributions made to the foundations of logic, mathematics, ethics and aesthetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1946 for his writings. He influenced contemporary thinkers like Jacques Derrida and Roland Barthes, among others. His views led him to reject logical positivism, particularly regarding meaning.
Aristotle, the philosopher Hooked The present invention relates to a method of and His system was called Stoicism, later renamed Epicureanism.He was born 384 BC, two years before Plato,the famous ancient Greek philosopher who wrote dialogues. He studied philosophy at Athens and then at Rhodes.After studying grammar under Aristophanes of Byzantium, he traveled extensively around Greece and Asia Minor. What does it mean to live life happily? It means having complete confidence that things must happen according to plan, rather than following external circumstances which might have nothing to do with us. Happiness comes to us through freedom, knowledge, virtue, honor, leisure, friends, music, art.
Aristotle lived and worked mostly in Athens during 500BCE - 350bcCE, He was born into wealth and had a privileged upbringing.He went through the Athenian educational system.At age 16, Aristotle started off lecturing at Plato s Academy until he became headmaster of the Lyceum.During this period of his life, he created some of the first universities.
He did not write anything until he reached old age. His teachings were called "the works" because he wrote commentaries and discussions on each book. The books included writings from Plato and various poets including Homer, Ovid and Hesiod. Aristotle argues in favor of moderation in life saying that happiness depends mostly on the choices we make.
Aristotle was probably the first philosopher to propose what we now call ethics.He started out writing essays about virtues and vices.Virtue, meaning excellence, was defined along four different traits: justice, wisdom/knowledge, courage and moderation.His thinking had some flaws however, he saw pleasure as evil instead of simply bad.And according to him humans were capable of happiness only through virtue..
Plato: The Father of Western Philosophy Hint: Platonic love is a type of Most Greek philosophers came up during antiquity, and had little direct communication with historical figures like Socrates. Yet Plato's philosophical ideas remained influential among intellectuals until the 20th century. According to Eileen O'Neill, writing in "Socrates and Philosophy", philosophy began with Socrates. He was one of Athens' leading citizens and a brilliant scientist/theorist. His teachings centered around two main concepts:that knowledge was obtained using reason ("dialectic")and that truth exists independent of language or context.
Plato had thought long before coming up with his ideas. His ideas were unique at that time since they helped humanity as we knew then. He was a philosopher and scholar. His thoughts gave us the foundation for Western thinking. He believed everything happened for some purpose. We do the same thing today.Our thoughts matter because the outcome matters too. And when you believe strongly, you become strong.So, we need to understand and accept that our thinking may influence our success.
Plato was born in 427 BCE which makes him older than Socrates. In his youth, he wrote dialogues, including The Republic.During his lifetime, he had written two books, Laws and Philebus. He lived until 347 BCE where he passed away under strange circumstances.
Plato was said to be the founder of Western philosophy, based largely in his belief in truth, rationality, knowledge, beauty and justice. His vision was to reform human nature through moral discipline.He advocated universal law, equality before the court and freedom for citizens under the authority of the polis. By following this code of conduct, Platonic ideals were established throughout ancient Greece.For instance, philosophers such as Socrates lived according to ideas drawn out by Plato. We all face challenges during our lifetime.
Socrates: The Father of Western Philosophy This is a very good essay hook for the argument His ideas spread among the citizens of Athens like wildfire despite the fact that he spent four decades teaching philosophy. He challenged the prevailing view around then, insisting that human life could not simply be explained rationally but required spiritual belief. Today philosophers call him one of the fathers of western thought and culture. His main theme was to question everything and every idea put forward by other thinkers before him.He believed in reason rather than faith and said that we should always seek truth as opposed to wisdom.
Socrates argued against what we now call democracy. His views were based primarily on morals and ethics rather than political philosophy and economics. He believed that human beings are born free yet become corruptible through self indulgence. And therefore, only knowledge through dialectics brings happiness to humans.Socrates was imprisoned under sentence of death and executed in 399 BC.He influenced Plato, Aristotle and the Roman historian Plutarch.
Arguments were once a big issue before Socrates came along. Before him, the philosophers took part in debates, and the audience usually picked whichever side was going to win. After learning from Plato’s Socrates, philosophy became a discussion, rather than just being a debate of opinions. Socrates believed we shouldn’t do anything just for appearances since nothing was perfect, even something as simple as beauty itself couldn’t exist forever.
Socrates was born circa 470 BC and died approximately 399BC. He is regarded as one of history greatest philosophers, and the first western philosopher. He believed that philosophy had three steps – asking questions, explaining answers and then accepting what is true.It seems that we can see him arguing here. A quote attributed to Socrates states, "Philosophy begins in wonder.
Great philosophers who ever lived
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