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The Strangest Cambrian Creatures Ever Discovered

Theophanes is a New-England-based blogger, traveler, writer, photographer, sculptor, and lover of cats.

It All Begins...

The Cambrian Period (542-488 million years ago) is known as being the first burst in the diversity of animal life. It wasn't that animals didn't exist before this time, as they did, that made this period special. In fact the oldest worm known has been dated to be a billion years old which vastly outdates the Cambrian period, but this is a time when life was suddenly seen in great abundance and the immense variety that starts to approach the current population of earth. This was a time of strange creatures when mother nature was just starting out. If you know nothing of Cambrian life forms you might think some of them are someone's depiction of what aliens on another planet must look like. They range from familiar to utterly bizarre. So I'm inviting my readers to come with me on a written safari to gawk and awe at some of these odd little critters.

A look at Ceratages prickly thorned spines from above.

A look at Ceratages prickly thorned spines from above.

Sideveiw of Ceratages.

Sideveiw of Ceratages.



Dicranurus monstrosus

Dicranurus monstrosus


Trilobites are probably one of the best known Cambrian creatures. They came in hundreds, if not thousands of species, and most had an uncanny resemblance to pill bugs or certain types of cockroaches. Most of them looked rather benign and didn't grow very big but several of these little critters evolved some very strange attributes. Today I'll run through three of these species.

· Ceratarges: Ceratarges are a rare and fantastic find. They are generally unearthed near Morocco and can sell for a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Unfortunately there's scant little information besides their marketability out there... Still one must speculate what those extra spines were for. Perhaps this made them less likely to eaten by the predators of the day. Were these spines solid enough to withstand an attack or did they detach like porcupine quills? Were they filled with venom like a scorpion? These are some of the questions that many paleontologists would love the answer to, unfortunately without the aid of a time machine we're not likely to figure it out.

· Walliserops: Walliserop is another oddity we're not too sure about. This little guy seems to be a cross between a hissing cockroach and a table fork. What did he use his fork for? Since no animals exist that are remotely like this we are left to speculate. Perhaps he used it to search for and eat food. Perhaps it was part of a mating display. Perhaps only males had these (or only females!) Perhaps it was some sort of defense mechanism or perhaps he used it to burrow in the sand. One of the strangest aspects of this one, besides his fork, is his species tendency to favor asymmetry. Most other trilobites are perfectly symmetrical but not little walliserops! They have been known to curve to one side or the other and their wee trident as well isn't exactly a study in perfect symmetry.

· Dicranurus monstrosus: This aptly named trilobite has so many spines you almost can't tell what's what. Two amazing spines curl over it's back in a fantastic antennae-like way. Other spines jut out in every direction. like the other two trilobites mentioned he also lived in the area we now know as Morocco.

Cambrian fossil jelly

Cambrian fossil jelly

Jelly Fish

The oldest jelly fish actually predates the Cambrian explosion (with the oldest dating back to 500 million years) but they were around during the Cambrian as well. Being soft creatures without any bones or hard shells they are a hard find as far as fossils go but they are discovered every now and again. They still exist in our oceans today much as they did in the Cambrian oceans and still are some of the strangest creatures around. Most have heard that jellyfish don't have a brain and have tossed this aside as urban legend but it is true, jellyfish do not have a brain, or a nervous system for that matter. This is because jellyfish aren't actually one creature, rather they are a number of small organisms that are working together in a colony to make up what appears to be one creature. They are made up of 95% water and are anatomically strange. Their "mouth" is used to eat fish, get rid of wastes, and throw up sperm/eggs. At different points in their life they can reproduce both sexually and asexually. They're quite a conundrum...

Myllokunmingia - Fish Ancestor

Vertebrates, animals with internal bones, have remained elusive in the early fossil records. For many years paleontologists thought that animals like fish didn't show up until after this initial explosion of life but a new discovery in China is calling that all into question. The creature in question, Myllokunmingia, is 530 million years old and although it doesn't have hard bones its head and several other features seem to have been made of cartilage. This probably made the animal flexible and swift. It may have been the granddaddy of all sharks and fish.

530 million year old Myllokunmingia may be the oldest vertebrate ever discovered.

