Early in the solar system, the Moon was much closer to Earth than it is now; And it has not become as difficult as today. Then the moon revolved more strongly on its axis than it does now; But the side where it faced the earth swelled like a tide due to the pull of the earth's attraction─ this swelling created an obstacle to its rotation. In this way, the speed of the moon's rotation decreased and at one time the rotation stopped completely compared to the earth; The remaining rotation is only equal to rotation around the earth. Suppose someone places a chair in the middle of the room and walks around facing it; If someone is sitting in the chair, he will only see the first person's face, never the back. It is much the same.
From this it may seem that we always see exactly half of the surface area of the moon. At some point we could see 50 percent, but today we see a total of 59 percent of the Moon's area. In fact, the moon rotates on its axis at the same speed all the time, but it does not move around the earth at the same speed all the time. That's because the moon's path around the earth is not completely round, more like an ellipse. When the Moon is closest to the Earth, the distance from the Earth is 356,400 km (elite) and when it is furthest, the distance is 406,700 km (elite). And when the moon comes close to the earth, its rotation speed is high, if it is far away, the rotation speed is low. It rotates on its own axis and is slightly misaligned in its orbital position; That is why the moon seems to be slightly swaying. At first his body is seen a little more towards the east, then a little more towards the west. Moreover, the equator of the Moon makes a slight angle (60) with the orbit; That's why there is a slight fluctuation in the north-south. In all, 41 percent of the Moon's area is always hidden from our eyes.
The scene, however, suddenly changed in October 1959. Russia's Luna-3 spacecraft took pictures of the Moon's reverse side and sent it to Earth. This was the first time people learned about the moon's mysterious reverse side. It turned out that the side of the moon that we usually see is very similar to the reverse side. However, after that, more spacecraft, especially the Apollo spacecraft, took very clear pictures of the reverse side of the moon, and many new information about the reverse side of the moon has been revealed. Even though the moon always turns only one back towards the earth, it turns both backs towards the sun, so the whole moon has the same day and night. But the world can never be seen from this upside down back.
As one side of the moon always faces the earth, one side of the moon is in sunlight for two weeks, while the other side is in darkness; Then again for two weeks the opposite happened. The temperature on the side of the moon where the sun shines rises to 127 degrees Celsius. And on the other side, the temperature drops to 173 degrees Celsius up to.
It has been almost four decades since humans began sending spacecraft into space. It has been almost three decades since humans reached the moon. Today, sending spacecraft into space has become a commonplace; But actually the matter is quite complicated. If you want to go to space, you have to go with the help of rockets; But no way to go to the moon in the same rocket and return again has not been figured out. You can go by connecting several rockets in a row; The return process is also complicated.
Apollo spacecraft can carry three astronauts. The spacecraft is launched towards the moon by a powerful three-stage rocket; As it approaches the moon, it starts orbiting around the moon. Then two Navashacras came down gently on the moon in a lunar rover. When it's time to return, the rover launches its rocket engine downwards and climbs up from the moon and connects with the spacecraft in orbit. The two Navashkaras enter the Amanyaan, then the Navayan returns to Earth. A disadvantage of this system is that if the rover fails to ascend properly, there is no way to rescue the astronauts.
Before landing on the moon for the first time, two exercises took place. Apollo 8 orbited the Moon in December 1968; In May 1969, Apollo 10 was tested by landing close to the Moon, then back again. Finally, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 GMT, the Apollo 11 spacecraft landed on the Moon. First, astronaut Neil Armstrong landed on the moon's 'Marae Tranquilitatis' or the Sea of Tranquility. Taking a step forward on the lunar soil, he shouted excitedly, “One small step for a man; But a giant leap for mankind.” Edwin Aldrin came down a little later. Later scientists learned that there is dust and soil about 20 meters (60 ft) thick; There is solid rock under it.
The two of them walked on the ground of the moon for a little more than two hours. Their first task was to collect samples of lunar soil and rock ─ they collected about 20 kg (48 lb) of samples; Then installed some scientific test equipment. There is no wind on the moon; So they had to wear the special type of clothing of Jawbarjang group of Navaschar. The Moon's gravitational force on it is only one-sixth that of the Earth. So they had to move very slowly to keep their body balanced. People all over the world watched Armstrong and Aldrin walk at home on television.
Astronomers collected several soil and rock samples from the Moon; The types of igneous rocks found on Earth that scientists have tested are almost exactly the same. So there was no new news from that. It turned out that the rock is about 3 billion years old; It was later discovered that most of the rocks on the Moon are older than this. No signs of water or life could be found on the moon from the rocks; Not even any fossils of early life. However, as a precaution against unknown bacterial infection, the neonates were kept in isolation for two and a half weeks until the entire experiment was completed.
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