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Dahashala Sytem of Akbar
In this system, the crop yield and production cost were carefully surveyed in ten years. This system was implemented by Akbar. In this, one-third of the average yield was given to the state after calculating the different crops produced in the last ten years and their average price. In fact, historians believe that this method of evaluation was the most important. This system was started in the era of Sher Shah Suri. Many reforms were done in it before the implementation of this system during the reign of Akbar. This system was applicable only in the major states of Akbar's empire like Multan, Delhi, Allahabad, Oudh, Agra, and Lahore.
As mentioned, the yield and cost of production in ten years were surveyed very carefully and comprehensively. Based on this comprehensive survey, the tax for each crop was fixed in cash. Each state was divided into revenue divisions or disasters, with different rates of tax for each state. Everyone had Dastur-e-Amal i.e. list of crops of their state. This system was implemented only in those states in which the Mughal administration could survey and keep records of them. For this reason, this system was not implemented in Gujarat and Bengal.
The land that has been lying vacant for the last one year, i.e. Parauti was also completed to start again on it soon. The land which was lying vacant for three and four years was recorded as buttermilk. This land was taxed more and in the third year, the tax was levied in full. Another category of land was barren i.e. vacant cultivable land. The tax was levied on this land after five years of cultivation started it to make this land productive.
After assessing the revenue of the land, it was converted into cash based on Dastur-e-Amal (Price List). The Dastur-i-Amal was prepared at the level of Kshatriya and Dastur (Rural Unit) to take care of the food crops. For the smooth implementation of this administrative system, the entire empire was divided into several shades (disasters) and Parganas (sub-districts) based on their equal productivity. It was the responsibility of the administration to provide Dastur-e-Amal (List of crops) up to the Tehsil level so that this list of land revenue payments could be put up there. After this, every farmer used to get a Patta and Kabuliyat (agreement to pay tax)
The main features of confiscation and Dahshala system described by prominent historians –
• Under this arrangement the measurement of the land was necessary.
• Fixed cash revenue rate for each crop was called Dastur.
• Entire revenue was collected in the form of cash only.
According to historians, this system at the administrative level had the following characteristics-
• Uncertainty due to fixed and permanent customs system and lack of revenue demand and excesses almost ended.
• Lands were always re-examined and traced by measurement.
• Due to the fixed custom, the local officials did not get any chance to do arbitrariness.
Historians have also given many limitations of the confiscation system, which are as follows -
• In this, his power was misused through officers and he used to cheat in the measurement of land.
• It was not used when the productive capacity of the land was reduced.
• If the crop was not as expected, the farmer had to bear all the losses.
• According to Abul Fazl, if the farmer could not pay zabti, one-third of his crop was revenue.
Swati Sharma (author) from India on July 06, 2021:
Thank you, for your appreciation.
Umesh Chandra Bhatt from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India on July 06, 2021:
Very well presented. Nice work.
Swati Sharma (author) from India on July 04, 2021:
Thank you so much, Pamela Oglesby, for your visit and appreciation.
Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on July 04, 2021:
This is a very informative and interesting article. Much of this was new information to me. Thank you for sharing.