530 million year old Myllokunmingia may be the oldest vertebrate ever discovered.

Ammonite fossil shell

Ammonite fossil shell

The chambers inside an Ammonite fossil shell.

The chambers inside an Ammonite fossil shell.

Atist's rendition of an ammonite (although speculations as to what the soft bodied parts looked like is somewhat the job of educated guesses.)

Atist's rendition of an ammonite (although speculations as to what the soft bodied parts looked like is somewhat the job of educated guesses.)


Ammonites are one of the most abundant forms of life found in the Cambrian fossil record. They were early mollusks that evolved from animals with straight long shells. They predated the mollusks of today that include squid, octopi, and the nautilus which is their closest living relative (but probably not a direct descendant.) The various species of ammonites evolved and went extinct so fast that paleontologists often use them to date other fossils found with them. Eventually they would grow to enormous size, the largest specimens reaching ten meters in length, or three meters in shell diameter, but in the beginning they weren't of any substantial size. These creatures survived several mass extinctions before most went the way the dinosaurs at the same time. Today nautiluses and other mollusks are our only living reminder they existed but that's not to say they didn't have fantastically long run in our planet's evolutionary history!

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Fuxianhuia - Insect Mother?

Fuxianhuia was an early arthropod which means she was a likely candidate to be the mother of both crustaceans and insects. Recent discoveries have found that she had eight limbs under her head that would help her shovel food in her mouth. Perhaps more importantly she shows a key adaption - a nervous system that extended past her head. She is the oldest creature known to have this.

Fuxhianhuia was the first animal we know of that  had a nervous system extending past its head.

Fuxhianhuia was the first animal we know of that had a nervous system extending past its head.

Fossil of a hallucinogenia

Fossil of a hallucinogenia

Artist rendition... which seems to be lacking the weird soft bubble-like "head."

Artist rendition... which seems to be lacking the weird soft bubble-like "head."


 As you can tell from the name Hallucigenia is a strange "dream-like" creature. It doesn't seem to have terribly much anatomy that we can point to and be familiar with. In fact the soft blob-like "head" might not actually be its head. It has both stiff tentacles with pincer tips and jointed spines. Figuring out how this thing moved has been practically a paleontologist's version of a party game. There has been speculation that this animal might actually be just piece of a bigger animal we've yet to find. If not it sired no known living-day descendants so we might be pondering this one for awhile.

Odontogriphus was recently classified as a mollusk.

Odontogriphus was recently classified as a mollusk.


Odontogriphus was an odd slug-like creature that was less than 5 inches in length. It lived on the sea floor likely scraping up algae with its odd toothy-tongue. Biologist believe it may have been the predecessor of mollusks like clams, sea slugs, and squid.

The oldest horseshoe crab fossil is 445 million years old. Few animals are as deserving of the title "living fossil"

The oldest horseshoe crab fossil is 445 million years old. Few animals are as deserving of the title "living fossil"

Horseshoe Crab

Horseshoe crabs are fascinating little creatures. I know, you probably only know them as odd living room ornamentation but really there's more to them then that! Did you know for instance that horseshoe crabs have anti-freeze colored blue blood? Its copper based and used in the medical profession to test the purity of pharmaceuticals. For all you horseshoe crab lovers out there, don't fear, though a third of their blood is harvested for this use when they crawl ashore they are returned alive and are capable of replacing their lost blood (which is usually more than a human can loose and live from!) Horseshoe crabs are anatomically a bit strange as well. They eat worms and other small things in the sand and use their spine like tail to change direction and guide them, not to stab anything. They have 300 flat gills and some of the oldest compound eyes on record. It takes up to twelve years for them to grow to full size and usually live around twenty years although some forty year old captives have been recorded. They’re also related to spiders, oddly enough.

Scientists do not know why opabinia had five eyes.

Scientists do not know why opabinia had five eyes.


Opabinia is a fun one. Eyes actually first appeared in the Cambrian period, and they were all compound eyes (like you'd see on a fly.) Opabinia however has the current world record for the most eyes normally seen on one animal. They had five each. Why five? We have no idea. This asymmetrical number is a bit odd! It wasn’t a big creature, only three inches in length, but it was an interesting creature. It may have used it's trunk and pinchers to catch even smaller critters for dinner. Or perhaps it dug dinner up with it's strange appendage. It was first discovered in the 1970s and to date only about twenty specimens have been found. It's been an interesting animal to speculate upon.

