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The Vedic Scriptures of Ancient Time.
A Veda is a collection of poems or hymns composed in Sanskrit. It originated from the ancient Indo-Aryan culture of the Indian subcontinent. It is the sacred text used in religious rituals as well as daily situations. These are divine revelations of the Hindu religion where God has been destined to guide mankind.
The Veda is the storehouse of wisdom and knowledge. The word Veda means "knowledge" because it implies the existence of basic knowledge related to action to action and personal response. It is the holy scriptures of Hinduism as well as the oldest texts in the world. It is eternal and vibrates in the external dimension of the world.
The texts of the Vedas provide the knowledge to conduct humans' entire life on earth and beyond.
The Vedas are written in poetic style and the language is full of symbols and myths.
According to Vedas scriptures treat the Universe and its inhabitants as one big family and have a great impact on human life by preaching 'VASUDEVA KUTUMBAKAM'. Which means "The Whole World Is One Family".
The mantras (hymns) of the Veda initially began as an oral tradition that was transmitted from generation to generation and finally written down in Vedic Sanskrit between 1500 and 500 BC.
The basic concept of the Veda is Brahman who conceives of it as cosmic energy. After the inspiration of creativity, the Vedic hymns were skillfully created by Rishis (sages).
There are four major Vedas:-
1. Rig Veda.
2. Yajur Veda.
3. Sama Veda.
4. Atharva Veda.
Rig Veda :- The Rig Veda contains hymns on mythology in the form of songs. This is the oldest of the four Vedas. It contains 1028 Sanskrit hymns.
The highly revered Gayatri mantra 'OM BHUR BHUVA SWAHA TASYA BITUR BARE NYAM' is found in this Veda.
According to historians, it was compiled around 1200 - 900 BC.
UNESCO has included Rig Veda in the list of literature in the World Human Heritage in 2007.
The Rig Veda is divided into ten mandalas (books). Each mandala or book contains several hymns, usually for sacrificial purposes. The hymns emphasize the themes of life, death, creation, and seeking divine pleasure.
A large collection of hymns in the praise of the deities chanted on various occasions. According to Rig Veda, there are various deities like Agni (God of Fire), Varuna (God of Water), Rudra (God of Wind/Storm), Aditya (God of Sun), and Vayu (God of Air), and Ashwini. These are the deities to whom hymns are dedicated in the Rig Veda. There are also several hymns dedicated to female goddesses like Usha (Goddess of Dawn), Prithvi (Goddess of the Earth), and Bak ( Goddess of Speech).
Yajur Veda:- Yajur Veda signifies sacrifice. It is deal with the procedure for the performance of sacrifice. This Veda contains instructions for religious rituals. It is mainly mansions prose mantras or hymns for worship.
The Yajur Veda describes the sutras and mantras to be uttered during the sacrifice. It is a scripture that focuses on practice. It contains the rules of Yajnas and Havanas (The Hindu ritual of praying and offering to the Agni or The Fire God). The scriptures of this Veda deal with the social and religious life of the Aryans.
Yajur Veda is an ancient Vedic Sanskrit text which is written between 1200 - 800 BC.
It is a collection of ritual formulas performed by a person at a sacrificial fire by a priest.
The texts of the Yajur Veda are divided into Shukla Yajur Veda and Krishna Yajur Veda.
Sama Veda:- The Sanskrit word Sama means 'melody'. It concentrates on melody or songs and chants.
The Sama Veda is an ancient Vedic Sanskrit text. It consists of 1875 hymns. Historians argue that 75 of them are original and the rest are taken from Rig Veda.
The Sama Veda is described as the Veda of Bhakti (devotion). It represents the power of spiritual knowledge. This Veda helps to attain spirituality through music. This Veda is written between 1200 - 1000 BC.
Atharva Veda:- The Atharva Veda is also known as Brahma Veda. This Veda contains spells against enemies, sorcerers, and diseases. This Veda is a collection of magic spells and charms. The language of the Atharva Veda is different from Vedic Sanskrit. It is concerned with the peace and prosperity of human society. It is the procedure for everyday life.
The text of the Atharva Veda deals with prolonging life, healing illness with herbs, gaining partners, world peace, and the nature of good and evil.
The Atharva Veda is the last of the four Vedas. This Veda is considered a non-Aryan Veda with 711 hymns.
The deities of Atharva Veda are also the same as those of the Rig Veda. In this Veda Rudra or Shiva plays a visible role.
The Atharva Veda touches on issues of everyday problems of domestic life.
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