Artist rendition of an Anomalocaris

Artist rendition of an Anomalocaris

Fossilized mouth of an anomilacaris.

Fossilized mouth of an anomilacaris.

Profile veiw of a model. Notice those pretty compact eyes!

Profile veiw of a model. Notice those pretty compact eyes!


 The Anomalocaris is the rock star of the Cambrian fossil record. It was earth's first "super predator" growing up to six feet long, an astonishing size considering most of the other living animals around were maybe the size of cockroaches. It was indeed the largest animal known to life on earth in the Cambrian period. It had a bizarre circular mouth with grinding teeth and two strange arm-like appendages it probably used to sweep unsuspecting trilobites into its mouth with. Originally it was thought to have been three separate animals as paleontologist first found its mouth, it's arms, and it's body all separate. It moved by undulating the segments on its sides and ironically enough may be an ancestor of today's shrimp.

This is a clay model I sculpted of an Anomalocaris and painted with the color scheme of a Peacock Praying Mantis Shrimp.

This is a clay model I sculpted of an Anomalocaris and painted with the color scheme of a Peacock Praying Mantis Shrimp.

Anomalocaris in action

Hurdia's head shield was completely hollow and paleontologists still have no idea what it was used for.

Hurdia's head shield was completely hollow and paleontologists still have no idea what it was used for.


Hurdia was another enigma to science. Like its relative the anomalocaris it was thought to be a bunch of different animals when it was found in parts. Only when a full specimen was found did the big picture come to light. Even so it remains a mystery. It grew a foot and a half long and had a weird completely hollow head shield. We have no idea what this was used for. Some speculate it may have been used to help the animal go up and down in the water like a little submarine but this is just a guess. We don't even know for certain if this animal was a predator, which is likely considering its size, or a herbivore.

The baffling banffia may have been the Cambrian's oddest bottom feeder.

The baffling banffia may have been the Cambrian's oddest bottom feeder.


Banffia look like weird bloated tadpoles and are so strange they are currently not known to have any living relatives. They appeared in the fossil shale of Scotland in 1911 and have been baffling paleontologist ever since. It is guessed that these animals probably lived on the sea bottom and sifted food out of the sand it had swallowed, much like a sea cucumber today, but we can't even be certain of that much. They were small animals growing only to about four inches long and may have congregated in large numbers.


Sea Urchins (?)

I am not totally sure sea urchins are from the Cambrian period, so if you know they are not please tell me! [*Someone was kind enough to comment and tell me that Sea Urchins are actually somewhat younger, having evolved 450 million years ago in the late Ordovician period. Thank you Jon!]

Well, despite the confusion I did still write about sea urchins so I think I'll leave this bit in for now even though they're not technically Cambrian.

Sea Urchins are almost their own class, but not quite. They come in all sorts of colors (black, green, red, and purple among them) and biologists think they may be able to live for more than two hundred years. In fact even geriatric sea urchins seem to be able to spawn more sea urchins. They don't have too many predators but are enjoyed by sea otters and some types of eels. They themselves tend to feast on algae. They are currently being used to study the evolution of the immune system.

If you enjoyed this article you might like these other articles by Theophanes:

Jurassic Chicken: The Resurrection of Dinosaurs

What is the Theory of Dinosaur to Bird Evolution

Four-Winged Dinosaur Enters Debate Over the Evolution of Flight

The Fascinating Truth about the World's Oldest Pests: Cockroaches

Ants: Their History, Life, and Purpose

Scientists Now Claim We Are in the Grips of the Next Mass Extinction

Five American Birds that have gone Extinct in the Past 100 Years

Theories on the Domestication of Cats

Mammal Hybridization: The Truth and The Myths

Cloning Predated Man and His Technology

Examples of Insular Dwarfism

Starfish: What is it that Makes them so Creepy?

Genetic Anomalies in Rats


More from this Author:


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Deranged Thoughts from a Cluttered Mind - For funny personal anecdotes


Through the Looking Glass Farm

Typhani Brooks - Artist




John Hansen from Gondwana Land on June 28, 2017:

This was a fascinating read

Greensleeves Hubs from Essex, UK on July 14, 2016:

The Cambrian fossils are immensely interesting for their odd forms, but also immensely frsutrating as it is so difficult to know exactly what they looked like, how they behaved or what they were related to. All one can do is speculate - but that in itself is a fun thing to do :)

Maysot on January 30, 2015:

Ammonites did not appear in the Cambrian. They first appeared in the Devonian.

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on April 30, 2013:

Thank you swag. I thought so too!

swag on April 30, 2013:

really cool facts

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on January 22, 2013:

You mean like scientific drawings? Well, Cotton Crustaceans has some nice ones... I think only one is a Cambrian creature (the anomalocaris and maybe the trilobite)

Here is a fairly OK drawing of Hallucinogenia..

Sorry, finding these things is difficult. That's the best I can do for ya.

lernsalot on January 22, 2013:

were is a web site like this i can find pictures black and white not on google images

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on November 28, 2012:

The oldest trilobite we've found so far was around 540 million years old. The oldest jellyfish was perhaps a little older than 500 million years. Plectronoceras, the earliest known cephalopod and ammonite ancestor was around 540 million years ago. Hallucinogenia and opabinia don't appear to have been precisely dated although they do come from the middle of the Cambrian era. The oldest horseshoe crab was 445 million years old. Anomolacarus seems to have been present from the early Cambrian on. And the sea urchins are younger at 450 million. Hope that helps!

Kelsey on November 27, 2012:

What are some dates these were existed in?

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on April 13, 2012:

Jon: Thank you for that information! I will go change my article now.

To the rest of you, thank you for commenting! I am glad you enjoyed my article.

fail on February 06, 2012:

the best thing about the cambrian explosion the the abundance of trasitionary fossils found to support evolution. ha.

mischeviousme from Bradenton, FL on December 05, 2011:

Awesome pictures! I too have many fossils, though some are still as yet, unidentified.

neiljoshuasuyat on July 22, 2011:

I want to catch them all.... They're like pokémon!!!

starr on January 06, 2011:

i need facts about what eats moss in the cambrian time period

mukherjeeapu on December 15, 2010:


I found my first ammonites last year in Nepal. They are really beautiful! And I agree, info on the sea urchins are rather scanty on the web. Thanks for this awesome post.

madison on November 05, 2010:

hi i love it there fantastic

Sean on May 06, 2010:

Dang they're CREEPY!but great job!the pics are cool.

Austin Vojta on April 07, 2010:

really cool stuff! so interesting how the opabinia had five eyes!

Jon on February 16, 2010:

Good content with most info accurate.

P.S. Sea Urchins first appear in the fossil record 450 million years ago, late Ordovician.

contentmaster on November 05, 2009:

It was a great pleasure to read with the images. Especially Walliserops are quite impressive. Thanks

jerrygarciuh on August 19, 2009:

Excellent post! My sons and I thoroughly enjoyed it!

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on July 14, 2009:

Ah, trilobites I'm still rather fond of. Of course I didn't live near a desert so my family had to trek me several hours away to go dig some up in a quarry...

Glad you enjoyed my piece! Thanks for commenting and yes, horse shoe crabs are amazing little bugagrs. Makes me wonder who started using them for the medical fields. That must have been a discovery in and of itself.

grynn from United States on July 13, 2009:

Very cool. I used to search the nearby desert for trilobite remnants, of which there was a surprisingly large amount, when I was younger. And that bit about horseshoe crabs being used by the medical industry was new to me, so thanks for including that little factoid.

Theophanes Avery (author) from New England on June 10, 2009:

I "found" most of these when I was a precocious child intensely studying paleontology. I'm older now so the trick was remembering! :)

hailingrain on June 05, 2009:

wow you fond those?

king edward on February 25, 2009:

I think these creatures are quiet intresting.THey have a well backround.Well done.

Alexis T on February 25, 2009:

I love these pictures there so cute ha.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

vanessa on February 25, 2009:

They have some really good and intresting pictures.

Ria Bridges from Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on February 22, 2009:

Fascinating information! I learned quite a bit! Keep up the good work.

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